This paper deals with the aetiological factors of psychogenic impotence, more emphasis however, being placed on the psychological theories. The characteristics of forty cases of impotence were analysed and discussed. Two cases, one of erectile impotence (failure of erection) and another of premature ejaculation were treated by the authors with systematic desensitization successfully. The "squeeze" technique was utilized for the case of premature ejaculation
Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the commonest male sexual dysfunctions. It is characterized by ejaculation which occurs before or soon after vaginal penetration, which causes significant psychological distress to the individual, and his partner. The exact cause of PE is still unknown but several mechanisms are proposed, and these involve complex interactions of neurophysiological, psychosocial, and cognitive factors. We discuss the role of serotonin, nitric oxide, phosphodiesterase enzymes and other neurotransmitters. Treatment of PE tends to co-occur with other sexual difficulties, especially erectile dysfunction (ED). Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and Dapoxitene are also discussed in detail. The treatment strategy requires a comprehensive holistic approach incorporating both combination of psychopharmacological agent and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The present review highlights the integration of the hypothalamic-neural and reverberating emotional circuit and discusses the etiology and treatment for patients with PE.
Objective: Sexual problems are common among patients who are on antidepressants treatment. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of PE and ED, and their potential risk factors that may impair their sexual function in a TH
Methods: A cross-sectional study using simple random sampling was conducted among adult male patients who are on antidepressant treatment in the TH psychiatric outpatient clinic. Respondents’ sociodemographic data were obtained. Participants were interviewed using a structured self-report questionnaire with 15-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15)where the scores lesser than 25 were indicative for having an ED. A validated Malay Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (MAPET) was used to assess PE and those with a score ≥ 23 were considered to have PE.
Results: Hundred respondents were participated, and the prevalence of PE and ED was 66% and 85%, respectively. Using multivariate binary logistic regression, the potential risk factors of PE were race, i.e. being non-Malay (p=0.044), lesser in the frequency of sexual activity (p=0.03) and also an ED (p=0.03), respectively. The only risk factor for ED was PE (p=0.026). No significant association was noted for the other factors, including type of the antidepressant, dose and duration of antidepressant used (p>0.05). There was a strong correlation of MAPET and IIEF-15 (r=-0.345, p < 0.01) signifying patient with more severe PE had more severe ED.
Conclusions: Due to very high rate of ED and PE in this group of respondents, it is pivotal to screen for sexual problem among patients who are taking an antidepressant in a psychiatric setup.
Study site: Psychiatric clinic, Pusat Perubatan University Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Objective: This case report highlights a case of young male referred for psychiatric evaluation due to paraphilic disorder. This 27-year old single male working as an assistant accountant was noted to have voyeuristic behaviour and presented with depressive symptoms since his teenage age. He has poor coping whenever he experiences stress in life. He started to watch pornographic videos and subsequently get involved by peeping pre-pubescent’s undergarments. These activities are followed by a compulsive behaviour such as masturbation to gratify his sexual arousal.
Results: The patient undergone several psychotherapy sessions, and medical report was furnished for the court's purpose. Our assessment revealed that he was suffering from a lifetime major depressive disorder,and he was prescribed with Tablet Sertraline 50mg/daily.He also has premature ejaculation, severe in nature. He regretted his voyeuristic urge and psychotherapyfocused on how to channel his sexual needs.
Conclusion: Mood disorder is seen in paraphilic disorder and has to be dealt with in order to establish good management care.
The insect male accessory gland (MAG) is an internal reproductive organ responsible for the synthesis and secretion of seminal fluid components, which play a pivotal role in the male reproductive strategy. In many species of insects, the effective ejaculation of the MAG products is essential for male reproduction. For this purpose, the fruit fly Drosophila has evolved binucleation in the MAG cells, which causes high plasticity of the glandular epithelium, leading to an increase in the volume of seminal fluid that is ejaculated. However, such a binucleation strategy has only been sporadically observed in Dipteran insects, including fruit flies. Here, we report the discovery of binucleation in the MAG of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, which belongs to hemimetabolous Hemiptera phylogenetically distant from holometabolous Diptera. In Cimex, the cell morphology and timing of synchrony during binucleation are quite different from those of Drosophila. Additionally, in Drosophila, the position of the two nuclei in the adult stage changes as a result of the mating history or the nutrient conditions; however, it remains stable in Cimex. These differences suggest that binucleation in the Cimex MAG plays a unique role in the male reproductive system that is distinct from that of Drosophila.
Premature ejaculation (PE) reduces sexual satisfaction and quality of life.
Both SSRI Fluoxetine and Dapoxetine have been used in the treatment of PE. Fluoxetine
is used as off-label treatment meanwhile Dapoxetine is the first SSRI specifically
designed for PE with short half-life and few side effects. (Copied from article).
Introduction: A validated diagnostic questionnaire is needed in the South-East Asia region, particularly in Malaysia to detect Premature Ejaculation (PE). The objective of this study was to determine the linguistic validity of the Malay Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (MAPET). Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a teaching hospital. The first phase involved experts’ group discussions to develop the face, content, and factorial validity of the MAPET. The second phase measured the concurrent validity of MAPET. Results: We found that the MAPET has specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 79.3%, 92%, 76.7% and 93.1%, respectively in the assessment of PE. The higher score indicates severity of PE. Conclusions: MAPET is a valid self-report instrument for the assessment of PE.
The effect of increasing doses of various fractions of Eurycoma longifolia Jack extracts on libido was examined in middle-aged male rats. The results showed that a high dose (800 mg/kg) of all E. longifolia Jack extracts significantly increased mount frequency (MF) (P < 0.05) over that of untreated controls, but had no effect on the frequency of intromission or ejaculation. Methanol, chloroform, water, and butanol fractions exhibited MF of 2.5 +/- 0.1, 2.6 +/- 0.3, 2.5 +/- 0.1 and 2.6 +/- 0.2, respectively, in adult, middle-aged male rats, and retired breeders versus 2.3 +/- 0.1 in untreated controls. This translated to a minor increase in MF of 8.7%, 13.0%, 8.7%, and 13.0% for these fractions, respectively, during the 20-minute observation period. The results of this study show that E. longifolia Jack extracts can increase libido in middle-aged male rats.
Introduction: Premature ejaculation (PE) is an important sexual problem among men attending health clinic. Impacts of this condition towards quality of life still require further exploration. Aims of the study is to determine the proportion and determinants for PE and its impact on Quality of Life (QOL) among men attending a public health clinic in Kuantan
Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 290 respondents was conducted at a public health clinic over the period of five months (Nov 2015-March 2016). A validated self-administrated questionnaire that consisted of sociodemographic questionnaire, clinical characteristics, premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) and WHO quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were used.
Results: The proportion of PE was 33.9% with PE 18.1% (49/271) and probable PE 15.8% (43/271). Multivariate analysis showed that level of education (p=0.002, OR 3.281/95% CI 1.183, 9.101) and hypertension (p=0.047, OR 1.788/95% CI 1.008, 3.170) were the only significant predictors for PE after controlling self-reported erectile dysfunction, pulmonary and neurological disorder. PE patients had lower median scores QOL in all four domain namely physical health, psychological, social relationship, environment (all domains with p<0.001).
Conclusions: The proportion of men diagnosed with premature ejaculation in this study is high and possibly associated with level of education and hypertension. Men with PE had lower quality of life in domains of physical health, psychological, social relationship and environment. Hence, it is
recommended for PE screening among male attendees to primary health clinic especially those with hypertension and moderate level of education.
Keywords Premature ejaculation - Quality of life - Sexual dysfunction.
Study site: Klinik Kesihatan Jaya Gading, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with of Premature Ejaculation &Erectile Dysfunctionamong Malaysian men.A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban and rural areas using standardized and validated self-administeredquestionnaires.A total of 319 samples were recruited for PE screening. The overall prevalence of PE was 31.7% with 20.7% and 40.8% for urban and rural arearespectively. Depression, anxiety and frequent masturbation were significantly associated with PE. While For ED, infrequent sexual intercourse was the sole factor significantly associated with ED.PE and ED were highly prevalent in both urban and rural areas; with several significant preventable associated factors.
INTRODUCTION: Premature ejaculation (PE) is common. However, it has been underreported and undertreated.
AIMS: To determine the prevalence of PE and to investigate possible associated factors of PE.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a primary care clinic over a 3-month period in 2008. Men aged 18-70 years attending the clinic were recruited, and they completed self-administered questionnaires that included the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), International Index of Erectile Function, sociodemography, lifestyle, and medical illness. The operational definition of PE included PE and probable PE based on the PEDT.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Prevalence of PE.
RESULTS: A total of 207 men were recruited with a response rate of 93.2%. There were 97 (46.9%) Malay, 57 (27.5%) Chinese, and 53 (25.6%) Indian, and their mean age was 46.0 ± 12.7 years. The prevalence of PE was 40.6% (N = 82) (PE: 20.3%, probable PE: 20.3% using PEDT). A significant association was found between ethnicity and PE (Indian 49.1%, Malay 45.4%, and Chinese 24.6%; χ(2) = 8.564, d.f. = 2, P = 0.014). No significant association was found between age and PE. Multivariate analysis showed that erectile dysfunction (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.907, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.271, 10.604), circumcision (adjusted OR 4.881, 95% CI 2.346, 10.153), sexual intercourse ≤5 times in 4 weeks (adjusted OR 3.733, 95% CI 1.847, 7.544), and Indian ethnicity (adjusted OR 3.323, 95% CI 1.489, 7.417) were predictors of PE.
CONCLUSION: PE might be frequent in men attending primary care clinics. We found that erectile dysfunction, circumcision, Indian ethnicity, and frequency of sexual intercourse of ≤5 times per month were associated with PE. These associations need further confirmation.
Study site: primary care clinic at the University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual dysfunction among the general population. PE has often been associated with a psychological state of mind. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) can be used as an instrument to assess the emotional and psychological state. The present study was designed to assess the reliability and validity of the HADS in a Malaysian population. The validity and reliability were studied in subjects with and without PE. Test-retest methodology was used to assess the reliability whereas Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the internal consistency. In the control and the PE groups, the internal consistency was good and a high degree of internal consistency was observed for all 14 items. In the control group, the Cronbach's alpha values at baseline were from 0.811 to 0.834, whereas for retest, the Cronbach's alpha values were from 0.821-0.838 items. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was high for the control (0.797-0.868: baseline and 0.805-0.872: retest) and PE group (0.822-0.906: baseline and 0.785-0.887: retest). The high value of ICC and the internal consistency was due to high reliability and consistency of the items at 2-week interval. A degree of significance between the baseline and week-2 scores was observed across all items in the PE group but not in the control group. The HADS is a suitable, reliable, valid and sensitive instrument to measure the clinical change for anxiety and depression in the Malaysian population.
This study was conducted to evaluate the response of Bali bulls (Bos javanicus) to different semen collection methods and their effects on fresh and post-thawed semen quality. The collection methods employed were electro-ejaculation (EE), transrectal massage (RM) and RM followed by EE (RM + EE). A total of 25 untrained Bali bulls (age between 2 and 4 years old) were subjected to the different semen collection methods. Fresh semen samples from all the 25 bulls were evaluated for volume, pH, general motility, live/dead ratio and abnormality using the conventional method. For fresh and frozen samples collected by EE and RM from 10 bulls, computer-assisted semen analysis system was used for precise quantitative measurement of motility, velocity and forward progression. Accucell photometer was used to measure sperm concentration in all samples, regardless fresh and frozen. Semen samples were obtained 100% of the attempts using EE, 84% using RM and 96% using RM + EE. There were no differences among the collection methods for fresh semen quality characteristics, including motility, morphology and viability, but pH and volume were higher for EE than RM and RM + EE. Higher sperm concentration was observed in semen collected by RM than the other two methods. Different age groups (2-3 and >3-4 years old) of the bulls did not show significant differences in volume, pH, sperm concentration, percentages in motility, live/dead ratio and normal sperm morphology. The quality of semen for general and progressive motility, VAP, VSL and VCL and acrosomal integrity after thawing was higher for RM than EE. In conclusion, Bali bulls appeared to respond best to EE and the combination of RM + EE than RM, as a method of semen collection, with a shorter time of stimulation required. Differences in age of the Bali bulls did not affect the semen quality.
Introduction: Both premature ejaculation(PE) and erectile dysfunction(ED) are prevalent sexual health disorders that have been inadequately investigated in Malaysia, a multiethnic and conservative nation.The objective of the study was to study the relationship between PE and ED, and other common mental health issues, i.e. anxiety and depression in Malaysian urban population.
Methods: The diagnosis for PE was established by clinical diagnosis using DSM-5 and ISSM definition criteria for PE, whereas a diagnosis of ED was established by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire. Anxiety and depression levels were detected from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).
Results: Based on DSM-V and ISSM clinical diagnosis for PE, the prevalence of PE was found to be 25%. Erectile dysfunction (p = 0.035, OR = 3.315, 95% CI 1.088, 10.103) and severe anxiety (p = 0.020, OR = 7.656, 95% CI 1.383, 42.396) significantly predicted presence of PE.
Conclusion: There was a strong association between PE and ED and between PE and anxiety. Routine examination for PE in male patients should address the issue and the management of both ED and anxiety among PE patients, especially in an urban Malaysian clinical and medical care setting.
Erectile function (EF) is a prerequisite for satisfactory sexual intercourse (SI) and central to male sexual functioning. Satisfactory SI eventually initiates orgasm - a biopsychophysiological state of euphoria - leading to a sense of bliss, enjoyment and positive mental well being. For a psychiatrist, treating ED is self-propelled to harmonize these pleasurable experiences alongside with encouragement of physical wellness and sensuality. Hence, the role of PDE-5i is pivotal in this context and constitutes a therapeutic challenge. PDE-5i work via the dopaminergic-oxytocin-nitric oxide pathway by increasing the availability of endothelial's guanosine monophosphate (GMP), immediately causing relaxation of the penile smooth muscle and an erection. The PDE-5i, like sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil, are effective in the treatment of ED with some benefits/ flexibilities and disadvantages compared to other treatment modalities. Prescribed PDE-5i exclusively improve EF, fostering male's self-confidence and self-esteem. Treatment failures are associated with factors such as absent (or insufficient) sexual stimulation, psychosexual conflicts and the co-existence of medical disorders. Managing ED requires dealing with underlying medical diseases, addressing other co-morbid sexual dysfunctions like premature ejaculation (PE), and educating the patient on healthy life-styles. Furthermore, by dealing with interpersonal dynamics within the couple and embracing adequate lifestyles (managing stress and revising one's sexual scripts), PDE-5i treatment benefits may be enhanced. In this review, we propose a holistic conceptual framework approach for psychiatric management of patients with ED.
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of premature ejaculation and its associated factors among men attending a primary healthcare clinic in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 18- to 60-year-old sexually active men during at least the past 6 months. Patients with unstable psychiatric illnesses, mental retardation, and illiteracy were excluded. A questionnaire on sociodemographic factors, Malay version Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool, and Malay version International Index Erectile Function-5 were distributed. Premature ejaculation was defined as a Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool score of 9 and above. Descriptive analysis and simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 22.
Results: A total of 294 of 313 eligible men responded, with a response rate of 93.9%. The prevalence of premature ejaculation was 21.4% (n = 63). The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that mild [adj. OR (95% CI): 5.6 (1.89, 16.91); P = 0.002], mild-moderate [adj. OR (95% CI): 8.2 (2.72, 24.46); P
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of treating lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on the quality of sexual function in a one-year follow up. A total of 116 patients with LUTS received alpha-blocker treatment, 111 patients underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and 70 patients with renal stones, with no or mild symptoms served as a control group. The patients were assessed at baseline, three months, six months and twelve months using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15). The surgical group exhibited some changes in the domain of IIEF-15. Patients in the medical group showed improvement in erectile function and intercourse satisfaction, while orgasmic, overall sexual satisfaction and sexual drive were relatively unchanged. In contrast, the surgical group suffered retrograde ejaculation and overall sexual dissatisfaction after undergoing TURP. TURP has been found to be associated with retrograde ejaculation intercourse and overall sexual dissatisfaction.
INTRODUCTION: Sexual problems are common in the general population. Studies have shown that most of these sexual problems are related to their social lives, medical illnesses, and psychological status. Among the sexual problems in men, premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most frequent, yet it is the least well-understood of the sexual dysfunctions of men.
AIM: To determine the prevalence of sexual problem particularly PE and erectile dysfunction (ED) among people living in urban areas and to investigate the characteristics associated with these sexual problems in a Malaysian population.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The PE which is defined as an intravaginal ejaculation latency time less than 2 minutes was assessed in the ED and non-ED group.
METHODS: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale is used as a measure of the psychological status . The ED status was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire.
RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported sexual problems for ED and PE were 41.6% and 22.3%, respectively. In those subjects with ED, 33.5% reported to have PE. Of the total of 430 subjects, anxiety was present in 8.1%, while depression was 5.3%. The prevalence of PE accounted for 25% anxiety and 14.6% for depression respectively in the population. EDs were associated with diabetes and hypertension (OR [95% CI]: 5.33 [2.33, 10.16], 3.40 [1.76, 6.57], P < 0.05), respectively, while factors associated with PE were anxiety and depression (OR [95% CI]: 1.29 [0.68, 2.45], 1.39 [0.69, 2.78]), respectively.
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of ED is associated with medical symptoms such as diabetes and hypertension and a rise in the prevalence of age while psychological distress such as anxiety and depression also contribute to a higher PE rate.
We examined socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics of men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in Asia and correlates of unprotected receptive intercourse with Internet ejaculation (URAIE). Asia Internet MSM Sex Survey, a behavioral survey of MSM in Asia was conducted from 1 January to 28 February 2010. Data analysis was limited to participants aged 18 or above, biological male, and had one regular or casual sex partner in the past 6 months (n = 10,413). Pearson's Chi-square test, t test and logistic regression were used to examine the correlates of URAIE in the past 6 months, the highest risk sexual behavior sampled. Of 7311 participants who had receptive anal intercourse, 47.5 % had URAIE, which was associated with the following attributes: less than high-school education and pre-college education compared to university (AOR = 1.53, 95 % CI: 1.28, 1.83; AOR = 1.22, CI: 1.08, 1.37), being in the heterosexual marriage (AOR = 1.35, CI: 1.18, 1.56), having regular partners or both regular and casual partners compared to having casual partners (AOR = 2.85, CI: 2.48, 3.27; AOR = 2.32, CI: 2.06, 2.62), HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative status (AOR = 1.39, 95 % CI: 1.08, 1.81), higher perception of HIV risk (AOR = 1.62, CI: 1.34, 1.95), use of recreational drug before sex (AOR = 1.30, CI: 1.14, 1.49), and use of the Internet as the main way to seek sex partners (AOR = 1.21, CI: 1.08, 1.36). MSM from certain Asian countries reported alarming rates of URAIE. The internet can be used as a platform for HIV surveillance and intervention.