METHODS: The antioxidant activity of E. indica was evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The total phenolic content of E. indica was also determined. Biochemical parameters [e.g. alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase] were used to evaluate hepatic damage in animals pretreated with E. indica and intoxicated with CCl₄. CCl₄-mediated hepatic damage was also evaluated by histopathologically.
RESULTS: E. indica extract was able to reduce the stable DPPH level in a dose-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) value was 2350 μg/ml. Total phenolic content was found to be 14.9 ± 0.002 mg/g total phenolic expressed as gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract. Groups pretreated with E. indica showed significantly increased activity of antioxidant enzymes compared to the CCl₄-intoxicated group (p < 0.05). The increased levels of serum ALT and AST were significantly prevented by E. indica pretreatment (p < 0.05). The extent of MDA formation due to lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced (p < 0.05), and reduced GSH was significantly increased in a dose-dependently manner (p < 0.05) in the E. indica-pretreated groups as compared to the CCl₄-intoxicated group. The protective effect of E. indica was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations in the liver.
CONCLUSION: The results of our study indicate that the hepatoprotective effects of E. indica might be ascribable to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property.
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effect of methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MMCL) on hepatic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in CCl4-induced hepatotoxic rat.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats (n = 6) were treated (p.o.) with 10% DMSO (Groups 1 and 2), 50 mg/kg N-acetylcysteine (Group 3) or, 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg MMCL (Groups 4-6) for 7 consecutive days followed by pretreatment (i.p.) with vehicle (Group 1) or 50% CCl4 in olive oil (v/v) (Groups 2-6) on day 7th. Plasma liver enzymes and hepatic antioxidant enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines concentrations were measured while liver histopathology was examined.
RESULTS: MMCL, at 500 mg/kg, significantly (p liver catalase (92.1 versus 114.4 U/g tissue) and superoxide dismutase (3.4 versus 5.5 U/g tissue). Additionally, qualitative phytochemicals analysis showed that MMCL contained gallic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and genistein.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: MMCL ability to attenuate CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity could be helpful in the development of hepatoprotective agents with fewer side effects.
METHODS: The antioxidant property of methanolic extract (ME) of C. ternatea leaf was investigated by employing an established in vitro antioxidant assay. The hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in mice of ME of C. ternatea leaf was also studied. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and billirubin along with histopathological analysis.
RESULTS: The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 358.99 ± 6.21 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 123.75 ± 2.84 mg/g catechin equivalent, respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. ternatea leaf extract was 67.85% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and was also concentration dependant, with an IC(50) value of 420.00 µg/mL. The results of the paracetamol-induced liver toxicity experiments showed that mice treated with the ME of C. ternatea leaf (200 mg/kg) showed a significant decrease in ALT, AST, and bilirubin levels, which were all elevated in the paracetamol group (p < 0.01). C. ternatea leaf extract therapy also protective effects against histopathological alterations. Histological studies supported the biochemical findings and a maximum improvement in the histoarchitecture was seen.
CONCLUSIONS: The current study confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of C. ternatea leaf extract against the model hepatotoxicant paracetamol. The hepatoprotective action is likely related to its potent antioxidative activity.