METHODS: Genomic DNAs were extracted from the blood samples followed by whole-genome sequencing. The reads were aligned to the reference human genome hg19 and variants in the CYP2D6 gene were analyzed. CYP2D6*5 and duplication of CYP2D6 were analyzed using previously established methods.
RESULTS: A total of 72 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. CYP2D6*1, *2, *4, *5, *10,*41, and duplication of the gene were found in the Orang Asli, whereby CYP2D6*2 and *41 alleles are reported for the first time in the Malaysian population.
CONCLUSION: The findings in this study provide insights into the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 in the Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia.
AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was carried out to examine the potential modulatory effects of three commercially available active components (asiaticoside, asiatic acid and madecassic acid) and four extracts (aqueous, ethanol, dichloromethane and hexane) of CA on three major cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based enzyme assays, namely tolbutamide 4-methyhydroxylase, dextromethorphan O-demethylase and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase assays were developed to probe activities of CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, respectively. Probe substrates were incubated with or without each active component and extract for each isoform, followed by examination of the kinetics parameters, IC(50) and K(i), to characterize modulatory effects.
RESULTS: CYP2C9 was more susceptible to inhibitory effects by CA extracts compared to CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. Moderate degree of inhibition was observed in ethanol (K(i)=39.1 microg/ml) and dichloromethane (K(i)=26.6 microg/ml) extracts implying potential risk of interaction when CYP2C9 substrates are consumed with CA products. The two extracts however showed negligible inhibition towards CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 (IC(50)'s of 123.3 microg/ml and above). Similarly CA aqueous and hexane extracts did not significantly inhibit all three isoforms investigated (IC(50)'s of 117.9 microg/ml and above). Among the active constituents investigated, asiatic acid and madecassic acid appeared to selectively inhibit CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 more than CYP3A4. Of particular interest is the potent inhibitory effect of asiatic acid on CYP2C9 (K(i)=9.1 microg/ml). This signifies potential risk of interaction when substrates for this isoform are taken together with CA products with high asiatic acid content. Inhibitions of asiatic acid with the other isoforms and that of madecassic acid with all isoforms were only moderate (K(i)'s ranged from 17.2 to 84.4 microg/ml). On the other hand, the IC(50) values for asiaticoside were high (1070.2 microg/ml or above) for all three isoforms, indicating negligible or low potential of this compound to modulate CYP enzymatic activity.
CONCLUSION: Centella asiatica extracts and active constituents inhibited CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activities with varying potency with CYP2C9 being the most susceptible isoform to inhibition. Significant inhibition was observed for asiatic acid and CA ethanol and dichloromethane extracts, implying involvement of semipolar constituents from CA in the effect. This study suggested that CA could cause drug-herb interactions through CYP2C9 inhibition.