Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 302 in total

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  1. Lapeña JFF, Munk PL, Saw A, Peh WC
    Med J Aust, 2019 05;210(8):347-348.e1.
    PMID: 30945753 DOI: 10.5694/mja2.50131
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method*
  2. Mahlangu JN, Weldingh KN, Lentz SR, Kaicker S, Karim FA, Matsushita T, et al.
    J Thromb Haemost, 2015 Nov;13(11):1989-98.
    PMID: 26362483 DOI: 10.1111/jth.13141
    Vatreptacog alfa, a recombinant human factor VIIa (rFVIIa) analog developed to improve the treatment of bleeds in hemophilia patients with inhibitors, differs from native FVIIa by three amino acid substitutions. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover, confirmatory phase III trial (adept(™) 2), 8/72 (11%) hemophilia A or B patients with inhibitors treated for acute bleeds developed anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) to vatreptacog alfa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  3. Kamala F, Boo NY, Cheah FC, Birinder K
    Acta Paediatr, 2002;91(12):1350-6.
    PMID: 12578294
    AIM: To determine whether the addition of heparin to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) fluid would prevent blockage of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in neonates.

    METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled study of 66 eligible neonates with PICCs inserted for the administration of TPN. Infants were randomized to receive TPN containing either 1 IU ml(-1) of heparin (n = 35) or no heparin (n = 31).

    RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the incidence of blocked catheters between the two groups of infants (heparin: 14.3%; no-heparin: 22.6%, p = 0.4). Although a higher percentage (62.9%) of infants in the heparin group received a complete course of TPN successfully via PICC than those in the no-heparin group (48.4%), the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3). There were no significant differences in the incidence of catheter-related sepsis, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, coagulopathy or intraventricular haemorrhage between the two groups.

    CONCLUSION: Addition of heparin to TPN fluid was not associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of blocked PICCs. However, the sample size of this study was too small to exclude even rather marked differences between the groups.

    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  4. Jaradi H, Tay KH, Delilkan AE
    Med J Malaysia, 1989 Jun;44(2):143-6.
    PMID: 2626122
    The 'Priming principle' applied to non-depolarizing muscle relaxant atracurium was studied in 60 patients. This was a double blind study. The conditions observed for intubation were graded and the efficacy of priming dose of atracurium for shortening the onset time of intubation was studied. The patients were of ASA classification I and II and received standard premedication. The purpose of the study was to use the priming dose of atracurium to shorten the onset time of intubating dose of atracurium. This would be desirable in conditions requiring rapid intubation and in situations when the depolarizing muscle relaxant suxamethonium is contra-indicated. The results were statistically significant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  5. Yeoh AH, Tang SS, Abdul Manap N, Wan Mat WR, Said S, Che Hassan MR, et al.
    Turk J Med Sci, 2016 Apr 19;46(3):620-5.
    PMID: 27513234 DOI: 10.3906/sag-1502-56
    BACKGROUND/AIM: The effects of pericardium 6 (P6) electrical stimulation in patients at risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) following laparoscopic surgery were evaluated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients for laparoscopic surgery with at least one of the determined risks (nonsmoker, female, previous PONV/motion sickness, or postoperative opioid use) were randomized into either an active or sham group. At the end of surgery, Reletex electrical acustimulation was placed at the P6 acupoint. The active group had grade 3 strength and the sham group had inactivated electrodes covered by silicone. It was worn for 24 h following surgery. PONV scores were recorded.

    RESULTS: The active group had significantly shorter durations of surgery and lower PONV incidence over 24 h (35.1% versus 64.9%, P = 0.024) and this was attributed to the lower incidence of nausea (31.4% versus 68.6%, P = 0.006). The overall incidence of vomiting was not significantly different between the groups, but it was higher in the sham group of patients with PONV risk score 3 (23.9%, P = 0.049).

    CONCLUSION: In patients at high risk for PONV, P6 acupoint electrical stimulation lowers the PONV incidence by reducing the nausea component. However, this reduction in nausea is not related to increasing PONV risk scores.

    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  6. Muhd Helmi Azmi, Karis Misiran
    Medicine & Health, 2007;2(2):103-109.
    MyJurnal
    This was a prospective randomized double blind controlled study to compare intubating conditions at 60 seconds with rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg by using three different induction techniques: propofol-placebo (PP), propofol-ephedrine (PE) and propofol-placebo-crystalloid (PC). Ninety patients were included and randomly allocated to receive one of the three combinations. The  patients  were  induced  using  fentanyl 2 µg/kg,  followed by propofol 2.5 mg/kg with normal saline as placebo (Group PP and Group PC) or ephedrine 70  µg/kg  (Group PE)  given  over  30  seconds. Subsequently, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was given over five seconds and endotracheal intubations were performed 60 seconds later. Intubating conditions were clinically acceptable in all patients except in four patients in PP group, who had poor intubating conditions. The proportion of excellent intubating conditions was significantly highest in Group PE (94%) followed by Group PC (81%) and lowest in Group PP (50%). In conclusion, induction with propofol-ephedrine and propofol-placebo-crystalloid combinations rovided significantly better intubating conditions than propofol alone, when rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was used for intubation at 60 seconds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  7. Chan WK, Wong VW
    Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2019 10;4(10):747-749.
    PMID: 31345779 DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30183-9
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  8. Nagendrababu V, Aly Ahmed HM, Pulikkotil SJ, Veettil SK, Dharmarajan L, Setzer FC
    J Endod, 2019 Oct;45(10):1175-1183.e3.
    PMID: 31551112 DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2019.06.008
    INTRODUCTION: This systematic review compared the anesthetic efficacy between Gow-Gates (GG), Vazirani-Akinosi (VA), and mental incisive (MI) nerve blocks (NBs) with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANBs) in mandibular teeth with irreversible pulpitis using meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA).

    METHODS: Studies were identified from 4 electronic databases up to June 2019. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing the anesthetic success rate of GG, VA, and MI NBs with IANBs in mandibular premolars and molars with irreversible pulpitis were included. The quality of selected RCTs was appraised using the revised Cochrane risk of bias tool. Random-effects meta-analyses of risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and random errors were evaluated by TSA. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach.

    RESULTS: Five RCTs were included; 2 of them were classified as low risk of bias. No significant difference was observed in the anesthesia success rate compared between GG and IA NBs (RR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.82-1.48; I2 = 0%). Similarly, no difference was evident between MINB and IANB (RR = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.97-1.36; I2 = 0%). Overall, the cumulative success rates for the 3 anesthetic techniques were low. TSA showed a lack of firm evidence for the results of the meta-analysis between GG NB and IANB. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach evaluation showed that the evidence was of moderate quality for GG NB and IANB compared with low quality for MI and IA NBs. Because only 1 study was available comparing VA NB and IANB, a meta-analysis was not performed. The adverse effect associated with MI NB was swelling, whereas it was prolonged numbness for IANB.

    CONCLUSIONS: GG NB and IANB showed similar anesthetic efficacy compared with IANB in mandibular teeth with irreversible pulpitis. However, the success rates for each technique indicate the need for supplemental anesthesia. Further well-designed RCTs evaluating different anesthetic techniques with and without supplemental injection are required to provide stronger evidence.

    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  9. Theophilus SC, Adnan JS
    Malays J Med Sci, 2011 Jan;18(1):30-7.
    PMID: 22135571
    BACKGROUND: A double-blind randomised control study was conducted on all patients who were admitted or referred to the Department of Neurosurgery, Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor Bahru, with a diagnosis of hydrocephalus where a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was indicated.
    METHODS: The period of study was from November 2005 to May 2007, and the follow-up period was 3 months after surgery. Randomisation was carried out in the operating room prior to the procedure. The scrub nurse selected a sealed envelope, which contained the assignment of each patient to 1 of 2 treatment groups: Group 1 patients were treated with topical methicillin, and Group 2 patients were not treated with topical methicillin. Prophylactic antibiotic, cefuroxime (25 mg/kg) was given intravenously at induction. Standard sterile operative technique was followed in preparing and draping the patients.
    RESULTS: A total of 90 patients were recruited in the study, and 13 (14.4%) patients developed an infection within 3 months post-operation. Group 1 had a 8.9% risk of infection, and Group 2 had a 20% risk; however, there was no statistically significant post-operative ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) infection reduction with the use of topical methicillin in VPS surgery (P = 0.230). Multivariate analysis showed that only duration of surgery had a significant influence on the incidence of post-operative VPS infection in the non-methicillin group (P = 0.02). The non-methicillin group had an 8 times greater risk of developing post-operative VPS infection than the methicillin group if surgery lasted longer than 1 hour.
    CONCLUSION: Topical methicillin had no significance in the reduction of post-operative VPS infection.
    KEYWORDS: methicillin; neurosurgery; post-operative wound infection; topical administration; ventriculoperitoneal shunt
    Study site: Patient admitted or referred to Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  10. Cortes J, Cescon DW, Rugo HS, Nowecki Z, Im SA, Yusof MM, et al.
    Lancet, 2020 Dec 05;396(10265):1817-1828.
    PMID: 33278935 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32531-9
    BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab monotherapy showed durable antitumour activity and manageable safety in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. We aimed to examine whether the addition of pembrolizumab would enhance the antitumour activity of chemotherapy in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.

    METHODS: In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 3 trial, done in 209 sites in 29 countries, we randomly assigned patients 2:1 with untreated locally recurrent inoperable or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer using a block method (block size of six) and an interactive voice-response system with integrated web-response to pembrolizumab (200 mg) every 3 weeks plus chemotherapy (nab-paclitaxel; paclitaxel; or gemcitabine plus carboplatin) or placebo plus chemotherapy. Randomisation was stratified by type of on-study chemotherapy (taxane or gemcitabine-carboplatin), PD-L1 expression at baseline (combined positive score [CPS] ≥1 or <1), and previous treatment with the same class of chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting (yes or no). Eligibility criteria included age at least 18 years, centrally confirmed triple-negative breast cancer; at least one measurable lesion; provision of a newly obtained tumour sample for determination of triple-negative breast cancer status and PD-L1 status by immunohistochemistry at a central laboratory; an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score 0 or 1; and adequate organ function. The sponsor, investigators, other study site staff (except for the unmasked pharmacist), and patients were masked to pembrolizumab versus saline placebo administration. In addition, the sponsor, the investigators, other study site staff, and patients were masked to patient-level tumour PD-L1 biomarker results. Dual primary efficacy endpoints were progression-free survival and overall survival assessed in the PD-L1 CPS of 10 or more, CPS of 1 or more, and intention-to-treat populations. The definitive assessment of progression-free survival was done at this interim analysis; follow-up to assess overall survival is continuing. For progression-free survival, a hierarchical testing strategy was used, such that testing was done first in patients with CPS of 10 or more (prespecified statistical criterion was α=0·00411 at this interim analysis), then in patients with CPS of 1 or more (α=0·00111 at this interim analysis, with partial alpha from progression-free survival in patients with CPS of 10 or more passed over), and finally in the intention-to-treat population (α=0·00111 at this interim analysis). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02819518, and is ongoing.

    FINDINGS: Between Jan 9, 2017, and June 12, 2018, of 1372 patients screened, 847 were randomly assigned to treatment, with 566 patients in the pembrolizumab-chemotherapy group and 281 patients in the placebo-chemotherapy group. At the second interim analysis (data cutoff, Dec 11, 2019), median follow-up was 25·9 months (IQR 22·8-29·9) in the pembrolizumab-chemotherapy group and 26·3 months (22·7-29·7) in the placebo-chemotherapy group. Among patients with CPS of 10 or more, median progression-free survival was 9·7 months with pembrolizumab-chemotherapy and 5·6 months with placebo-chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] for progression or death, 0·65, 95% CI 0·49-0·86; one-sided p=0·0012 [primary objective met]). Median progression-free survival was 7·6 and 5·6 months (HR, 0·74, 0·61-0·90; one-sided p=0·0014 [not significant]) among patients with CPS of 1 or more and 7·5 and 5·6 months (HR, 0·82, 0·69-0·97 [not tested]) among the intention-to-treat population. The pembrolizumab treatment effect increased with PD-L1 enrichment. Grade 3-5 treatment-related adverse event rates were 68% in the pembrolizumab-chemotherapy group and 67% in the placebo-chemotherapy group, including death in <1% in the pembrolizumab-chemotherapy group and 0% in the placebo-chemotherapy group.

    INTERPRETATION: Pembrolizumab-chemotherapy showed a significant and clinically meaningful improvement in progression-free survival versus placebo-chemotherapy among patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer with CPS of 10 or more. These findings suggest a role for the addition of pembrolizumab to standard chemotherapy for the first-line treatment of metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.

    FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp, a subsidiary of Merck & Co, Inc.

    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  11. Ganason N, Sivanaser V, Liu CY, Maaya M, Ooi JSM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2019 Sep;26(5):132-138.
    PMID: 31728125 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.5.12
    Background: Endotracheal tube cuff (ETTc) inflation pressure is usually not regarded as an important aspect during intubation. In this study, we compared measuring ETTc pressure and pilot balloon palpation method in causing post-operative airway complications.

    Methods: Two hundred and ninety-two surgical patients requiring intubation were recruited into this prospective, double-blind, randomised controlled study. Group A patients had their ETTc initially inflated, checked by a cuff pressure gauge, recorded and then set to 25 cmH2O. Group B patients had their ETTc inflated using the pilot balloon palpation method. Patients were then followed up for post-operative sore throat, hoarseness and cough.

    Results: The overall incidence of post-operative sore throat was 39.0% versus 75.3% (P < 0.001), hoarseness 6.2% versus 15.1% (P < 0.05) and cough 7.5% versus 21.9% (P < 0.05) in Group A and B, respectively. Group A patients experienced a significant reduction in the incidence and severity of sore throat up to 24 h post-operatively (P < 0.001), hoarseness at the first hour (P = 0.004) and cough at first and 12 h post-operatively (P = 0.002).

    Conclusion: Adjusting the ETTc pressure to 25 cmH2O reduces post-operative sore throat, hoarseness and cough compared to pilot balloon palpation method.

    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  12. Tan PC, Norazilah MJ, Omar SZ
    Obstet Gynecol, 2013 Feb;121(2 Pt 1):291-298.
    PMID: 23232754 DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31827c5e99
    OBJECTIVE: To compare 5% dextrose-0.9% saline against 0.9% saline solution in the intravenous rehydration of hyperemesis gravidarum.

    METHODS: Women at their first hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum were enrolled on admission to the ward and randomly assigned to receive either 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline by intravenous infusion at a rate 125 mL/h over 24 hours in a double-blind trial. All participants also received thiamine and an antiemetic intravenously. Oral intake was allowed as tolerated. Primary outcomes were resolution of ketonuria and well-being (by 10-point visual numerical rating scale) at 24 hours. Nausea visual numerical rating scale scores were obtained every 8 hours for 24 hours.

    RESULTS: Persistent ketonuria rates after the 24-hour study period were 10 of 101 (9.9%) compared with 11 of 101 (10.9%) (P>.99; relative risk 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.4-2.2) and median (interquartile range) well-being scores at 24 hours were 9 (8-10) compared with 9 (8-9.5) (P=.73) in the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline and 0.9% saline arms, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance of the nausea visual numerical rating scale score as assessed every 8 hours during the 24-hour study period showed a significant difference in favor of the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline arm (P=.046) with the superiority apparent at 8 and 16 hours, but the advantage had dissipated by 24 hours. Secondary outcomes of vomiting, resolution of hyponatremia, hypochloremia and hypokalemia, length of hospitalization, duration of intravenous antiemetic, and rehydration were not different.

    CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous rehydration with 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline solution in women hospitalized for hyperemesis gravidarum produced similar outcomes.

    CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Register, www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn, ISRCTN65014409.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: I.

    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  13. Ab Wahab SZ, Abdul Kadir A, Nik Hussain NH, Omar J, Yunus R, Baie S, et al.
    PMID: 26101537 DOI: 10.1155/2015/849647
    Channa striatus has been consumed for decades as a remedy to promote wound healing by women during postpartum period. The objectives of this study were to compare postoperative pain, wound healing based on wound evaluation scale (WES), wound cosmetic appearance based on visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and patient satisfaction score (PSS), and safety profiles between C. striatus group and placebo group after six weeks of lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) delivery. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. Subjects were randomised in a ratio of 1 : 1 into either the C. striatus group (500 mg daily) or placebo group (500 mg of maltodextrin daily). 76 subjects were successfully randomised, with 38 in the C. striatus group and 35 in the placebo group. There were no significant differences in postoperative pain (p = 0.814) and WES (p = 0.160) between the C. striatus and placebo groups. However, VAS and PSS in the C. striatus group were significantly better compared with the placebo group (p = 0.014 and p < 0.001, resp.). The safety profiles showed no significant differences between the groups. In conclusion, six-week supplementation of 500 mg of C. striatus extract showed marked differences in wound cosmetic appearance and patient's satisfaction and is safe for human consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  14. Chelvam P, Goh KL, Leong YP, Leela MP, Yin TP, Ahmad H, et al.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 1989;4 Suppl 2:53-61.
    PMID: 2491362
    A double-blind randomized study in 230 Malaysian patients with duodenal ulcer was conducted to compare the proton-pump inhibitor, omeprazole 20 mg, given once daily in the morning, with ranitidine 300 mg, administered once daily at night. After 2 and 4 weeks of treatment, 222 and 220 patients, respectively, were evaluable according to the study protocol. Omeprazole produced significantly higher healing rates than ranitidine at both 2 weeks (75% versus 46%, respectively, P less than 0.0001) and 4 weeks (97% versus 83%, respectively, P = 0.001). Ulcer symptoms were relieved more rapidly by omeprazole than ranitidine. After 2 weeks, daytime epigastric pain was reported by 30% of ranitidine-treated patients but only by 15% of omeprazole-treated patients, which is a statistically significant difference (P = 0.004). No major clinical or biochemical side effects were recorded for either omeprazole or ranitidine. In conclusion, omeprazole 20 mg was found to be superior to ranitidine 300 mg administered once daily for the treatment of duodenal ulcer as measured by ulcer healing and pain relief.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  15. Lai, S.C., Choy, Y.C.
    MyJurnal
    This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study comparing the effect of remifentanil and fentanyl on cardiovascular responses from laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Forty-four ASA I or II patients aged between 18-65 yrs scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia, were recruited and randomized into two groups. Each patient in Group R received remifentanil of 0.5 mcg/kg bolus over 30 seconds followed by an infusion of 0.25 mcg/kg/min and each patient in Group F received fentanyl of 2 mcg/kg bolus over 30 seconds followed by an infusion of normal saline. Anaesthesia was then induced with propofol, rocuronium and 2% sevoflurane with 100% oxygen. Cardiovascular changes were recorded every minute for 3 minutes after induction and 5 minutes after tracheal intubation. The heart rate remained stable throughout the induction and intubation period in both groups. None of the patients in the remifentanil group develop bradycardia. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were significantly lower in the fentanyl group at the 3rd minute post-induction and 5th minute post- intubation (p < 0.05). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in the fentanyl group was significantly lower at the 2nd and 3rd minute post-induction and 4th and 5th minute post-intubation (p < 0.05). The blood pressure remained stable for the remifentanil group throughout the induction and intubation period. Six patients (27.2%) in the fentanyl group and one patient (4.5%) in the remifentanil group experienced hypertension. Three patients (13.7%) from each group experienced hypotensive episodes. In conclusion, remifentanil 0.5 mcg/kg bolus followed by 0.25 mcg/kg/min infusion resulted in SBP, MAP and DBP remained slightly lower than baseline throughout the whole period but still consider stable, as these changes were not statistically significant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  16. Malays J Nutr, 2001;7(1):-.
    MyJurnal
    It is essential to replace fluids lost so as to remain well hydrated during exercise. The intake of fluids is considered a physiological ergogenic aid to enhance exercise performance. There are currently several products in the market that are believed to have ergogenic properties which act as fluid replacement drinks during exercise. One such drink available in the Malaysian market is ‘AgroMas®’ herbal drink whose efficacy is yet to be proven. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the effects of acute ingestion of this herbal drink (H) or a coloured water placebo (P) on cycling performance. Nine healthy and trained young male cyclists (age: 16.2 ± 0.5 years) exercised on a cycle ergometer at 71.9 ± 0.7% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) until exhaustion on two occasions at 1-week intervals. During each exercise bout, subjects received 3ml kg-1 body weight of H or P every 20 min in a double-blind randomised study design. There was no significant difference between H and P trials in the total work time to exhaustion (83.7 ± 4.6 and 81.5 ± 5.0 min respectively). Changes in oxygen consumption, heart rate and perceived rate of exertion were similar for both types of drinks. These results demonstrate that the herbal drink and the placebo elicited similar physiological responses and exercise performance during endurance cycling. It is therefore concluded that AgroMas® herbal drink and water ingestion resulted in a similar ergogenic response on cycling performance in young cyclists.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  17. Forogh B, Ahadi T, Nazari M, Sajadi S, Abdul Latif L, Akhavan Hejazi SM, et al.
    Basic Clin Neurosci, 2017 Sep-Oct;8(5):405-411.
    PMID: 29167727 DOI: 10.18869/nirp.bcn.8.5.405
    Introduction: Balance impairment is a common problem and a major cause of motor disability after stroke. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether low-frequency repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) improves the postural balance problems in stroke patients.

    Methods: This randomized double blind clinical trial with 12 weeks follow-up was conducted on stroke patients. Treatment was carried with 1 Hz rTMS in contralateral brain hemisphere over the primary motor area for 20 minutes (1200 pulses) for 5 consecutive days. Static postural stability, Medical Research Council (MRC), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and Fugl-Meyer assessments were evaluated immediately, 3 weeks and 12 weeks after intervention.

    Results: A total of 26 patients were enrolled (age range=53 to 79 years; 61.5% were male) in this study. Administering rTMS produced a significant recovery based on BBS (df=86, 7; F=7.4; P=0.01), Fugl-Meyer Scale (df=86, 7; F=8.7; P<0.001), MRC score (df=87, 7; F=2.9; P=0.01), and static postural stability (df=87, 7; F=9.8; P<0.001) during the 12 weeks follow-up.

    Conclusion: According to the findings, rTMS as an adjuvant therapy may improve the static postural stability, falling risk, coordination, motor recovery, and muscle strength in patients with stroke.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  18. Antony-Leo AP, Arun-Maiya G, Mohan-Kumar M, Vijayaraghavan PV
    Malays Orthop J, 2019 Jul;13(2):20-27.
    PMID: 31467647 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1907.004
    Introduction: The key important factor influencing the outcomes following rehabilitation is the surgical approach involved in Total Knee Replacement (TKR). Most studies have analysed the functional outcome in comparing the approaches on surgical perspective rather on post-operative therapeutic interventions. The current study was to analyse the effects of structured TKR rehabilitation programme on the quality of life and joint specific outcomes between two different surgical approaches. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind randomised controlled trial, participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups: Group 1- those who underwent medial parapatellar approach and Group 2- those who underwent mid-vastus approach. Both groups received three-phase structured rehabilitation protocol for 12 weeks. The outcome measures of SF-36, knee mobility, isometric knee musculature strength and six-minute walk distance were measured at baseline, on discharge and at review after three months. Results: The quality of life and joint specific outcome scores were better in mid-vastus approach than the popular medial parapatellar approach. The outcomes of knee flexion mobility (p=0.04), knee extension mobility (p=0.03), isometric muscle strength of quadriceps (p=0.001), isometric muscle strength of hamstrings (p=0.03), six-minute walk distance (p=0.001) and Physical Cumulative Scores (PCS) (p=0.03) were found to exhibit significant improvements at three months follow up. Conclusion: The mid-vastus approach was found to exhibit better improvements following structured rehabilitation care, in physical summary scores of quality of life and joint specific outcomes than medial parapatellar approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  19. Nagendrababu V, Pulikkotil SJ, Suresh A, Veettil SK, Bhatia S, Setzer FC
    Int Endod J, 2019 Jun;52(6):779-789.
    PMID: 30638269 DOI: 10.1111/iej.13072
    The management of pain during root canal treatment is important. The aim of this systematic review and network meta-analysis was to identify the anaesthetic solution that would provide the best pulpal anaesthesia for inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB) treating mandibular teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Two electronic databases (PubMed and Scopus) were searched to identify studies up to October 2018. Randomized clinical trials comparing at least two anaesthetic solutions (lidocaine (lignocaine), articaine, bupivacaine, prilocaine or mepivacaine) used for IANB for treatment of irreversible pulpitis were included. The revised Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized trials was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Pairwise meta-analysis, network meta-analysis using a random-effects model, and SUCRA ranking were performed. The network meta-analysis estimated the probability of each treatment performing best. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations approach. In total, 11 studies (n = 750) were included in the meta-analysis. The network meta-analysis revealed that only mepivacaine significantly increased the success rate of IANB compared to lidocaine (RR, 1.42 [95% CI 1.04-1.95]). However, no significant differences in the success rate of IANB were observed between mepivacaine and other anaesthetic agents (articaine and bupivacaine). Of all anaesthetic agents, mepivacaine (SUCRA = 0.81) ranked first in increasing the success rate of IANB, followed by prilocaine (SUCRA = 0.62), articaine (SUCRA = 0.54), bupivacaine (SUCRA = 0.41) and lidocaine (SUCRA = 0.13). The overall quality of evidence was very low to moderate. In conclusion, based on the evidence from the randomized clinical trials included in this review, mepivacaine with epinephrine demonstrated the highest probability of providing effective pulpal anaesthesia using IANB for teeth with irreversible pulpitis compared to prilocaine, articaine, bupivacaine and lidocaine. Further, high-quality clinical trials are needed to support the conclusion of this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  20. Jacob PS, Sonia Nath
    Sains Malaysiana, 2013;42(5):685-692.
    Scaling and root planing is one of the most commonly performed procedures in a dental clinic. Most patients will consider the procedure to be causing discomfort or even pain. Intrasulcular topical application of anaesthesia will be preferred over injectable anaesthetic by patients for reduction of pain during scaling and root planing. A double blind split mouth pilot study was designed to find if pain was associated with scaling and root planing and to assess if application of topical anaesthesia reduced the pain. Twenty one patients were enrolled to compare the effect of intrasulcularly applied 20% benzocaine with a placebo in reducing pain during scaling and root planing. Heft Parker Visual analog scale was used to record the level of pain experienced by participants during instrumentation. Independent samples and paired samples t test were used for statistical analysis. There was significant pain associated with scaling and root planing with placebo over baseline (p<0.01). There was significant reduction in pain in benzocaine applied side when compared with placebo (p<0.001). Pain level approached baseline in benzocaine applied side. In this study, pain was effectively and significantly reduced with intrasulcular application of 20% benzocaine in periodontitis patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
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