Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 576 in total

  1. Maznah I, Loh SP, Waffaa MH
    Despite increasing interest in in nutraceuticals and their potential health benefits, not much is known about bioavailability of most of these nutraceutical compounds. Although they are considered dietary supplements and are subjected to a limited form of regulation, there is, however, a need to improve the efficacy and safety of these nutraceuticals. Additional research which defines the pharmacology, stability and bioavailability of these products is expected to gain strength and may offer a better understanding of their applicability in the prevention of disease conditions. This article reviews some aspects of nutraceutical bioavailability with examples from our work on the absorption studies of minerals from spirulina (Arthrospira plantensis) and gamma-oryzanol from rice bran (Oryza sativa) extract which employed human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cell line and in vivo bioassays using animal models. Bioavailability of iron from spirulina was compared with its common source FeS04. Using the in vitro digestion protocol in combination with Caco-2 cell culture system, spirulina showed a high iron bioavailability compared to FeS04. The presence of other dietary factors (calcium, ascorbic acid, zinc, tannin and caffeine) was found to be not as significant as ferrous sulphate in affecting the iron uptake from spirulina. In vivo study showed that the efficacy of iron repletion in anaemic rats was enhanced in groups fed either commercial or cultured spirulina with improved haematological parameters of iron status. Further work on the behaviour and distribution of radiolabelled iron from spirulina has shown that iron-59 retained in the GIT of mice was lower in spirulina group compared to FeS04. Bioavailability study of gamme oryzanol was similarly conducted using Caco-2 cell as in vitro system and rabbit as in vivo model with the application of different formulations of gamma oryzanol in comparison with the natural form. Both systems showed that gamma oryzanol in its natural oil was poorly absorbed. However, when converted to other formulations, gamma oryzanol bioavailability was greatly increased by as much as 200 and 33 times more from the emulsion and microspheres respectively. These findings suggest that the efficacy of nutraceuticals in particular plant derived products which contain many phytochemicals should be assessed in terms of not only their potential health benefits such as antioxidant action but also their bioavailability in order to provide a more wholesome picture of their potential.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements
  2. Abdulabbas Hasan M, Mohan S, Rahman HS, Othman HH, Hamasalih Omer S, Farasani A
    Drug Chem Toxicol, 2023 May;46(3):588-596.
    PMID: 35506235 DOI: 10.1080/01480545.2022.2069803
    Kava is a herbal supplement and beverage made from the Piper methysticum plant, which is known for its recreational use as a mood enhancer, relaxation, as well as pain relief for centuries. Kava is widely used among alcoholics, but it is dangerous and potentially fatal. The objectives of this study were to examine the sub-acute toxicity effects of different doses of 70% kavalactone (KL) in rats by oral application, as well as to elucidate the mechanisms of toxicity alone and in combination with ethanol (EtOH). The most common side effects observed were abnormal breathing, ataxia, lethargy, loss of appetite, indigestion, and loss of coordination, especially in the 800 mg/kg bw, po bodyweight dosage of kava treatment group alone, and in combination with EtOH. In the sub-acute study, there were dose-related decreases in body weight, feed intake, and water consumption rates. Gross and histopathological findings revealed that the liver was abnormal in color, size, consistency, and the weight significantly increased at a dose of 800 mg/kg bw, po, with KL alone and a greater increase in combination with EtOH. Hepatocellular hypertrophy (HP) and necrosis with Kupffer cells hyperplasia were observed in the periacinar zone of all rats dosed with KL (800 mg/kg bw, po) alone, and extensive changes were observed in combination with EtOH. The periportal (Z1) and mid-zonal (Z2) areas of hepatocytes were less affected as compared to the periacinar zone. These results demonstrate that EtOH exacerbated the sedative and hypnotic activity of KL, and markedly increased toxicity. The histopathological results supported the clinical and biochemical findings and the severity of hepatic damage in a dose-dependent manner.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements
  3. Tan KY, Low SS, Manickam S, Ma Z, Banat F, Munawaroh HSH, et al.
    Food Res Int, 2023 Jul;169:112870.
    PMID: 37254319 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2023.112870
    Nutraceutical supplements provide health benefits, such as fulfilling the lack of nutrients in the human body or being utilized to treat or cure certain diseases. As the world population is growing, certain countries are experiencing food crisis challenges, causing natural foods are not sustainable to be used for nutraceutical production because it will require large-scale of food supply to produce enriched nutraceutics. The high demand for abundant nutritional compounds has made microalgae a reliable source as they can synthesize high-value molecules through photosynthetic activities. However, some microalgae species are limited in growth and unable to accumulate a significant amount of biomass due to several factors related to environmental conditions. Therefore, adding nanoparticles (NPs) as a photocatalyst is considered to enhance the yield rate of microalgae in an energy-saving and economical way. This review focuses on the composition of microalgal biomass for nutraceutical production, the health perspectives of nutritional compounds on humans, and the application of nanotechnology on microalgae for improved production and harvesting. The results obtained show that microalgal-based compounds indeed have better nutrients content than natural foods. However, nanotechnology must be further comprehended to make them non-hazardous and sustainable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements
  4. Teoh SL, Ngorsuraches S, Lai NM, Bangpan M, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2019 Jun;70(4):491-512.
    PMID: 30634867 DOI: 10.1080/09637486.2018.1538326
    There is a high and increasing global prevalence of nutraceuticals use. This study aims to systematically review and critically appraise all available evidence to identify the factors affecting consumers' decisions in taking nutraceuticals. Questionnaire, interview or focus group studies which directly reported factors affecting consumers' decisions in using nutraceuticals were included. A thematic synthesis method was employed to synthesis the findings from the included studies. Out of the 76 studies included, the key factors identified as the most important factors motivating consumers to take nutraceuticals were the perceived health benefits and safety of nutraceuticals, as well as the advice from healthcare professionals, friends and family. The identified barriers to take nutraceuticals were a lack of belief in the health benefit of nutraceuticals, the high cost of nutraceuticals and consumers' lack of knowledge about nutraceuticals. As a chief course of recommendation for the use of nutraceuticals, healthcare professionals should strive to utilise reliable information from clinical evidence to help consumers in making an informed decision in using nutraceuticals. Future studies should explore the possible ways to improve channelling clinical evidence information of nutraceuticals to the public.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements*
  5. Khalaf AT, Wei Y, Alneamah SJA, Al-Shawi SG, Kadir SYA, Zainol J, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2021;2021:8823222.
    PMID: 33681381 DOI: 10.1155/2021/8823222
    Nutraceuticals have taken on considerable significance due to their supposed safety and possible nutritional and medicinal effects. Pharmaceutical and dietary companies are conscious of monetary success, which benefits healthier consumers and the altering trends that result in these heart-oriented value-added products being proliferated. Numerous nutraceuticals are claimed to have multiple therapeutic benefits despite advantages, and unwanted effects encompass a lack of substantial evidence. Several common nutraceuticals involve glucosamine, omega-3, Echinacea, cod liver oil, folic acid, ginseng, orange juice supplemented with calcium, and green tea. This review is dedicated to improving the understanding of nutrients based on specific illness indications. It was reported that functional foods contain physiologically active components that confer various health benefits. Studies have shown that some foods and dietary patterns play a major role in the primary prevention of many ailment conditions that lead to putative functional foods being identified. Research and studies are needed to support the possible health benefits of different functional foods that have not yet been clinically validated for the relationships between diet and health. The term "functional foods" may additionally involve health/functional health foods, foods enriched with vitamins/minerals, nutritional improvements, or even conventional medicines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements*
  6. Tripathi C, Girme A, Champaneri S, Patel RJ, Hingorani L
    Nutrition, 2020 06;74:110729.
    PMID: 32203878 DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2020.110729
    In today's era of increased standards of lifestyle and life expectancy, there has been a constant demand for supplements by consumers. Nutraceuticals are among the supplements in demand. Although there is a big opportunity for the nutraceutical business, there are no uniform regulatory requirements in different regions. Nations are looking to the nutraceutical sector to help keep their populations healthy and safe by introducing certain rules and regulations. Generally, developed countries have regulations in place, but there are some countries, such as those in the Asia Pacific regions or in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, that have not yet fine-tuned their regulations for nutraceutical products. The ASEAN countries involve highly commercialized markets such as Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines. The overall nutraceutical market of ASEAN countries is growing at a compound annual growth rate of ∼8.4%. About 40% of the ASEAN population consumes nutraceuticals on a daily basis. ASEAN countries are forming harmonized regulations for dietary supplements. This could be a big opportunity for manufacturers to introduce their products into the ASEAN market. A special unit of the Traditional Medicine and Health Supplements Product Working Group (TMHA PWG) helps manufacturers understand the regulatory procedures of these countries. Despite countries' own special requirements, manufacturers can follow the standards and harmonized guidelines put forth by TMHA PWG. The aim of this review is to introduce the regulatory procedure and requirements for international business developers to launch any new nutraceutical products into the ASEAN market.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements*
  7. Saeedi P, Mohd Taib MN, Hazizi AS
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2012 Oct;22(5):323-30.
    PMID: 22805627
    Nutritional supplement (NS) use has increased among the general population, athletes, and fitness club participants and has become a widespread and acceptable behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in sociodemographic, health-related, and psychological factors between NS users and nonusers. A case-control study design was used, whereby participants included 147 NS users (cases) and 147 nonusers (controls) age 18 yr and above who exercised at least 3 d/wk in 24 fitness clubs in Tehran. A self-administered pretested and validated questionnaire was used to collect data. The results showed that on average, NS users were younger (29.8 ± 9.5 yr) than nonusers (35.5 ± 12.2 yr). Logistic-regression analysis showed that NS use was significantly associated with moderate or high physical activity level (PAL), smoking, gender, eating attitude, and age. In conclusion, NS users were more likely to be female, younger, and smokers; to have moderate or high PAL; and to be more prone to eating disorders than nonusers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements*
  8. Karim AA, Azlan A
    Molecules, 2012 Oct 10;17(10):11931-46.
    PMID: 23052712 DOI: 10.3390/molecules171011931
    Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and chemopreventive effects are associated with these fruit pod extracts. Besides polyphenolics, other compounds such as xanthones, carotenoids and saponins also exhibit health effects and can be potential sources of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical components. In this review, information on fruit pods or pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, Ceratonia siliqua, Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Sapindus rarak and Prosopis cineraria is presented and discussed with regard to their biological activity of the major compounds existing in them. The fruit pods of other ethno- botanical plants have also been reviewed. It can be concluded that although fruit pods are considered as being of no practical use and are often being thrown away, they nevertheless contain compounds that might be useful sources of nutraceutical and other pharmaceutical components.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements*
  9. Li Y, Ren J, Li N, Liu J, Tan SC, Low TY, et al.
    Exp Gerontol, 2020 11;141:111110.
    PMID: 33045358 DOI: 10.1016/j.exger.2020.111110
    BACKGROUND: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been aggressively sold as a dietary supplement to boost testosterone levels although the impact of DHEA supplementation on testosterone levels has not been fully established. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs to investigate the effect of oral DHEA supplementation on testosterone levels.

    METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and PubMed databases up to February 2020 for RCTs that investigated the effect of DHEA supplementation on testosterone levels. The estimated effect of the data was calculated using the weighted mean difference (WMD). Subgroup analysis was performed to identify the source of heterogeneity among studies.

    RESULTS: Overall results from 42 publications (comprising 55 arms) demonstrated that testosterone level was significantly increased after DHEA administration (WMD: 28.02 ng/dl, 95% CI: 21.44-34.60, p = 0.00). Subgroup analyses revealed that DHEA increased testosterone level in all subgroups, but the magnitude of increment was higher in females compared to men (WMD: 30.98 ng/dl vs. 21.36 ng/dl); DHEA dosage of ˃50 mg/d compared to ≤50 mg/d (WMD: 57.96 ng/dl vs. 19.43 ng/dl); intervention duration of ≤12 weeks compared to ˃12 weeks (WMD: 44.64 ng/dl vs. 19 ng/dl); healthy participants compared to postmenopausal women, pregnant women, non-healthy participants and androgen-deficient patients (WMD: 52.17 ng/dl vs. 25.04 ng/dl, 16.44 ng/dl and 16.47 ng/dl); and participants below 60 years old compared to above 60 years old (WMD: 31.42 ng/dl vs. 23.93 ng/dl).

    CONCLUSION: DHEA supplementation is effective for increasing testosterone levels, although the magnitude varies among different subgroups. More study needed on pregnant women and miscarriage.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements*
  10. Xie M, Zhong Y, Xue Q, Wu M, Deng X, O Santos H, et al.
    Exp Gerontol, 2020 07 15;136:110949.
    PMID: 32304719 DOI: 10.1016/j.exger.2020.110949
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Inconsistencies exist with regard to the influence of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation on insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels. The inconsistencies could be attributed to several factors, such as dosage, gender, and duration of intervention, among others. To address these inconsistencies, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to combine findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on this topic.

    METHODS: Electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Embase and Google Scholar) were searched for relevant literature published up to February 2020.

    RESULTS: Twenty-four qualified trials were included in this meta-analysis. It was found that serum IGF-1 levels were significantly increased in the DHEA group compared to the control (weighted mean differences (WMD): 16.36 ng/ml, 95% CI: 8.99, 23.74; p = .000). Subgroup analysis revealed that a statistically significant increase in serum IGF-1 levels was found only in women (WMD: 23.30 ng/ml, 95% CI: 13.75, 32.87); in participants who supplemented 50 mg/d DHEA (WMD: 15.75 ng/ml, 95% CI: 7.61, 23.89); in participants undergoing DHEA intervention for >12 weeks (WMD: 17.2 ng/ml, 95% CI: 8.02, 26.22); in participants without an underlying comorbidity (WMD: 19.11 ng/ml, 95% CI: 10.69, 27.53); and in participants over the age of 60 years (WMD: 19.79 ng/ml, 95% CI: 9.86, 29.72).

    CONCLUSION: DHEA supplementation may increase serum IGF-I levels especially in women and older subjects. However, further studies are warranted before DHEA can be recommended for clinical use.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements*
  11. Jairoun AA, Al-Hemyari SS, El-Dahiyat F, Hassali MA, Shahwan M, Al Ani MR, et al.
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2020 3 1;11:2150132720911303.
    PMID: 32111128 DOI: 10.1177/2150132720911303
    Objectives: Presently, limited data are available on dietary supplements (DSs) and their associated effects on health status although the consumption of DS continues to expand. This study is aimed to explore the possible relationship between DSs consumption and suboptimal health status (SHS) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: This study was a cross-sectional research held among a sample of citizens and residents in the Emirate of Dubai in the UAE using a well-structured, self-administered, anonymous survey. Frequency tables, odds ratios, and confidence intervals were generated during the data analysis using SPSS version 23. Results: A total of 618 participants were enrolled in this study and fully completed the questionnaire. In this study, 317 participants (51.3%) (95% CI: 47.3%-55.3%) reported the use of DS products. A significant association between DS consumption and suboptimal health status was detected (P < .001). DS consumers had a 1.5-fold increased odds of suboptimal health status when compared with non-DS consumers (95% CI 1.4-1.7). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest a need to develop policies and programs that will help minimize the risk of possible adverse events that are associated with the utilization of DSs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements*
  12. Wahab MSA, Sakthong P, Winit-Watjana W
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2020 04;16(4):475-487.
    PMID: 31255476 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2019.06.014
    BACKGROUND: The factors associated with the provision of pharmacist's care (PCare) for herbal and dietary supplement (HDS) users are multidimensional. These factors should be investigated to assess the needs for community pharmacists (CPs) to provide the service. However, at present, there are no validated and reliable theory-based instruments to measure the factors.

    OBJECTIVES: The study aims to develop and validate scales (direct and indirect) based on a modified Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to measure factors associated with the provision of PCare for HDS users by Thai CPs.

    METHOD: Item generation for the scales was based on the theoretical constructs of the modified TPB framework, literature review, and authors' previous qualitative study. Draft items were then subjected to content validity and face validity. Psychometric testing was carried out among CPs in Bangkok, Thailand. Refinement of the scales utilized factor analysis and validity was assessed using factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Internal consistency reliability and construct reliability were used to assess the scales' reliability.

    RESULTS: Initially, the direct and indirect scales contained 15 and 28 items, respectively and were reduced to 12 and 16 items, after experts' review. Factor analysis further reduced the number of items of the indirect scale to 13. For both scales, confirmatory factor analysis showed model-data fit. Each construct of the direct scale was significant predictors of intention. Moreover, each construct of the direct scale correlated positively and significantly with the respective construct of the indirect scale, signifying concurrent validity. No misfit item was identified in the Rasch analysis and the majority of items were invariant across gender. Internal consistency reliability and construct reliability of the scales were acceptable.

    CONCLUSION: This study presents the development and validation of theoretically-grounded scales to measure the factors associated with the provision of PCare for HDS users by Thai CPs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements*
  13. Kareem KY, Hooi Ling F, Teck Chwen L, May Foong O, Anjas Asmara S
    Gut Pathog, 2014;6:23.
    PMID: 24991236 DOI: 10.1186/1757-4749-6-23
    The present study aimed to determine the inhibitory activity of postbiotic produced by L. plantarum using reconstituted media supplemented with different levels of inulin and to select the best combination based on the modified inhibitory activity (MAU/mL) against pathogens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements
  14. Ansari RM, Omar NS
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 May;24(3):1-4.
    PMID: 28814927 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.3.1
    Dietary health supplements for weight loss seem to be the future nowadays. However, this industry is plagued by lack of regulations and ignorance regarding the constituents of the supplements. Of all the supplements consumed, the ones for weight loss are most commonly found in the market. Reports of liver failure, kidney impairment and worsening of chronic ailments in patients who consume these supplements are surfacing recently which make us question the credibility of these products. The safety of these products lie in the clear stating of the ingredients by the manufacturer, well informed patient, knowledgeable physician and tight regulations from the regulatory board.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements
  15. Sazali S, Badrin S, Norhayati MN, Idris NS
    BMJ Open, 2021 01 05;11(1):e039358.
    PMID: 33402403 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039358
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) for reduction in the severity, frequency of migraine attacks and duration of headache in adult patients with migraine.

    DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Psychological Information Database (PsycINFO) from inception till December 2019.

    STUDY SELECTION: All randomised control trials comparing CoQ10 with placebo or used as an adjunct treatment included in this meta-analysis. Cross-over designs and controlled clinical trials were excluded.

    DATA SYNTHESIS: Heterogeneity at face value by comparing populations, settings, interventions and outcomes were measured and statistical heterogeneity was assessed by means of the I2 statistic. The treatment effect for dichotomous outcomes were using risk ratios and risk difference, and for continuous outcomes, mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean difference; both with 95% CIs were used. Subgroup analyses were carried out for dosage of CoQ10 and if CoQ10 combined with another supplementation. Sensitivity analysis was used to investigate the impact risk of bias for sequence generation and allocation concealment of included studies.

    RESULTS: Six studies with a total of 371 participants were included in the meta-analysis. There is no statistically significant reduction in severity of migraine headache with CoQ10 supplementation. CoQ10 supplementation reduced the duration of headache attacks compared with the control group (MD: -0.19; 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.11; random effects; I2 statistic=0%; p<0.00001). CoQ10 usage reduced the frequency of migraine headache compared with the control group (MD: -1.52; 95% CI: -2.40 to -0.65; random effects; I2 statistic=0%; p<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: CoQ10 appears to have beneficial effects in reducing duration and frequency of migraine attack.


    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements
  16. Wong AP, Kalinovsky T, Niedzwiecki A, Rath M
    Exp Ther Med, 2015 Sep;10(3):1071-1073.
    PMID: 26622441
    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by thickened, silvery-scaled patches. There is currently no cure and treatments only attempt to reduce the severity of symptoms. This study reports the case of a 36-year-old female who presented to the clinic with severe psoriasis and had been treated with topical steroid cream for the past 14 years. After adherence to prescribed dietary changes for 6 months, including abundant intake of vegetables, minimal consumption of meat, and avoidance of junk food and sugar in food or drinks, as well as nutritional supplementation with Vitacor Plus, ProLysinC, VitaCforte and LysinC Drink mix, the patient experienced complete resolution of psoriatic patches on her body.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements
  17. Teng, Sang-Chong, Esah Bahaman, Tang, Wen-Yen
    Although only 6.3% of the 221 respondents in this crass-sectional study stated outright that the hospital food served to them was not good, a high proportion of respondents ( 62.0%) supplemented ltaspimlfoad with outside food. When the reasons for supplementation were considered, it is likely that 53.8% ( $5.5%; 95% CI ) of the patients in this study were dissatisfied with hospimlfoudfar some reasons or when particularly with regards t0 variety, attractiveness and sewing lime. The pl‘0]701’l‘i011 of respondents wha were dissatisfied with hospital faud was significantly higher (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements
  18. See, E.F., Wan Nadiah, W.A., Noor Aziah, A.A.
    The objective of this project was to determine the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of bread supplemented with four different levels (control, 5%, 10%, and 15%) of pumpkin flour. The physical (weight, loaf volume, specific volume and oven spring) and chemical (moisture, protein, fat, fibre and ash) attributes were determined in the raw pumpkin, pumpkin flour (PF), control and supplemented breads. Sensory attributes were conducted on the control and supplemented breads. Increasing the level of substitution from 5% to 15% pumpkin flour significantly (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements
  19. Teng CL, Tey KK, Lim PH, Cheng SF, Nordin MS, Ng CM, et al.
    This is a questionnaire survey of dietary supplement usage among students in the International Medical University. Just over two-fifths of these students reported using dietary supplements daily. This high usage of dietary supplements is in contrast their expressed ambivalence about these products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements
  20. Atiya AS
    JUMMEC, 2002;7:28-39.
    This paper examines the results of a section on recent illness of the health survey among 799 foreign workers from three selected study locations. The main objective was to study illness/injury patterns and the utilisation of available health care services. It also attempts to examine the use of health supplements as an indicator of self-care. Findings indicate that the illness/injury rate was 46.6%. The illness/injury rate increased with age and was highest in the 45-54 age group (65.0%) and among the Thai workers (69.6%). The main illnesses reported were injuries and accidents (19.6%), musculoskeletal problems (18.0%) and gastrointestinal complaints (16.7%), and it varied with gender, age and nationality. Almost 90 percent of the foreign workers sought treatment at modern health care facilities, with a third utilising government health care services. The employers contributed towards 60% of all the treatment costs. Nearly a third of the foreign workers took health supplements, and the rates were higher among the younger age group (40.0%) and among the Indonesian workers (52.0%). Majority had obtained the health supplements from the pharmacies or retail shops (43.4%) and private health care facilities (35.4%), and about 70 percent paid out of their own pocket. Some of the implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Supplements
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