Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 53 in total

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  1. Keshavarzi F
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2015 Oct;37(5):675-7.
    PMID: 26173939 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-015-0157-5
    Creatinine clearance estimation is widely used to evaluate the renal function of the patients in order to initiate or adjust the drugs dosage. However serum creatinine, as a muscle metabolism by-product, may not be a reliable parameter in underweight and/or non-ambulatory patients, such as geriatric, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients and bed-confined and cachexic cases. To avoid overestimation of the renal function in those patients, serum cystatin C can be considered as a sensitive and accurate alternative for serum creatinine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood*
  2. Chua CT, Wang F
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1983 Sep;38(3):244-50.
    PMID: 6672569
    Study site: CAPD, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood
  3. Almualm Y, Zaman Huri H
    Glob J Health Sci, 2015;7(4):96-109.
    PMID: 25946939 DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v7n4p96
    Chronic Kidney Disease has become a public health problem, imposing heath, social and human cost on societies worldwide. Chronic Kidney Disease remains asymptomatic till late stage when intervention cannot stop the progression of the disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need to detect the disease early. Despite the high prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia, screening is still lacking behind. This review discusses the strengths and limitations of current screening methods for Chronic Kidney Disease from a Malaysian point of view. Diabetic Kidney Disease was chosen as focal point as Diabetes is the leading cause of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia includes a urine test for albuminuria and a blood test for serum creatinine. Recent literature indicates that albuminuria is not always present in Diabetic Kidney Disease patients and serum creatinine is only raised after substantial kidney damage has occurred.  Recently, cystatin C was proposed as a potential marker for kidney disease but this has not been studied thoroughly in Malaysia.  Glomerular Filtration Rate is the best method for measuring kidney function and is widely estimated using the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation. Another equation, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration Creatinine equation was introduced in 2009. The new equation retained the precision and accuracy of the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation at GFR < 60ml/min/1.73m2, showed less bias and improved precision at GFR>60ml/min/1.73m2. In Asian countries, adding an ethnic coefficient to the equation enhanced its performance. In Malaysia, a multi-ethnic Asian population, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation should be validated and the Glomerular Filtration Rate should be reported whenever serum creatinine is ordered. Reporting estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate will help diagnose patients who would have been otherwise missed if only albuminuria and serum creatinine are measured.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood
  4. Yusof F, Mehde AA, Mehdi WA, Raus RA, Ghazali H, Rahman AA
    Biomed. Environ. Sci., 2015 Sep;28(9):660-5.
    PMID: 26464253 DOI: 10.3967/bes2015.092
    OBJECTIVE: Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to examine a possible relationship between DNase I/II activity and E3 SUMO-protein ligase NSE2 in the sera of nephrolithiasis patients to evaluate the possibility of a new biomarker for evaluating kidney damage.
    METHODS: Sixty nephrolithiasis patients and 50 control patients were enrolled in a case-control study. Their blood urea, creatinine, protein levels and DNase I/II activity levels were measured by spectrometry. Serum NSMCE2 levels were measured by ELISA. Blood was collected from patients of the government health clinics in Kuantan-Pahang and fulfilled the inclusion criteria.
    RESULTS: The result indicated that mean levels of sera NSMCE2 have a significantly increase (P<0.01) in patients compared to control group. Compared with control subjects, activities and specific activities of serum DNase I and II were significantly elevated in nephrolithiasis patients (P$lt;0.01).
    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that an increase in serum concentrations of DNase I/II and E3 SUMO-protein ligase NSE2 level can be used as indicators for the diagnosis of kidney injury in patients with nephrolithiasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood
  5. Sellamuthu PS, Arulselvan P, Fakurazi S, Kandasamy M
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 Jan;27(1):161-7.
    PMID: 24374436
    Salacia chinensis L. is a traditional Southeast Asian herbal medicine and used in the treatment of diabetes. To investigate the antidiabetic properties of mangiferin from Salacia chinensis and its beneficial effect on toxicological and hematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Mangiferin was orally treated with the dose of 40 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days to diabetic rats. Biochemical (blood glucose, uric acid, urea and creatinine), toxicological (AST, ALT and ALP) and hematological parameters (red and white blood cells) and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups with mangiferin and glibenclamide. Mangiferin treated diabetic rats significantly (p<0.05) lowered the level of blood glucose, in addition, altered the levels of biochemical parameters including urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Toxicological parameters including AST, ALT and ALP were also significantly reduced after treatment with mangiferin in diabetic rats. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved through the administration of mangiferin. Thus, our results indicate that mangiferin present in S. chinensis possesses antidiabetic properties and nontoxic nature against chemically induced diabetic rats. Further experimental investigations are warrant to make use of its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethno-medicinal usage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood
  6. Wong SW, Chan YM, Lim TS
    Malays J Nutr, 2011 Dec;17(3):277-86.
    PMID: 22655450 MyJurnal
    There is mounting evidence demonstrating the importance of adequate physical activity to promote better well-being among hemodialysis patients. Available data pertaining to the levels of physical activity and its determinants among hemodialysis patients is, however, scarce in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are hence to determine the levels of physical activity and it associated factors among hemodialysis patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood
  7. Lim KL, Beng CG, Lau KS, Singh GN
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1974 Mar;28(3):154-9.
    PMID: 4278202
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood
  8. Goh BL, Morad Z, Cheah PL, Chua CT, Tan SY
    Transplant. Proc., 1998 Nov;30(7):3592-3.
    PMID: 9838574
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood
  9. Md-Sani SS, Md-Noor J, Han WH, Gan SP, Rani NS, Tan HL, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2018 05 21;18(1):232.
    PMID: 29783955 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-018-3141-6
    BACKGROUND: Increasing incidence of dengue cases in Malaysia over the last few years has been paralleled by increased deaths. Mortality prediction models will therefore be useful in clinical management. The aim of this study is to identify factors at diagnosis of severe dengue that predicts mortality and assess predictive models based on these identified factors.

    METHOD: This is a retrospective cohort study of confirmed severe dengue patients that were admitted in 2014 to Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Data on baseline characteristics, clinical parameters, and laboratory findings at diagnosis of severe dengue were collected. The outcome of interest is death among patients diagnosed with severe dengue.

    RESULTS: There were 199 patients with severe dengue included in the study. Multivariate analysis found lethargy, OR 3.84 (95% CI 1.23-12.03); bleeding, OR 8.88 (95% CI 2.91-27.15); pulse rate, OR 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07); serum bicarbonate, OR 0.79 (95% CI 0.70-0.89) and serum lactate OR 1.27 (95% CI 1.09-1.47), to be statistically significant predictors of death. The regression equation to our model with the highest AUROC, 83.5 (95% CI 72.4-94.6), is: Log odds of death amongst severe dengue cases = - 1.021 - 0.220(Serum bicarbonate) + 0.001(ALT) + 0.067(Age) - 0.190(Gender).

    CONCLUSION: This study showed that a large proportion of severe dengue occurred early, whilst patients were still febrile. The best prediction model to predict death at recognition of severe dengue is a model that incorporates serum bicarbonate and ALT levels.

    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood
  10. Zainal D, Loo CS
    Singapore Med J, 1996 Feb;37(1):44-7.
    PMID: 8783912
    Acute renal failure (ARF) has undergone many changes with advances both in diagnosis and therapy. A retrospective study covering three and a half years from June 1986 to December 1989 of adults admitted to Hospital of the University of Science Malaysia examined the various aspects of presentation of the syndrome, management and areas where improvement can be made. A total of 164 patients were included in the study. 61.6% were male and 38.4% were female. The mean age was 49.8 +/- 17.2 years with 70% of patients being more than 40 years old. The aetiologies of acute renal failure were analysed and discussed. The majority of the patients (80%) had non-oliguric acute renal failure. Oliguric acute renal failure patients have higher mortality and more frequently need dialysis. Early recognition of acute renal failure and discerning use of nephrotoxic drugs could result in decrease in incidence and severity of renal failure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood
  11. Loo CY, Mohamed Said MS, Mohd R, Abdul Gafor AH, Saidin R, Halim NA, et al.
    Transfus. Apher. Sci., 2010 Dec;43(3):335-40.
    PMID: 21051293 DOI: 10.1016/j.transci.2010.10.003
    This was a prospective randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of immunoadsorption (IA) versus conventional PP (PP) as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of severe lupus nephritis (LN). Of 28 patients with biopsy-proven severe LN (ISN/RPS classes III or IV ± V), 14 underwent 36 sessions of PP and the other 41 sessions of IA in addition to our center's standard LN treatment protocol. Three patients in the PP group and 2 in the IA group experienced a transient, marked drop in platelets with the second session. Except for a higher pre treatment mean SLEDAI score in the PP group 17.4 ± 2.0 vs. 13.5 ± 4.8; p = 0.009 and a serum creatinine of 163 ± 7.9 vs. 81.7 ± 10.2; p = 0.33, there were no other baseline differences. Some differences did exist between the two therapies in the immediate post-treatment phase, at 1 and 3 months. Three in IA relapsed, none of PP in third months, whereas two patients relapsed in the PP and none of IA cohorts at 6 months. However, most of these parameters did not differ by 6 months. The pre- and post-therapy SLEDAI scores remained different 12.4 ± 4.5 vs. 9 ± 4; p = 0.04 at 1 month, and at 3 month 13.5 ± 4.7 vs. 7.7 ± 1.1; p = 0.012 but not at 6 months. We conclude that IA and PP were equally well tolerated and efficacious as adjunctive therapy for severe LN.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood
  12. Khan I, Khan AH, Adnan AS, Sulaiman SAS, Hamzah ABA, Ahmed N, et al.
    Int Urol Nephrol, 2018 Jun;50(6):1113-1121.
    PMID: 29536424 DOI: 10.1007/s11255-018-1834-9
    PURPOSE: Creatinine is normally used to evaluate kidney function among elderly patients in clinical practice, which has been reported to be affected by socio-demographic factors like BMI and age. Cystatin C a newly introduced biomarker may be more efficient in identifying kidney function in obese and aged CKD patients. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of BMI on endogenous biomarkers (cystatin C and creatinine) among elderly CKD patients in Malaysia, a first such study in the country.

    METHODS: The current study was conducted at the Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kelantan. A total of 300 elderly Malay participants ≥ 65 years, with CKD, were taken in study. Demographic data, blood pressure, weight, and height were documented. Serum creatinine was assayed by Chemistry Analyzer Model Architect-C8000 (Jaffe Method), while serum cystatin C was examined by Human cystatin C ELISA kit (Sigma-Aldrich) using Thermo Scientific Varioskan Flash ELISA reader.

    RESULTS: The study participants were divided into three groups on the basis of age. There was a statistically significant difference at the p value 

    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood*
  13. Hawkins RC
    Clin. Chem. Lab. Med., 2010;48(1):105-8.
    PMID: 19929751 DOI: 10.1515/CCLM.2010.010
    It has been suggested that potassium concentrations may vary between different geographical regions, possibly reflecting ethnic differences in potassium status. This study compared the serum potassium concentrations of three Asian ethnicities in a single geographical location.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood
  14. Sasongko TH, Nagalla S, Ballas SK
    PMID: 26041152 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009191.pub3
    BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a group of disorders characterized by deformation of erythrocytes. Renal damage is a frequent complication in sickle cell disease as a result of long-standing anemia and disturbed circulation through the renal medullary capillaries. Due to the improvement in life expectancy of people with sickle cell disease, there has been a corresponding significant increase in the incidence of renal complications. Microalbuminuria and proteinuria are noted to be a strong predictor of subsequent renal failure. There is extensive experience and evidence with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors over many years in a variety of clinical situations for patients who do not have sickle cell disease, but their effect in people with this disease is unknown. It is common practice to administer ACE inhibitors for sickle nephropathy due to their renoprotective properties; however, little is known about their effectiveness and safety in this setting. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2013.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of ACE inhibitor administration in people with sickle cell disease for decreasing intraglomerular pressure, microalbuminuria and proteinuria and to to assess the safety of ACE inhibitors as pertains to their adverse effects.

    SEARCH METHODS: The authors searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Hameoglobinopathies Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 03 June 2015.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials of ACE inhibitors designed to reduce microalbuminuria and proteinuria in people with sickle cell disease compared to either placebo or standard treatment regimen.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three authors independently applied the inclusion criteria in order to select studies for inclusion in the review. Two authors assessed the risk of bias of studies and extracted data and the third author verified these assessments.

    MAIN RESULTS: Five studies were identified through the searches, only one met our inclusion criteria. The included study randomized 22 participants (seven males and 15 females) having proteinuria or microalbuminuria with sickle cell disease and treated the participants for six months (median length of follow up of three months) with captopril or placebo. The overall quality of the outcomes reported was high, since most aspects that may contribute to bias were regarded to be of low risk, although allocation concealment was not reported. At six months, the study reported no significant difference in urinary albumin excretion between the captopril group and the placebo group, although the mean urinary albumin excretion in the captopril group was lower by a mean difference of -49.00 (95% confidence interval -124.10 to 26.10) compared to that of placebo. However, our analysis on the absolute change score showed significant changes between the two groups by a mean difference of -63.00 (95% confidence interval -93.78 to -32.22). At six months albumin excretion in the captopril group was noted to decrease from baseline by a mean of 45 ± 23 mg/day and the placebo group was noted to increase by 18 ± 45 mg/day. Serum creatinine and potassium levels were reported constant throughout the study. The potential for inducing hypotension should be highlighted; the study reported a decrease of 8 mmHg in systolic pressure and 5 mmHg in diastolic and mean blood pressure.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is not enough evidence to show that the administration of ACE inhibitors is associated with a reduction of microalbuminuria and proteinuria in people with sickle cell disease, although a potential for this was seen. More long-term studies involving multiple centers and larger cohorts using a randomized-controlled design are warranted, especially among the pediatric age group. Detailed reporting of each outcome measure is necessary to allow a clear cut interpretation in a systematic review. One of the difficulties encountered in this review was the lack of detailed data reported in the included study.

    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood
  15. Teo BW, Koh YY, Toh QC, Li J, Sinha AK, Shuter B, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2014 Dec;55(12):656-9.
    PMID: 25630321
    INTRODUCTION: Clinical practice guidelines recommend using creatinine-based equations to estimate glomerular filtration rates (GFRs). While these equations were formulated for Caucasian-American populations and have adjustment coefficients for African-American populations, they are not validated for other ethnicities. The Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaborative Group (CKD-EPI) recently developed a new equation that uses both creatinine and cystatin C. We aimed to assess the accuracy of this equation in estimating the GFRs of participants (healthy and with chronic kidney disease [CKD]) from a multiethnic Asian population.
    METHODS: Serum samples from the Asian Kidney Disease Study and the Singapore Kidney Function Study were used. GFR was measured using plasma clearance of 99mTc-DTPA. GFR was estimated using the CKD-EPI equations. The performance of GFR estimation equations were examined using median and interquartile range values, and the percentage difference from the measured GFR.
    RESULTS: The study comprised 335 participants (69.3% with CKD; 38.5% Chinese, 29.6% Malays, 23.6% Indians, 8.3% others), with a mean age of 53.5 ± 15.1 years. Mean standardised serum creatinine was 127 ± 86 µmol/L, while mean standardised serum cystatin C and mean measured GFR were 1.43 ± 0.74 mg/L and 67 ± 33 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The creatinine-cystatin C CKD-EPI equation performed the best, with an estimated GFR of 67 ± 35 mL/min/1.73 m2.
    CONCLUSION: The new creatinine-cystatin C equation estimated GFR with little bias, and had increased precision and accuracy in our multiethnic Asian population. This two-biomarker equation may increase the accuracy of population studies on CKD, without the need to consider ethnicity.
    Keywords: Asian, chronic kidney disease, creatinine, cystatin C, glomerular filtration rate
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood*
  16. Md Ralib A, Mat Nor MB
    J Crit Care, 2015 Jun;30(3):636-42.
    PMID: 25701354 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2015.01.018
    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and carries a high mortality rate. Most epidemiological studies were retrospective and were done in Western populations. We aim to assess its incidence using both urine output and creatinine criteria and its association with risk factors and outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood
  17. Yankuzo HM, Emilia ST, Shaari R, Yaacob NS
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(16):6721-6.
    PMID: 25169515
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this preliminary study was to address variations of responses observed with different starting tumor sizes of 10 and 15 mm, and the effects of different doses of tamoxifen (TAM) on experimental rat mammary tumors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five inbred female Sprague Dawley rats aged 43 days were administered with three weekly doses of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU) intraperitoneally (ip) at 50 mg/kg body weight. Animals were randomized (beginning from 10 mm tumor size) into four TAM-treated (50, 100, 200 and 500 μg/day) groups of six animals each, and another group (n=6) treated with TAM 100 μg/day at starting tumour size of 15 mm. The animals were treated by oral gavage daily for 8 weeks before sacrifice.

    RESULTS: Serum urea and creatinine, and overall physical tumor burden were significantly modulated in animals treated with variable doses of TAM compared to the untreated controls (n=5). Final body weight and tumor number were significantly different in the 10 mm-treated animals compared to those treated at 15 mm. There were no significant differences in histopathological features among all the groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the importance of standardizing tumour size and drug doses before initiation of treatment, particularly in the direct comparison of basic end-tumour physical parameters.

    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood
  18. Hor SY, Ahmad M, Farsi E, Yam MF, Hashim MA, Lim CP, et al.
    Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2012 Jun;63(1):106-14.
    PMID: 22440551 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.03.006
    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood
  19. Ergün UGO, Oztüzün S, Seydaoglu G
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 Aug;59(3):406-10.
    PMID: 15727389
    To examine a possible association between lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 100 type 2 diabetic patients were assessed with the following parameters: age, body mass index, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, Lp(a), and albumin excretion rate (AER). Retinopathy was classified as normal retina (NR), non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) by an ophthalmologist. The PDR group had higher cholesterol (t=-2.24, p<0.05) and creatinine (z=-2.547, p<0.05) levels than the NPDR group. The PDR group had a higher value of AER (z=-2.439, p<0.01) than the NR group. The possibility of developing diabetic retinopathy after 10 years of diabetes was found to be 6.5 fold high (OR; 6.57, 95% CI 1.74-24.79; p<0.05). The Lp(a) levels were similar in the patients with retinopathy and those without retinopathy. In the study, there was no evidence for a relationship between the serum Lp(a) levels and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/blood
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