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  1. Sim YL, Ariffin A, Khan MN
    J. Org. Chem., 2007 Mar 30;72(7):2392-401.
    PMID: 17341117
    The rates of the hydrolyses of N-(o-hydroxyphenyl)phthalimide (1) and N-(o-methoxyphenyl)phthalimide (2), studied at different pH, show that the hydrolysis of 1 involves intramolecular general base (IGB) assistance where the o-O- group of ionized 1 acts as IGB and H2O as the reactant. The rate enhancement due to the IGB-assisted reaction of H2O with ionized 1 is>8x10(4)-fold. Pseudo-first-order rate constant for the reaction of water with 2 is approximately 2x10(3)-fold smaller than the first-order rate constant (0.10 s-1) for pH-independent hydrolysis of 1 within the pH range of 9.60-10.10. Second-order rate constants (kOH) for hydroxide ion-assisted hydrolysis of ionized 1 and 2 are 3.0 and 29.1 M-1 s-1, respectively. The solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effect (dKIE) on the rate of alkaline hydrolysis of 1 and 2 reveals that the respective values of kOH/kOD are 0.84 and 0.78, where kOD represents the second-order rate constant for DO--assisted cleavage of these imides (1 and 2). The value of kwH2O/kdD2O is 2.04, with kwH2O and kdD2O representing pseudo-first-order rate constants for the reactions of ionized 1 with H2O and D2O, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
  2. Jamil SNAM, Daik R, Ahmad I
    Materials (Basel), 2014 Sep 01;7(9):6207-6223.
    PMID: 28788187 DOI: 10.3390/ma7096207
    A synthesis of acrylonitrile (AN)/butyl acrylate (BA)/fumaronitrile (FN) and AN/EHA (ethyl hexyl acrylate)/FN terpolymers was carried out by redox polymerization using sodium bisulfite (SBS) and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator at 40 °C. The effect of comonomers, BA and EHA and termonomer, FN on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and stabilization temperature was studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The degradation behavior and char yield were obtained by Thermogravimetric Analysis. The conversions of AN, comonomers (BA and EHA) and FN were 55%-71%, 85%-91% and 76%-79%, respectively. It was found that with the same comonomer feed (10%), the Tg of AN/EHA copolymer was lower at 63 °C compared to AN/BA copolymer (70 °C). AN/EHA/FN terpolymer also exhibited a lower Tg at 63 °C when compared to that of the AN/BA/FN terpolymer (67 °C). By incorporating BA and EHA into a PAN system, the char yield was reduced to ~38.0% compared to that of AN (~47.7%). It was found that FN reduced the initial cyclization temperature of AN/BA/FN and AN/EHA/FN terpolymers to 228 and 221 °C, respectively, in comparison to that of AN/BA and AN/EHA copolymers (~260 °C). In addition, FN reduced the heat liberation per unit time during the stabilization process that consequently reduced the emission of volatile group during this process. As a result, the char yields of AN/BA/FN and AN/EHA/FN terpolymers are higher at ~45.1% and ~43.9%, respectively, as compared to those of AN/BA copolymer (37.1%) and AN/EHA copolymer (38.0%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
  3. Selvaraj M, Assiri MA, Singh H, Appaturi JN, Subrahmanyam C, Ha CS
    Dalton Trans, 2021 Jan 21.
    PMID: 33475664 DOI: 10.1039/d0dt04158k
    The Prins cyclization of styrene (SE) with paraformaldehyde (PFCHO) was conducted with mesoporous ZnAlMCM-41 catalysts for the synthesis of 4-phenyl-1,3-dioxane (4-PDO) using a liquid phase heterogeneous catalytic method. For a comparison study, the Prins cyclization reaction was also conducted over different nanoporous catalysts, e.g. mesoporous solid acid catalysts, AlMCM-41(21) and ZnMCM-41(21), and microporous catalysts, USY, Hβ, HZSM-5, and H-mordenite. The recyclable mesoporous ZnAlMCM-41 catalysts were reused in this reaction to evaluate their catalytic stabilities. Since ZnAlMCM-41(75) has higher catalytic activity than other solid acid catalysts, washed ZnAlMCM-41(75)/W-ZnAlMCM-41(75) was prepared using an efficient chemical treatment method and used with various reaction parameters to find an optimal parameter for the highly selective synthesis of 4-PDO. W-ZnAlMCM-41(75) was also used in the Prins cyclization of olefins with PFCHO and formalin (FN, 37% aqueous solution of formaldehyde (FCHO)) under different reaction conditions to obtain 1,3-dioxanes, which are widely used as solvents or intermediates in organic synthesis. Based on the nature of catalysts used under different reaction conditions, a reasonable plausible reaction mechanism for the Prins cyclization of SE with PFCHO is proposed. Notably, it can be seen from the catalytic results of all catalysts that the W-ZnAlMCM-41(75) catalyst has higher 4-PDO selectivity with exceptional catalytic activity than other microporous and mesoporous catalysts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
  4. Barakat A, Al-Majid AM, Soliman SM, Lotfy G, Ghabbour HA, Fun HK, et al.
    Molecules, 2015;20(11):20642-58.
    PMID: 26610441 DOI: 10.3390/molecules201119710
    The synthesis of the new diethyl ammonium salt of diethylammonium(E)-5-(1,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-3-oxopent-4-en-1-yl)-1,3-diethyl-4,6-dioxo-2-thioxohexaydropyrimidin-5-ide 3 via a regioselective Michael addition of N,N-diethylthiobarbituric acid 1 to dienone 2 is described. In 3, the carboanion of the thiobarbituric moiety is stabilized by the strong intramolecular electron delocalization with the adjacent carbonyl groups and so the reaction proceeds without any cyclization. The molecular structure investigations of 3 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction as well as DFT computations. The theoretically calculated (DFT/B3LYP) geometry agrees well with the crystallographic data. The effect of fluorine replacement by chlorine atoms on the molecular structure aspects were investigated using DFT methods. Calculated electronic spectra showed a bathochromic shift of the π-π* transition when fluorine is replaced by chlorine. Charge decomposition analyses were performed to study possible interaction between the different fragments in the studied systems. Molecular docking simulations examining the inhibitory nature of the compound show an anti-diabetic activity with Pa (probability of activity) value of 0.229.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
  5. Salman AA, Tabandeh M, Heidelberg T, Duali Hussen RS
    Carbohydr Res, 2015 Apr 10;406:41-5.
    PMID: 25658065 DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2014.12.015
    A series of glycolipid crown ether analogs was prepared by bis-propargylation of lauryl glycoside followed by subsequent click-coupling with ethylene glycol-based diazides. The triazole-linked macrocycles were obtained in remarkable high yields. While the surfactant assembly was affected by presence of sodium ions, suggesting the formation of complexes, no ion-selectivity was observed for the macrocylic ligands. Computational studies suggest a low but significant cation-binding activity of the macrocycle, involving coordination at both oxygen and nitrogen atoms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
  6. Zhong X, Li Y, Zhang J, Han FS
    Org. Lett., 2015 Feb 6;17(3):720-3.
    PMID: 25602274 DOI: 10.1021/ol503734x
    The synthesis of a pentacyclic indole compound corresponding to the core structure of the misassigned indole alkaloid, tronoharine (1), is presented. The key reactions were a formal [3 + 3] cycloaddition of an indol-2-yl carbinol with an azadiene for the construction of the 6/5/6/6 tetracyclic system containing an all-carbon quaternary center and an intramolecular substitution reaction of an amine and a triflate for the creation of the bridged azepine ring. In addition, some other interesting transformations discovered during the synthetic studies are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
  7. Siti Nurul Ain Md. Jamil, Rusil Daik, Ishak Ahmad
    MyJurnal
    Redox polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) with ethyl acrylate (EA) and fumaronitrile (FN), as comonomer and termonomer respectively, were carried out using sodium bisulfite (SBS) and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiators at 40°C. The actual composition of monomers in copolymers and terpolymers has been characterized by gas chromatography (GC). The effects of EA and FN on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and stabilization temperature have been studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The degradation behaviour and char yield were obtained by thermogravimetric analysis. Meanwhile, incorporation of 10 mol% of EA in homoPAN system was found to greatly reduce Tg to 66°C as compared to that of the homoPAN (Tg=105°C). The initial cyclization temperature (Ti) was found to be higher (264°C) in comparison to that of homoPAN (246°C). In addition, the incorporation of EA was also shown to reduce the char yield of copolymer to 40%. When FN was incorporated as termonomer, the char yield of poly(AN/EA/ FN) 90/4/6 increased up to 44% after the heat treatment with the lowest Ti (241°C).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
  8. Ahmad S, Zaib S, Jalil S, Shafiq M, Ahmad M, Sultan S, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2018 10;80:498-510.
    PMID: 29996111 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2018.04.012
    In this research work, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of two new series of 1-benzyl-4-(benzylidenehydrazono)-3,4-dihydro-1H-benzo[c] [1,2]thiazine 2,2-dioxides and 1-benzyl-4-((1-phenylethylidene)hydrazono)-3,4-dihydro-1H-benzo[c][1,2]thiazine 2,2-dioxides. The synthetic plan involves the mesylation of methyl anthranilate with subsequent N-benzylation of the product. The methyl 2-(N-benzylmethylsulfonamido)benzoate was subjected to cyclization reaction in the presence of sodium hydride to obtain 1-benzyl-1H-benzo[c][1,2]thiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide which was treated with hydrazine hydrate to get corresponding hydrazone precursor. Finally, the titled compounds were obtained by reaction of hydrazone with various substituted aldehydes and ketones. The synthesized derivatives were subjected to carry out their inhibition activities against monoamine oxidases along with modelling investigations to evaluate their binding interactions and dynamic stability during the docking studies. The inhibition profile of potent compounds was found as competitive for both the isozymes. The compounds were more selective inhibitors of MAO-A as compared to MAO-B. Moreover, drug likeness profile of the derivatives was evaluated to have an additional insight into the physicochemical properties. The molecular dynamic simulations predicted the behaviour of amino acids with the active site residues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
  9. Sattar A, Aziz-Ur-Rehman -, Abbasi MA, Siddiqui SZ, Rasool S, Ali Shah SA
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2020 Jul;33(4):1697-1705.
    PMID: 33583804
    A series of propanamide compounds 6a-l was derived by N-substitution reactions, encompassing tosyl, piperidine and 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties. The intended array of compounds 6a-l was afforded by a series of five steps reaction scheme. 1-Tosylpiperidin-4-carboxylate (1) was synthesized by the reaction of tosyl chloride (a) with ethyl isonipecotate (b) under mild basic conditions. Compound 1 was subjected to nucleophillic substitution by hydrazine to synthesize 1-tosylpiperidin-4-carbohydrazide (2). The compound, 5-(1-tosylpiperidin-4-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (3) was synthesized by intermolecular cyclization of compound 2 by CS2 under strong basic conditions. The target compounds, 6a-l, were finally synthesized from 3 by reacting with different electrophiles, 5a-l, in an aprotic polar solvent with sodium hydride as an activator. The different propanamoyl electrophiles, 5a-l, were synthesized by the reaction of different aromatic and aliphatic amines, 4a-l, with 3-bromopropionyl chloride under mild basic conditions. The structural elucidation was carried out using modern spectroscopic techniques including IR, 1H-NMR and EI-MS. The antibacterial potential of synthesized compounds was assessed against five bacterial strains. Compounds 6a, 6c, 6d, 6e and 6f were found to be potent antibacterial agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
  10. Zonouzi A, Izakian Z, Ng SW
    Mol Divers, 2016 Aug;20(3):627-38.
    PMID: 27003393 DOI: 10.1007/s11030-016-9664-0
    Novel tricyclic keto diesters have been synthesized by a one-pot three-component procedure via DABCO-catalyzed domino Knoevenagel-Michael addition reactions. Also, an efficient four-component reaction for the synthesis of another new group of tricyclic keto diesters has been developed via domino Knoevenagel-intramolecular oxo-Diels-Alder reactions. A selective thermal isomerization of the synthesized chromenes to fumarates is also described. X-ray analyses confirm unambiguously the structures of the products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
  11. Low YY, Hong FJ, Lim KH, Thomas NF, Kam TS
    J Nat Prod, 2014 Feb 28;77(2):327-38.
    PMID: 24428198 DOI: 10.1021/np400922x
    Several transformations of the seco Aspidosperma alkaloid leuconolam were carried out. The based-induced reaction resulted in cyclization to yield two epimers, the major product corresponding to the optical antipode of a (+)-meloscine derivative. The structures and relative configuration of the products were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Reaction of leuconolam and epi-leuconolam with various acids, molecular bromine, and hydrogen gave results that indicated that the structure of the alkaloid, previously assigned as epi-leuconolam, was incorrect. This was confirmed by an X-ray diffraction analysis, which revealed that epi-leuconolam is in fact 6,7-dehydroleuconoxine. Short partial syntheses of the diazaspiro indole alkaloid leuconoxine and the new leuconoxine-type alkaloids leuconodines A and F were carried out.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
  12. Kee CH, Ariffin A, Awang K, Noorbatcha I, Takeya K, Morita H, et al.
    Molecules, 2011 Aug 25;16(9):7267-87.
    PMID: 21869754 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16097267
    The n-butyramido, isobutyramido, benzamido, and furancarboxamido functions profoundly modulate the electronics of the stilbene olefinic and NH groups and the corresponding radical cations in ways that influence the efficiency of the cyclization due presumably to conformational and stereoelectronic factors. For example, isobutyramido- stilbene undergoes FeCl(3) promoted cyclization to produce only indoline, while n-butyramidostilbene, under the same conditions, produces both indoline and bisindoline.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
  13. Feng X, Jiang G, Xia Z, Hu J, Wan X, Gao JM, et al.
    Org. Lett., 2015 Sep 18;17(18):4428-31.
    PMID: 26315849 DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.5b02046
    The first enantioselective synthesis of (-)-conolutinine was achieved in 10 steps. The synthesis featured a catalytic asymmetric bromocyclization of tryptamine to forge the tricycle intermediate. Hydration of an alkene catalyzed by Co(acac)2 was also employed as a key step to diastereoselectively introduce the tertiary alcohol moiety. The absolute configuration of (-)-conolutinine was established to be (2S,5aS,8aS,13aR) based on this asymmetric total synthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
  14. Lajis NH, Noor HM, Khan MN
    J Pharm Sci, 1995 Jan;84(1):126-30.
    PMID: 7714735
    The hydroxide ion-catalyzed hydrolysis of securinine involves the ring opening of the lactone moiety. The rate of hydrolysis is insensitive to the ionic strength. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constants reveal a decrease of approximately 4-fold due to the increase in the MeCN content from 4 to 50% (v/v) in mixed aqueous solvent. The temperature dependence of the rate of hydrolysis follows the Eyring equation, which yields delta H* and delta S* as 11.0 kcal mol-1 and -34.5 cal deg-1 mol-1, respectively. The hydroxyl carboxylate product of the alkaline hydrolysis of securinine is shown to undergo cyclization in acidic medium to yield securinine. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constants for cyclization increase linearly with an increase in [H+]. The change in the content of MeCN from 3.8 to 47.2% (v/v) in mixed aqueous solvents does not show an effect on the rate of the cyclization reaction. The most plausible mechanisms for alkaline hydrolysis and acid cyclization reactions are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
  15. Sathish Kumar K, Kotra V, Phani Kumar Kola, Praveena Devi CB, Anusha N, Hari Babu B, et al.
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2021 Jan;28(1):386-394.
    PMID: 33424321 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.10.020
    A new series of coumarin-yl-chalcone derivatives (3a-m) had been designed and synthesized through different reactions such as aromatic addition, cyclization and Claisen-Schmidt reactions in good yields (54-78%). 5-acetyl-4-(2-hydroxyphenyl) -6-methyl-3, 4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H) -one (1) has been synthesized by multi-component one pot reaction of salicylaldehyde, methyl acetoacetate and urea, which was further reacted with malonic acid employing ZnCl2 catalyst to yield 5-acetyl-4-(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-8-yl) -6-methyl-3, 4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H) -one (2). The title compounds (3a-m) were synthesised by reacting 5-acetyl-4-(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-8-yl) -6-methyl-3, 4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one (2) with different aromatic aldehydes in the presence of potassium hydroxide. In silico studies, a preliminary screening method for predicting the anti-cancer activity was performed for the synthesized compounds (3a-m) against Src, Alb tyrosine kinase and homology model protein (PDB ID: 4csv). The derivatives 3h and 3m showed moderate binding energies. The in vitro cytotoxic activity was evaluated for the compounds 3h and 3m by using human cancer cell-line morphology and MTT assay against three human cell-lines A549 (Lung), Jurkat (Leukemia) and MCF-7 (Breast). The results indicate that the derivatives 3h and 3m display significant anti-cancer activity, however it was found to be less cytotoxic when compared to the standard used i.e. Imatinib.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
  16. Dahiya R, Rampersad S, Ramnanansingh TG, Kaur K, Kaur R, Mourya R, et al.
    Iran J Pharm Res, 2020;19(3):156-170.
    PMID: 33680019 DOI: 10.22037/ijpr.2020.15405.13075
    Synthesis of a natural proline-rich cyclopolypeptide - rolloamide A was carried out by coupling of tri- and tetrapeptide units Boc-Phe-Pro-Val-OMe and Boc-Pro-Leu-Pro-Ile-OMe after proper deprotection at carboxyl and amino terminals using carbodiimide chemistry in alkaline environment followed by cyclization of linear heptapeptide segment in the presence of base. The structure of synthesized peptide was confirmed by spectral techniques including FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS analyses. Newly synthesized peptide was subjected to biological screening against pathogenic microbes and earthworms. Cyclopeptide 8 possessed promising activity against pathogenic fungi Candida albicans (ZOI: 24 mm, MIC: 6 μg/mL) and Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ZOI: 27 mm, MIC: 6 μg/mL) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ZOI: 23 mm, MIC: 12.5 μg/mL), in comparison to reference drugs - griseofulvin (ZOI: 20 mm, MIC: 6 μg/mL) and ciprofloxacin (ZOI: 25 mm, MIC: 6 μg/mL/ZOI: 20 mm, MIC: 12.5 μg/mL). Also, newly synthesized heptacyclopeptide exhibited potent anthelmintic activity against earthworms Megascoplex konkanensis,Pontoscotex corethruses, and Eudrilus species (MPT/MDT ratio - 8.22-16.02/10.06-17.59 min), in comparison to standard drugs - mebendazole (MPT/MDT ratio - 10.52-18.02/12.57-19.49 min) and piperazine citrate (MPT/MDT ratio - 12.38-19.17/13.44-22.17 min).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
  17. Dahiya R, Dahiya S, Fuloria NK, Jankie S, Agarwal A, Davis V, et al.
    Curr Med Chem, 2021 May 25.
    PMID: 34042024 DOI: 10.2174/0929867328666210526095436
    BACKGROUND: Peptides and peptide-based therapeutics are biomolecules that demarcate a significant chemical space to bridge small molecules with biological therapeutics such as antibodies, recombinant proteins, and protein domains.

    INTRODUCTION: Cyclooligopeptides and depsipeptides, particularly cyanobacteria-derived thiazoline-based cyclopolypeptides (CTBCs), exhibit a wide array of pharmacological activities due to their unique structural features and interesting bioactions, which furnish them as promising leads for drug discovery.

    METHOD: In the present study, we comprehensively review the natural sources, distinguishing chemistries, and pertinent bioprofiles of CTBCs. We analyze their structural peculiarities counting the mode of actions for biological portrayals which render CTBCs as indispensable sources for the emergence of prospective peptide-based therapeutics. In this milieu, metal organic frameworks and their biomedical applications are also briefly discussed. To boot, the challenges, approaches, and clinical status of peptide-based therapeutics are conferred.

    RESULT: Based on these analyses, CTBCs can be appraised as ideal drug targets that have always remained a challenge for traditional small molecules, like those involved in protein-protein interactions or to be developed as potential cancer-targeting nanomaterials. Cyclization-induced reduced conformational freedom of these cyclooligopeptides contribute to improved metabolic stability and binding affinity to their molecular targets. Clinical success of several cyclic peptides provokes the large library-screening and synthesis of natural product-like cyclic peptides to address the unmet medical needs.

    CONCLUSION: CTBCs can be considered as the most promising lead compounds for drug discovery. Adopting the amalgamation of advanced biological and biopharmaceutical strategies might endure these cyclopeptides to be prospective biomolecules for futuristic therapeutic applications in the coming times.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
  18. Kia Y, Osman H, Kumar RS, Murugaiyah V, Basiri A, Perumal S, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 2013 May 15;23(10):2979-83.
    PMID: 23570788 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.03.027
    A series of novel hybrid spiro heterocycles comprising pyrrolizine, spiroxindole and piperidine moieties was synthesized chemo-, regio- and stereoselectively in good yields from 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of a series of 1-acryloyl-3,5-bisarylmethylidenepiperidin-4-ones with azomethine ylides generated in situ from 5-choloroisatin and l-proline in methanol. These cycloadducts displayed significant cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Among the compounds screened, 8g and 8e, showed maximum inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinestrase (BChE) with IC50 values of 3.33 and 3.13μM, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclization
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