AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: In order to improve predictive model performance, this paper proposed a predictive model by classifying the disease predictions into different categories. To achieve this model performance, this paper uses traumatic brain injury (TBI) datasets. TBI is one of the serious diseases worldwide and needs more attention due to its seriousness and serious impacts on human life.
CONCLUSION: The proposed predictive model improves the predictive performance of TBI. The TBI data set is developed and approved by neurologists to set its features. The experiment results show that the proposed model has achieved significant results including accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity.
OBJECTIVE: To use an individual participant data meta-analysis to evaluate the accuracy of two PHQ-9 diagnostic algorithms for detecting major depression and compare accuracy between the algorithms and the standard PHQ-9 cutoff score of ≥10.
METHODS: Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, Web of Science (January 1, 2000, to February 7, 2015). Eligible studies that classified current major depression status using a validated diagnostic interview.
RESULTS: Data were included for 54 of 72 identified eligible studies (n participants = 16,688, n cases = 2,091). Among studies that used a semi-structured interview, pooled sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) were 0.57 (0.49, 0.64) and 0.95 (0.94, 0.97) for the original algorithm and 0.61 (0.54, 0.68) and 0.95 (0.93, 0.96) for a modified algorithm. Algorithm sensitivity was 0.22-0.24 lower compared to fully structured interviews and 0.06-0.07 lower compared to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Specificity was similar across reference standards. For PHQ-9 cutoff of ≥10 compared to semi-structured interviews, sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) were 0.88 (0.82-0.92) and 0.86 (0.82-0.88).
CONCLUSIONS: The cutoff score approach appears to be a better option than a PHQ-9 algorithm for detecting major depression.
METHODS: We reviewed measures of decision quality and decision process in 86 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from the 2011 Cochrane Collaboration systematic review of PtDAs. Data on development of the measures, reliability, validity, responsiveness, precision, interpretability, feasibility, and acceptability were independently abstracted by 2 reviewers.
RESULTS: Information from 178 instances of use of measures was abstracted. Very few studies reported data on the performance of measures, with reliability (21%) and validity (16%) being the most common. Studies using new measures were less likely to include information about their psychometric performance. The review was limited to reporting of measures in studies included in the Cochrane review and did not consult prior publications.
CONCLUSIONS: Very little is reported about the development or performance of measures used to evaluate the effectiveness of PtDAs in published trials. Minimum reporting standards are proposed to enable authors to prepare study reports, editors and reviewers to evaluate submitted papers, and readers to appraise published studies.
METHOD: This study proposes a combination of decision tree and logistic regression techniques to model crash severity (injury vs. noninjury), because the combined approach allows the specification of nonlinearities and interactions in addition to main effects. Both a scobit model and a random parameters logit model, respectively accounting for an imbalance response variable and unobserved heterogeneities, are tested and compared. The study data set contains a total of 5 years of crash data (2008-2012) on selected mountainous highways in Malaysia. To enrich the data quality, an extensive field survey was conducted to collect detailed information on horizontal alignment, longitudinal grades, cross-section elements, and roadside features. In addition, weather condition data from the meteorology department were merged using the time stamp and proximity measures in AutoCAD-Geolocation.
RESULTS: The random parameters logit model is found to outperform both the standard logit and scobit models, suggesting the importance of accounting for unobserved heterogeneity in crash severity models. Results suggest that proportion of segment lengths with simple curves, presence of horizontal curves along steep gradients, highway segments with unsealed shoulders, and highway segments with cliffs along both sides are positively associated with injury-producing crashes along rural mountainous highways. Interestingly, crashes during rainy conditions are associated with crashes that are less likely to involve injury. It is also found that the likelihood of injury-producing crashes decreases for rear-end collisions but increases for head-on collisions and crashes involving heavy vehicles. A higher order interaction suggests that single-vehicle crashes involving light and medium-sized vehicles are less severe along straight sections compared to road sections with horizontal curves. One the other hand, crash severity is higher when heavy vehicles are involved in crashes as single vehicles traveling along straight segments of rural mountainous highways.
CONCLUSION: In addition to unobserved heterogeneity, it is important to account for higher order interactions to have a better understanding of factors that influence crash severity. A proper understanding of these factors will help develop targeted countermeasures to improve road safety along rural mountainous highways.