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  1. Lapeña JFF, Munk PL, Saw A, Peh WC
    Med J Aust, 2019 05;210(8):347-348.e1.
    PMID: 30945753 DOI: 10.5694/mja2.50131
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method*
  2. Candelaria M, González DE, Delamain MT, Bär DO, Beniwal SK, Dasappa L, et al.
    Leuk Lymphoma, 2019 12;60(14):3375-3385.
    PMID: 31272251 DOI: 10.1080/10428194.2019.1633632
    This multicenter, double-blind, randomized study compared the efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PKs)/pharmacodynamics (PDs), safety and immunogenicity profile of RTXM83 vs. reference rituximab (R-rituximab), both with CHOP, as first-line treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A total of 272 patients <65 years of age, with good prognosis (136 per arm) were randomized (1:1) to receive six cycles of either RTXM83 or R-rituximab. The primary efficacy endpoint was achieved (overall response rate of 83.6% for RTXM83 and 82.9% for R-rituximab) with a difference 0.7% between arms (95%CI: [-8.77% to 10.17%]) fulfilling the predefined non-inferiority margin (-13%). Similar number of patients reported at least one adverse event (AE) (131 per arm) or one serious AE (47 with RTXM83 and 45 with R-rituximab). Anti-drug antibody development was comparable between the arms. PK/PD secondary endpoint results support similarity between the compounds. RTXM83 exhibits non-inferior efficacy and similar safety/immunogenicity to R-rituximab, being an accessible alternative for the treatment of patients with previously untreated DLBCL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  3. Tan AH, Lim SY, Mahadeva S, Loke MF, Tan JY, Ang BH, et al.
    Mov Disord, 2020 12;35(12):2250-2260.
    PMID: 32894625 DOI: 10.1002/mds.28248
    BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection has been associated with worse motor function in Parkinson's disease (PD).

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effects of HP eradication on PD symptoms.

    METHODS: In this parallel-group, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled, single-center trial, patients with PD with positive HP urea breath test and serology were block randomized (1:1) to receive standard eradication triple therapy or identically appearing placebo capsules for 1 week. Prespecified motor (International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society Unified PD Rating Scale [MDS-UPDRS], timed tests, and home-based wearable sensor measurements), nonmotor (Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire and Montreal Cognitive Assessment), and quality-of-life (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39) outcome measures were assessed at weeks 6, 12, 24, and 52. The primary outcome was the baseline-to-week 12 change in ON medication MDS-UPDRS motor scores. Lactulose-hydrogen breath testing for concomitant small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was performed at baseline and repeated at week 24, together with the urea breath test.

    RESULTS: A total of 310 patients were screened for eligibility and 80 were randomly assigned, of whom 67 were included in the full-analysis set (32 treatment group patients, 35 placebo patients). HP eradication did not improve MDS-UPDRS motor scores at week 12 (mean difference 2.6 points in favor of placebo, 95% confidence interval: -0.4 to 5.6, P = 0.089). There was no significant improvement in any motor, nonmotor, or quality-of-life outcome at weeks 12 and 52. Both the full-analysis and per-protocol analyses (based on eradication status) supported these conclusions. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth status did not influence treatment results.

    CONCLUSIONS: HP eradication does not improve clinical outcomes in PD, suggesting that there is no justification for routine HP screening or eradication with the goal of improving PD symptoms. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  4. Bosch J, Lonn EM, Jung H, Zhu J, Liu L, Lopez-Jaramillo P, et al.
    Eur Heart J, 2021 08 17;42(31):2995-3007.
    PMID: 33963372 DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehab225
    AIMS: Rosuvastatin (10 mg per day) compared with placebo reduced major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events by 24% in 12 705 participants at intermediate CV risk after 5.6 years. There was no benefit of blood pressure (BP) lowering treatment in the overall group, but a reduction in events in the third of participants with elevated systolic BP. After cessation of all the trial medications, we examined whether the benefits observed during the active treatment phase were sustained, enhanced, or attenuated.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: After the randomized treatment period (5.6 years), participants were invited to participate in 3.1 further years of observation (total 8.7 years). The first co-primary outcome for the entire length of follow-up was the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or CV death [major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE)-1], and the second was MACE-1 plus resuscitated cardiac arrest, heart failure, or coronary revascularization (MACE-2). In total, 9326 (78%) of 11 994 surviving Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE)-3 subjects consented to participate in extended follow-up. During 3.1 years of post-trial observation (total follow-up of 8.7 years), participants originally randomized to rosuvastatin compared with placebo had a 20% additional reduction in MACE-1 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-0.99] and a 17% additional reduction in MACE-2 (95% CI 0.68-1.01). Therefore, over the 8.7 years of follow-up, there was a 21% reduction in MACE-1 (95% CI 0.69-0.90, P = 0.005) and 21% reduction in MACE-2 (95% CI 0.69-0.89, P = 0.002). There was no benefit of BP lowering in the overall study either during the active or post-trial observation period, however, a 24% reduction in MACE-1 was observed over 8.7 years.

    CONCLUSION: The CV benefits of rosuvastatin, and BP lowering in those with elevated systolic BP, compared with placebo continue to accrue for at least 3 years after cessation of randomized treatment in individuals without cardiovascular disease indicating a legacy effect.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00468923.

    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  5. Mahlangu JN, Weldingh KN, Lentz SR, Kaicker S, Karim FA, Matsushita T, et al.
    J Thromb Haemost, 2015 Nov;13(11):1989-98.
    PMID: 26362483 DOI: 10.1111/jth.13141
    Vatreptacog alfa, a recombinant human factor VIIa (rFVIIa) analog developed to improve the treatment of bleeds in hemophilia patients with inhibitors, differs from native FVIIa by three amino acid substitutions. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover, confirmatory phase III trial (adept(™) 2), 8/72 (11%) hemophilia A or B patients with inhibitors treated for acute bleeds developed anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) to vatreptacog alfa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  6. Kamala F, Boo NY, Cheah FC, Birinder K
    Acta Paediatr, 2002;91(12):1350-6.
    PMID: 12578294
    AIM: To determine whether the addition of heparin to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) fluid would prevent blockage of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in neonates.

    METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled study of 66 eligible neonates with PICCs inserted for the administration of TPN. Infants were randomized to receive TPN containing either 1 IU ml(-1) of heparin (n = 35) or no heparin (n = 31).

    RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the incidence of blocked catheters between the two groups of infants (heparin: 14.3%; no-heparin: 22.6%, p = 0.4). Although a higher percentage (62.9%) of infants in the heparin group received a complete course of TPN successfully via PICC than those in the no-heparin group (48.4%), the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3). There were no significant differences in the incidence of catheter-related sepsis, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, coagulopathy or intraventricular haemorrhage between the two groups.

    CONCLUSION: Addition of heparin to TPN fluid was not associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of blocked PICCs. However, the sample size of this study was too small to exclude even rather marked differences between the groups.

    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  7. Jaradi H, Tay KH, Delilkan AE
    Med J Malaysia, 1989 Jun;44(2):143-6.
    PMID: 2626122
    The 'Priming principle' applied to non-depolarizing muscle relaxant atracurium was studied in 60 patients. This was a double blind study. The conditions observed for intubation were graded and the efficacy of priming dose of atracurium for shortening the onset time of intubation was studied. The patients were of ASA classification I and II and received standard premedication. The purpose of the study was to use the priming dose of atracurium to shorten the onset time of intubating dose of atracurium. This would be desirable in conditions requiring rapid intubation and in situations when the depolarizing muscle relaxant suxamethonium is contra-indicated. The results were statistically significant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  8. Yeoh AH, Tang SS, Abdul Manap N, Wan Mat WR, Said S, Che Hassan MR, et al.
    Turk J Med Sci, 2016 Apr 19;46(3):620-5.
    PMID: 27513234 DOI: 10.3906/sag-1502-56
    BACKGROUND/AIM: The effects of pericardium 6 (P6) electrical stimulation in patients at risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) following laparoscopic surgery were evaluated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients for laparoscopic surgery with at least one of the determined risks (nonsmoker, female, previous PONV/motion sickness, or postoperative opioid use) were randomized into either an active or sham group. At the end of surgery, Reletex electrical acustimulation was placed at the P6 acupoint. The active group had grade 3 strength and the sham group had inactivated electrodes covered by silicone. It was worn for 24 h following surgery. PONV scores were recorded.

    RESULTS: The active group had significantly shorter durations of surgery and lower PONV incidence over 24 h (35.1% versus 64.9%, P = 0.024) and this was attributed to the lower incidence of nausea (31.4% versus 68.6%, P = 0.006). The overall incidence of vomiting was not significantly different between the groups, but it was higher in the sham group of patients with PONV risk score 3 (23.9%, P = 0.049).

    CONCLUSION: In patients at high risk for PONV, P6 acupoint electrical stimulation lowers the PONV incidence by reducing the nausea component. However, this reduction in nausea is not related to increasing PONV risk scores.

    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  9. Muhd Helmi Azmi, Karis Misiran
    Medicine & Health, 2007;2(2):103-109.
    MyJurnal
    This was a prospective randomized double blind controlled study to compare intubating conditions at 60 seconds with rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg by using three different induction techniques: propofol-placebo (PP), propofol-ephedrine (PE) and propofol-placebo-crystalloid (PC). Ninety patients were included and randomly allocated to receive one of the three combinations. The  patients  were  induced  using  fentanyl 2 µg/kg,  followed by propofol 2.5 mg/kg with normal saline as placebo (Group PP and Group PC) or ephedrine 70  µg/kg  (Group PE)  given  over  30  seconds. Subsequently, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was given over five seconds and endotracheal intubations were performed 60 seconds later. Intubating conditions were clinically acceptable in all patients except in four patients in PP group, who had poor intubating conditions. The proportion of excellent intubating conditions was significantly highest in Group PE (94%) followed by Group PC (81%) and lowest in Group PP (50%). In conclusion, induction with propofol-ephedrine and propofol-placebo-crystalloid combinations rovided significantly better intubating conditions than propofol alone, when rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was used for intubation at 60 seconds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  10. Chan WK, Wong VW
    Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2019 10;4(10):747-749.
    PMID: 31345779 DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30183-9
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  11. Nagendrababu V, Aly Ahmed HM, Pulikkotil SJ, Veettil SK, Dharmarajan L, Setzer FC
    J Endod, 2019 Oct;45(10):1175-1183.e3.
    PMID: 31551112 DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2019.06.008
    INTRODUCTION: This systematic review compared the anesthetic efficacy between Gow-Gates (GG), Vazirani-Akinosi (VA), and mental incisive (MI) nerve blocks (NBs) with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANBs) in mandibular teeth with irreversible pulpitis using meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA).

    METHODS: Studies were identified from 4 electronic databases up to June 2019. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing the anesthetic success rate of GG, VA, and MI NBs with IANBs in mandibular premolars and molars with irreversible pulpitis were included. The quality of selected RCTs was appraised using the revised Cochrane risk of bias tool. Random-effects meta-analyses of risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and random errors were evaluated by TSA. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach.

    RESULTS: Five RCTs were included; 2 of them were classified as low risk of bias. No significant difference was observed in the anesthesia success rate compared between GG and IA NBs (RR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.82-1.48; I2 = 0%). Similarly, no difference was evident between MINB and IANB (RR = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.97-1.36; I2 = 0%). Overall, the cumulative success rates for the 3 anesthetic techniques were low. TSA showed a lack of firm evidence for the results of the meta-analysis between GG NB and IANB. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach evaluation showed that the evidence was of moderate quality for GG NB and IANB compared with low quality for MI and IA NBs. Because only 1 study was available comparing VA NB and IANB, a meta-analysis was not performed. The adverse effect associated with MI NB was swelling, whereas it was prolonged numbness for IANB.

    CONCLUSIONS: GG NB and IANB showed similar anesthetic efficacy compared with IANB in mandibular teeth with irreversible pulpitis. However, the success rates for each technique indicate the need for supplemental anesthesia. Further well-designed RCTs evaluating different anesthetic techniques with and without supplemental injection are required to provide stronger evidence.

    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  12. Theophilus SC, Adnan JS
    Malays J Med Sci, 2011 Jan;18(1):30-7.
    PMID: 22135571
    BACKGROUND: A double-blind randomised control study was conducted on all patients who were admitted or referred to the Department of Neurosurgery, Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor Bahru, with a diagnosis of hydrocephalus where a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was indicated.
    METHODS: The period of study was from November 2005 to May 2007, and the follow-up period was 3 months after surgery. Randomisation was carried out in the operating room prior to the procedure. The scrub nurse selected a sealed envelope, which contained the assignment of each patient to 1 of 2 treatment groups: Group 1 patients were treated with topical methicillin, and Group 2 patients were not treated with topical methicillin. Prophylactic antibiotic, cefuroxime (25 mg/kg) was given intravenously at induction. Standard sterile operative technique was followed in preparing and draping the patients.
    RESULTS: A total of 90 patients were recruited in the study, and 13 (14.4%) patients developed an infection within 3 months post-operation. Group 1 had a 8.9% risk of infection, and Group 2 had a 20% risk; however, there was no statistically significant post-operative ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) infection reduction with the use of topical methicillin in VPS surgery (P = 0.230). Multivariate analysis showed that only duration of surgery had a significant influence on the incidence of post-operative VPS infection in the non-methicillin group (P = 0.02). The non-methicillin group had an 8 times greater risk of developing post-operative VPS infection than the methicillin group if surgery lasted longer than 1 hour.
    CONCLUSION: Topical methicillin had no significance in the reduction of post-operative VPS infection.
    KEYWORDS: methicillin; neurosurgery; post-operative wound infection; topical administration; ventriculoperitoneal shunt
    Study site: Patient admitted or referred to Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  13. Aribi Al-Zoobaee FW, Yee Shen L, Veettil SK, Gopinath D, Maharajan MK, Menon RK
    PMID: 33265920 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17238891
    Cancer therapy may be complicated and compromised by viral infections, including oral herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. This network meta-analysis aimed to identify the best antiviral agent to prevent or treat oral HSV infection in patients being treated for cancer. A search was conducted for trials published since inception until the 10th of May 2020 in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. A network meta-analysis was performed on the data from randomized controlled trials that assessed antiviral agents for preventive or therapeutic activity vs. placebo, no treatment or any other active intervention in patients being treated for cancer. The agents were ranked according to their effectiveness in the prevention of oral HSV using surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA). Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) was used to assess the certainty of the evidence. In total, 16 articles were included. The pooled relative risk (RR) to develop oral HSV infection in the acyclovir group was 0.17 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.30), compared to 0.22 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.77) in the valacyclovir group. Acyclovir ranked highest for the prevention of oral HSV followed by valacyclovir. Subgroup analysis with different acyclovir regimens revealed that the best regimens in terms of HSV-1 prevention were 750 mg/m2 acyclovir administered intravenously followed by 1600 mg per day orally. Acyclovir (250 mg/m2 per day) administered intravenously was the least effective against the prevention of oral HSV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  14. Ganason N, Sivanaser V, Liu CY, Maaya M, Ooi JSM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2019 Sep;26(5):132-138.
    PMID: 31728125 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.5.12
    Background: Endotracheal tube cuff (ETTc) inflation pressure is usually not regarded as an important aspect during intubation. In this study, we compared measuring ETTc pressure and pilot balloon palpation method in causing post-operative airway complications.

    Methods: Two hundred and ninety-two surgical patients requiring intubation were recruited into this prospective, double-blind, randomised controlled study. Group A patients had their ETTc initially inflated, checked by a cuff pressure gauge, recorded and then set to 25 cmH2O. Group B patients had their ETTc inflated using the pilot balloon palpation method. Patients were then followed up for post-operative sore throat, hoarseness and cough.

    Results: The overall incidence of post-operative sore throat was 39.0% versus 75.3% (P < 0.001), hoarseness 6.2% versus 15.1% (P < 0.05) and cough 7.5% versus 21.9% (P < 0.05) in Group A and B, respectively. Group A patients experienced a significant reduction in the incidence and severity of sore throat up to 24 h post-operatively (P < 0.001), hoarseness at the first hour (P = 0.004) and cough at first and 12 h post-operatively (P = 0.002).

    Conclusion: Adjusting the ETTc pressure to 25 cmH2O reduces post-operative sore throat, hoarseness and cough compared to pilot balloon palpation method.

    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  15. Kumarasamy G, Ramli RR, Singh H, Abdullah B
    J Complement Integr Med, 2020 Dec 21;18(2):433-438.
    PMID: 34187130 DOI: 10.1515/jcim-2020-0001
    OBJECTIVES: Recurrence rate of nasal polyps is high following endoscopic sinus surgery. To improve the surgical outcome, steroid impregnated nasal dressing is used postoperatively We aimed to compare the effect of Tualang honey impregnated nasal dressing with steroid impregnated nasal dressing on wound healing and surgical outcomes in post endoscopic sinus surgery patients.

    METHODS: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was carried out at two tertiary hospitals. 32 patients diagnosed with chronic rhinosinusitis and had underwent endoscopic sinus surgery were enrolled. The study group received 2 mL of Tualang honey nasal dressing and the control group received nasal dressing with 2 mL of triamcinolone 20 mg/mL as positive control. A 2 cm nasal dressing was placed longitudinally into the middle meatuses of both nasal cavities. Postoperative healing assessments of edema, crusting, secretions, scarring and symptoms were performed at postoperative day 7, 14, 28 and at 3 months using Sinonasal Outcome Test 22 questionnaire and modified Lund-Kennedy scoring system.

    RESULTS: There were no significant differences noted in the scores of Sinonasal Outcome Test 22 and modified Lund-Kennedy at Day 7, 14 and 28 (p>0.05) for both groups. At 3rd month, patients in the triamcinolone group had lesser symptoms and better endoscopic findings (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Tualang honey is not as effective as steroid in achieving good wound healing and surgical outcomes in post endoscopic sinus surgery patients. Thus, it is not suitable as a substitute for steroid to reduce symptoms and prevent recurrence of disease.

    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  16. Kato J, Baba M, Kuroha M, Kakehi Y, Murayama E, Wasaki Y, et al.
    Clin Ther, 2021 05;43(5):822-835.e16.
    PMID: 34059327 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2021.03.015
    PURPOSE: Mirogabalin besylate has been approved in several countries to treat peripheral neuropathic pain. This pooled analysis, using data from the two pivotal Phase III studies in Asian patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and post-herpetic neuralgia, aimed to provide clinicians with more detailed and precise information relating to mirogabalin's safety and efficacy.

    METHODS: Data were pooled from 2 multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, 14-week treatment studies of mirogabalin conducted at ∼350 study sites (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand). Eligible patients in both studies were randomized in a 2:1:1:1 ratio, stratified according to a baseline average daily pain score (ADPS) of <6 or ≥6, to placebo, mirogabalin 15-mg once daily (QD), mirogabalin 10-mg twice daily (BID), or mirogabalin 15-mg BID treatment groups. Safety was assessed based on treatment-emergent adverse events identified from the adverse events collected throughout both studies. The primary efficacy end point of both studies was the change from baseline in ADPS at week 14.

    FINDINGS: In total, 1587 patients (824 with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain; 763 with post-herpetic neuralgia) who received at least 1 dose of study drug were analyzed (633 received placebo, 954 treated with mirogabalin). Treatment-emergent adverse events included somnolence (3.8%, 10.8%, 14.5%, and 19.1%) and dizziness (2.7%, 5.7%, 9.1%, and 13.1%) in patients receiving placebo, mirogabalin 15 mg QD, mirogabalin 10 mg BID, and mirogabalin 15 mg BID, respectively. In patients treated with mirogabalin 15 mg QD, 2 (0.6%) of 316 patients discontinued due to somnolence. In the mirogabalin 10-mg BID group, somnolence, edema, and peripheral edema each resulted in 3 (0.9%) of 318 patient discontinuations. In the mirogabalin 15-mg BID group, 6 (1.9%) of 320 patients discontinued due to dizziness and 3 (0.9%) due to somnolence. At week 14, mirogabalin 10 mg BID and 15 mg BID statistically significantly improved ADPS versus placebo, with least squares mean changes (95% CI) of -0.31 (-0.55, -0.08) and -0.63 (-0.86, -0.40). Post hoc analysis showed a statistically significant difference 2 days after administration in the mirogabalin 10-mg and 15-mg BID groups compared with placebo. Female sex, age ≥65 years, and baseline weight <60 kg may influence the safety of mirogabalin, particularly regarding the incidence of somnolence and dizziness, but had no notable impact on efficacy. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT02318706 and NCT02318719.

    IMPLICATIONS: This pooled analysis showed that mirogabalin was efficacious and well-tolerated by Asian patients with peripheral neuropathic pain.

    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  17. Tan PC, Norazilah MJ, Omar SZ
    Obstet Gynecol, 2013 Feb;121(2 Pt 1):291-298.
    PMID: 23232754 DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31827c5e99
    OBJECTIVE: To compare 5% dextrose-0.9% saline against 0.9% saline solution in the intravenous rehydration of hyperemesis gravidarum.

    METHODS: Women at their first hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum were enrolled on admission to the ward and randomly assigned to receive either 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline by intravenous infusion at a rate 125 mL/h over 24 hours in a double-blind trial. All participants also received thiamine and an antiemetic intravenously. Oral intake was allowed as tolerated. Primary outcomes were resolution of ketonuria and well-being (by 10-point visual numerical rating scale) at 24 hours. Nausea visual numerical rating scale scores were obtained every 8 hours for 24 hours.

    RESULTS: Persistent ketonuria rates after the 24-hour study period were 10 of 101 (9.9%) compared with 11 of 101 (10.9%) (P>.99; relative risk 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.4-2.2) and median (interquartile range) well-being scores at 24 hours were 9 (8-10) compared with 9 (8-9.5) (P=.73) in the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline and 0.9% saline arms, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance of the nausea visual numerical rating scale score as assessed every 8 hours during the 24-hour study period showed a significant difference in favor of the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline arm (P=.046) with the superiority apparent at 8 and 16 hours, but the advantage had dissipated by 24 hours. Secondary outcomes of vomiting, resolution of hyponatremia, hypochloremia and hypokalemia, length of hospitalization, duration of intravenous antiemetic, and rehydration were not different.

    CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous rehydration with 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline solution in women hospitalized for hyperemesis gravidarum produced similar outcomes.

    CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Register, www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn, ISRCTN65014409.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: I.

    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  18. Ab Wahab SZ, Abdul Kadir A, Nik Hussain NH, Omar J, Yunus R, Baie S, et al.
    PMID: 26101537 DOI: 10.1155/2015/849647
    Channa striatus has been consumed for decades as a remedy to promote wound healing by women during postpartum period. The objectives of this study were to compare postoperative pain, wound healing based on wound evaluation scale (WES), wound cosmetic appearance based on visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and patient satisfaction score (PSS), and safety profiles between C. striatus group and placebo group after six weeks of lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) delivery. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. Subjects were randomised in a ratio of 1 : 1 into either the C. striatus group (500 mg daily) or placebo group (500 mg of maltodextrin daily). 76 subjects were successfully randomised, with 38 in the C. striatus group and 35 in the placebo group. There were no significant differences in postoperative pain (p = 0.814) and WES (p = 0.160) between the C. striatus and placebo groups. However, VAS and PSS in the C. striatus group were significantly better compared with the placebo group (p = 0.014 and p < 0.001, resp.). The safety profiles showed no significant differences between the groups. In conclusion, six-week supplementation of 500 mg of C. striatus extract showed marked differences in wound cosmetic appearance and patient's satisfaction and is safe for human consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  19. Chelvam P, Goh KL, Leong YP, Leela MP, Yin TP, Ahmad H, et al.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 1989;4 Suppl 2:53-61.
    PMID: 2491362
    A double-blind randomized study in 230 Malaysian patients with duodenal ulcer was conducted to compare the proton-pump inhibitor, omeprazole 20 mg, given once daily in the morning, with ranitidine 300 mg, administered once daily at night. After 2 and 4 weeks of treatment, 222 and 220 patients, respectively, were evaluable according to the study protocol. Omeprazole produced significantly higher healing rates than ranitidine at both 2 weeks (75% versus 46%, respectively, P less than 0.0001) and 4 weeks (97% versus 83%, respectively, P = 0.001). Ulcer symptoms were relieved more rapidly by omeprazole than ranitidine. After 2 weeks, daytime epigastric pain was reported by 30% of ranitidine-treated patients but only by 15% of omeprazole-treated patients, which is a statistically significant difference (P = 0.004). No major clinical or biochemical side effects were recorded for either omeprazole or ranitidine. In conclusion, omeprazole 20 mg was found to be superior to ranitidine 300 mg administered once daily for the treatment of duodenal ulcer as measured by ulcer healing and pain relief.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
  20. Lai, S.C., Choy, Y.C.
    MyJurnal
    This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study comparing the effect of remifentanil and fentanyl on cardiovascular responses from laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Forty-four ASA I or II patients aged between 18-65 yrs scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia, were recruited and randomized into two groups. Each patient in Group R received remifentanil of 0.5 mcg/kg bolus over 30 seconds followed by an infusion of 0.25 mcg/kg/min and each patient in Group F received fentanyl of 2 mcg/kg bolus over 30 seconds followed by an infusion of normal saline. Anaesthesia was then induced with propofol, rocuronium and 2% sevoflurane with 100% oxygen. Cardiovascular changes were recorded every minute for 3 minutes after induction and 5 minutes after tracheal intubation. The heart rate remained stable throughout the induction and intubation period in both groups. None of the patients in the remifentanil group develop bradycardia. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were significantly lower in the fentanyl group at the 3rd minute post-induction and 5th minute post- intubation (p < 0.05). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in the fentanyl group was significantly lower at the 2nd and 3rd minute post-induction and 4th and 5th minute post-intubation (p < 0.05). The blood pressure remained stable for the remifentanil group throughout the induction and intubation period. Six patients (27.2%) in the fentanyl group and one patient (4.5%) in the remifentanil group experienced hypertension. Three patients (13.7%) from each group experienced hypotensive episodes. In conclusion, remifentanil 0.5 mcg/kg bolus followed by 0.25 mcg/kg/min infusion resulted in SBP, MAP and DBP remained slightly lower than baseline throughout the whole period but still consider stable, as these changes were not statistically significant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Double-Blind Method
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