The role of selenium (Se) in human health and diseases has been discussed in detail in several recent reviews, with the main conclusion being that selenium deficiency is recognised as a global problem which urgently needs resolution. Since selenium content in plant-based food depends on its availability from soil, the level of this element in food and feeds varies among regions. In general, eggs and meat are considered to be good sources of selenium in human diet. When considering ways to improve human selenium intake, there are several potential options. These include direct supplementation, soil fertilisation and supplementation of food staples such as flour, and production of functional foods. Analysing recent publications related to functional food production, it is evident that selenium-enriched eggs can be used as an important delivery system of this trace mineral for humans. In particular, developments and commercialisation of organic forms of selenium have initiated a new era in the availability of selenium-enriched products. It has been shown that egg selenium content can easily be manipulated to give increased levels, especially when organic selenium is included in hens' diet at levels that provide 0.3-0.5 mg/kg selenium in the feed. As a result, technology for the production of eggs delivering approximately 50% (30-35 microg) of the human selenium RDA have been developed and successfully tested. Currently companies all over the world market selenium-enriched eggs including the UK, Ireland, Mexico, Columbia, Malaysia, Thailand, Australia, Turkey, Russia and the Ukraine. Prices for enriched eggs vary from country to country, typically being similar to free-range eggs. Selenium-enriched chicken, pork and beef can also be produced when using organic selenium in the diet of poultry and farm animals. The scientific, technological and other advantages and limitations of producing designer/modified eggs as functional foods are discussed in this review.
A prospective field study was carried out to investigate any preferential differences of gravid female Aedes mosquitoes in ovipositing their eggs in man-made containers placed in different environmental conditions. The findings of this study show that gravid female Aedes mosquitoes preferred to breed in containers found in the outdoor garden than those placed on the patio and or inside the house. The findings also show that if the breeding habitats in the garden were removed, they would favorably use the breeding habitats found on the patio or inside the house as alternatives. An incidental interesting finding in this study shows that ultra-low volume fogging of insecticides using the vehicle-mounted equipment carried out outside the house may promote the gravid female Aedes mosquitoes to enter the house to breed.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a floor gully come with grating to prevent the oviposition of Aedes aegypti in the floor trap. In order to conduct the test, two containers were placed into a mosquito cage (30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm). Both containers were filled with declorinated seasoned tap water and covered with floor gully c/w grating and normal floor gully, respectively. A total of 50 gravid Ae. aegypti females were then released into the cage and left for a week. All the eggs obtained from the test were allowed to remain inside the containers for the eggs to hatch. The number of hatched larvae was counted and recorded. Five replicates were conducted concurrently. There was a significant difference of Ae. aegypti larvae obtained between container with floor gully c/w grating and normal floor gully (p < 0.05). A total of 96.41% reduction of Ae. aegypti larvae was obtained in the container with floor gully c/w grating compared with the normal floor gully, indicating that the floor gully c/w grating used in this study was able to prevent oviposition of Ae. aegypti in holding water.
The breeding activities of the Dwarf Toad, Ingerophrynus parvus were observed under natural conditions at Sungai Junjong, Kulim, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia for a period of 12 months. Breeding parameters, such as calling activities, amplecant pairs, eggs deposition and presence of tadpoles were examined every week in each month. Pearson correlation was used to analyse the relationship between rainfall and each breeding parameter. The results showed positive relationships between rainfall and calling activities (r=0.74), between rainfall and amplexus activities (r=0.52), and between rainfall and spawning activities (0.81).
To understand the effects of fish predator’s kairomones on Aedes mosquitoes’
oviposition, we established an experiment using gravid Aedes females. Kairomones
concentrations were established using Hampala macrolepidota. One individual fish was
placed inside containers with varying water levels (1 L, 5 L, and 10 L of water). The fish
were kept in the containers for 24 hours and were removed immediately at the start of
each trial in order to have the kairomones remnants. Twenty gravid adult females of
Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were allowed to lay eggs on oviposition site with
various treatments: (1) control without any kairomones; (2) kairomone remnant in 1 L of
water; (3) kairomone remnant in 5 L of water; and (4) kairomone remnant in 10 L of water.
There are significant differences between the numbers of eggs laid by both Aedes species
for each different treatment (F = 9.131, df = 16, p
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)-such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)-and heavy metals have been reported in sea turtles at various stages of their life cycle. These chemicals can disrupt development and function of wildlife. Furthermore, in areas such as Peninsular Malaysia, where the human consumption of sea turtle eggs is prevalent, egg contamination may also have public health implications.
The effect of preparation methods (raw, half-boiled and hard-boiled) on protein and amino acid contents, as well as the protein quality (amino acid score) of regular, kampung and nutrient enriched Malaysian eggs was investigated.
The protein content was determined using a semi-micro Kjeldahl method whereas the amino acid composition was determined using HPLC.
The protein content of raw regular, kampung and nutrient enriched eggs were 49.9 ±0.2%, 55.8 ±0.2% and 56.5 ±0.5%, respectively. The protein content of hard-boiled eggs of regular, kampung and nutrient enriched eggs was 56.8 ±0.1%, 54.7 ±0.1%, and 53.7 ±0.5%, while that for half-boiled eggs of regular, kampung and nutrient enriched eggs was 54.7 ±0.6%, 53.4 ±0.4%, and 55.1 ±0.7%, respectively. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in protein and amino acid contents of half-boiled, hard-boiled as compared with raw samples, and valine was found as the limiting amino acid. It was found that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) of total amino score in regular, kampung and nutrient enriched eggs after heat treatments.Furthermore, hard-boiling (100°C) for 10 minutes and half-boiling (100°C) for 5 minutes affects the total amino score, which in turn alter the protein quality of the egg.
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are often instructed to adhere to a renal-specific diet depending on the severity and stage of their kidney disease. The prescribed diet may limit certain nutrients, such as phosphorus and potassium, or encourage the consumption of others, such as high biological value (HBV) proteins. Eggs are an inexpensive, easily available and high-quality source of protein, as well as a rich source of leucine, an essential amino acid that plays a role in muscle protein synthesis. However, egg yolk is a concentrated source of both phosphorus and the trimethylamine N-oxide precursor, choline, both of which may have potentially harmful effects in CKD. The yolk is also an abundant source of cholesterol which has been extensively studied for its effects on lipoprotein cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Efforts to reduce dietary cholesterol to manage dyslipidemia in dialysis patients (already following a renal diet) have not been shown to offer additional benefit. There is a paucity of data regarding the impact of egg consumption on lipid profiles of CKD patients. Additionally, egg consumption has not been associated with the risk of developing CKD based on epidemiological studies. The egg yolk also contains bioactive compounds, including lutein, zeaxanthin, and vitamin D, which may confer health benefits in CKD patients. Here we review research on egg intake and CKD, discuss both potential contraindications and favorable effects of egg consumption, and describe the need for further research examining egg intake and outcomes in the CKD and end-stage renal disease population.
This article presents an overview of long acting products used in animal health, production
and reproduction. The topic represents a niche field of controlled release that few formulation scientists become specialists and experts in, but it is a field which has made significant contribution to the area of controlled release technology, and one which is of major importance to human kind due to their dependence on farmed animals as a source of hide, protein, milk and eggs.
The aim of this study were to find out the physicochemical characteristics of cholesterol-reduced egg yolk powder and its application in the production of mayonnaises. Cholesterol-reduced egg yolk powder (CREYP) were prepared from removal of cholesterol by formation of cholesterol:β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex. The physicochemical characteristics of CREYP and NEYP were foaming capacity (FC): 1.96%, 4%; foaming stability (FS): 96.48%, 94.55%; emulsion capacity (EC): 59.82%, 58.43% and emulsion stability (ES): 43.94%, 41.48% respectively. Whereas the viscosity of CREY, NEY and commercial mayonnaises were 8000, 4768 and 6747 cP respectively. The lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), saturation (C*) and hue angle (h°) values for CREYP and NEYP results showed significantly different (p>0.05) for all chroma values with CREYP showed higher L* and h° values but lower in a*, b* and C* values showing that the yellow colour of NEYP lessened. Commercial mayonnaise appeared to be lighter and less yellowish than CREY mayonnaises with L* and b* values of
commercial to CREY mayonnaises were L*: 78.34; 63.78% and b*: 8.29; 14.98% respectively. It can be concluded that CREYP can be used as replace to the NEYP and whole liquid egg yolk
with enhance nutritional values. The results obtained from this study will be very useful for producing CREYP.
The nesting of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) was monitored from 1998 untill 2013 along the beaches of Pasir Panjang, Segari, Perak. The objective of the study is to assess the nesting status of green turtles in Perak, Peninsular Malaysia in terms of total nests, eggs, survival hatchings, and density of visitors. A total number of green turtle nests found for 16 years were 1,019 nests and varied from 10 to 220 nests per year. Meanwhile, the sum of eggs collected for 16 years were 107,820 eggs, and varied from 553 to 20,881 eggs per year. The temporal pattern of nesting indicates year-round nesting in Perak in most years within the 16 years period. The peak season of nesting was estimated to occur between May and June. Survival hatchlings varied from 23.33% (2,071 hatchlings) to 55.03% (5,018 hatchlings) from 1998 to 2013. The density of visitors was not uniformly distributed among the years, and shows a sign of decline especially from 2006 onwards. This publication provides basic knowledge of green turtle nesting population in Perak, and would be helpful in upgrading the conservation program in Malaysia. In future, we hope 1) for an increase in manpower to obtain accurate nesting records along the nesting beaches during nocturnal survey and, 2) to include the breeding biology data such as nest placement, emergence hour, and morphological characteristics of green turtle.
A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the egg yolk cholesterol (24- and 28-wk-old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P < 0.05) increased total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age.
The effect of the oil-spill dispersant Corexit 9527 on egg-hatching rate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) was studied by using an innovated flow-through bioassay technique. This bioassay method relies on the fact that M. rosenbergii fertilized eggs when detached from the mother prawn were able to hatch artificially. The flow-through system generated a stable and good water quality environment for hatching the eggs successfully. The Corexit 9527 had a pronounced effect on hatching rate of the M. rosenbergii eggs. In the control, the hatching rate of the eggs was 95.55% +/- 1.74%. However, it was reduced drastically with increasing concentrations of Corexit 9527. A 100% inhibition of egg hatchability was found when the level of Corexit 9527 was higher than 250 mg litre(-1). The EC(50) and the EC(95) values estimated by the probit method were 80.4 +/- 5.5 mg litre(-1) and 193.5 +/- 39.9 mg litre(-1) respectively (P = 0.05). The recommended safety level of Corexit 9527 for M. rosenbergii in Malaysian estuarine waters is below 40 mg litre(-1).
This study was conducted to evaluate the significance of genotype by environment (G x E) interactions for tropical poultry breeding. Three environmental conditions were considered: controlled normal-temperature (20 +/- 2 C, CN) and controlled high-temperature (32 C, CH) housing in Germany as well as natural open tropical housing in Malaysia (22 to 34 C, TO). Eighty-four sires were considered as genotypes. Their 5,352 progeny were tested simultaneously over three environments. For each sire, its part breeding value (BV) was estimated within each environment for each performance trait. Correlations between these BV for a pair of environments were used to estimate the magnitude of G x E interactions and the degree of relationship between them to demonstrate their implications on breeding strategies. Differences between observed and expected genetic correlations of BV for body weight, egg weight, egg number, egg mass, feed intake, and production efficiency as a fraction of the expected correlation were 5.1, 4.0, 36.7, 36.5, 17.7, and 31.6%, respectively, suggesting greater significance of G x E interactions for reproduction and production efficiency. The relationships between BV over the three environments were linear for most of the traits studied, but the coefficients of determination were dependent upon the magnitude of interactions involved. Relative efficiencies of indirect selection in CN or CH for performance in TO were also very low.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of using tapioca and sago flours with or without egg white powder (EWP) on the physicochemical and sensory properties of duck sausages. There was significant increase (P0.05) in hardness and cohesiveness attributes among all the samples examined but significant differences (P
The detection of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) in dried salted yellow puffer fish (Xenopterus naritus) eggs bought from Satok Market, Kuching, Sarawak was carried out by mouse bioassay method. The amount of TTX and STX detected in the samples ranged from 95.6-195.5 Mouse Unit (MU)/g and 1.72-3.58 MU/g respectively. The results indicate that the dried salted eggs samples were found to contain TTX 9-20 times above the regulatory limit for human consumption (10 MU/g). Although detected, the amount of STX in salted eggs extract was slightly below the accepted threshold limit (4 MU/g). The local public in Sarawak should be educated on the potential danger of consuming dried salted puffer fish eggs in addition to the current warnings on puffer fish.
As Malaysian economies grow, Malaysian per capita income is likely to increase. From economics point of view, it is expected that better-off consumers will move to better quality of food attributes such as freshness, food safety, quality and healthfulness in their food intake. This study aimed to investigate the demand for eggs attributes by Malaysian consumers. The study considers the conjoint analysis technique as a method for acquiring insights into preferences for eggs product. The technique was applied to establish the trade-offs that Malaysian consumers make between size, colour, size of packaging, functional attribute and price in the purchasing of eggs for 202 respondents. Least squares regression was utilized to estimate the relative importance of attributes for eggs. The results revealed that the ideal characteristic of egg was one with large size (grade A), omega eggs, brown, and ten per packs. We also found that consumers were also willing to pay more for their preferred attributes. The results found in the study provide valuable inputs to producers or marketers to improve their marketing efforts as well as market positioning, in line with the demanded eggs attributes.
Pasteurized shell eggs are eggs that have been thermally treated to eliminate harmful bacteria, however the treatment may also denature some of the egg white proteins. In this study the degree of denaturation and functional properties (emulsifying, foaming, and gelling properties) of egg white obtained from pasteurized eggs (EWP) were compared with those of unpasteurized eggs (EWUP). Data from differential scanning calorimeter showed that the EWP (ovotransferin, lysozyme, and ovalbumin) denatured at lower temperatures and required lower denaturation enthalpies than EWUP, indicating a partial loss of protein structure during the pasteurization process in the pasteurized eggs. The emulsion and foam stability formed from EWP were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of EWUP, however the EWP formed stronger gels than EWUP. To assess suitability of EWP as a cake ingredient, angel food cake was prepared using both egg whites. As compared to EWUP-cake, EWP-cake was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in volume, cohesiveness and springiness values, but significantly (P < 0.05) higher in hardness, gumminess and chewiness. Overall, the sensory panelists gave significantly (P < 0.05) higher scores for angel food cake prepared with EWUP. The differences in functional properties of egg white proteins and the quality of cake were due mainly to the higher levels of denaturation attained by EWP as a result of the pasteurization process.