This study examines the in vitro antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of Swietenia mahagoni seeds (SMCM seed extract). The extract was screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), xanthine oxidase inhibition (XOI), hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity (HPSA) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined. The extract exhibits antioxidant activity of 23.29% with an IC(50 )value of 2.3 mg/mL in the DPPH radical scavenging method, 47.2% in the XOI assay, 49.5% by the HPSA method, and 0.728 mmol/Fe(II)g in the FRAP method at the concentration tested. The amount of total phenolics and flavonoid contents was 70.83 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and 2.5 +/- 0.15 mg of catechin equivalent per gram of dry extract, respectively. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) screening indicates the presence of phenolic compounds in the SMCM seed extract. The results indicate that the extract has both high free radical scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibition activity. The antioxidant activity of SMCM seed extract is comparable with that of other Malaysian tropical fruits and herbal plants.
Styryl-lactones such as goniothalamin represent a new class of compounds with potential anti-cancer properties. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of goniothalamin (GTN), a plant styryl-lactone induced apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. This plant extract resulted in apoptosis in HL-60 cells as assessed by the externalisation of phosphatidylserine. Using the mitochondrial membrane dye (DIOC(6)) in conjunction with flow cytometry, we found that GTN treated HL-60 cells demonstrated a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Deltapsi(m)). Further immunoblotting on these cells showed activation of initiator caspase-9 and the executioner caspases-3 and -7. Pretreatment with the pharmacological caspase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD.FMK) abrogated apoptosis as assessed by all of the apoptotic features in this study. In summary, our results demonstrate that goniothalamin-induced apoptosis occurs via the mitochondrial pathway in a caspase dependent manner.
The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction conditions on the enzymatic properties of thermoacidic amylase enzyme derived from dragon peel. The studied extraction variables were the buffer-to-sample (B/S) ratio (1:2 to 1:6, w/w), temperature (-18°C to 25°), mixing time (60 to 180 seconds), and the pH of the buffer (2.0 to 8.0). The results indicate that the enzyme extraction conditions exhibited the least significant (P < 0.05) effect on temperature stability. Conversely, the extraction conditions had the most significant (P < 0.05) effect on the specific activity and pH stability. The results also reveal that the main effect of the B/S ratio, followed by its interaction with the pH of the buffer, was significant (P < 0.05) among most of the response variables studied. The optimum extraction condition caused the amylase to achieve high enzyme activity (648.4 U), specific activity (14.2 U/mg), temperature stability (88.4%), pH stability (85.2%), surfactant agent stability (87.2%), and storage stability (90.3%).
Several chalcones were synthesized and their in vitro cytotoxicity against various human cell lines, including human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7, human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549, human prostate cancer cell line PC3, human adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 (colorectal cancer) and human normal liver cell line WRL-68 was evaluated. Most of the compounds being active cytotoxic agents, four of them with minimal IC₅₀ values were chosen and studied in detail with MCF-7 cells. The compounds 1, 5, 23, and 25 were capable in eliciting apoptosis in MCF-7 cells as shown by multiparameter cytotoxicity assay and caspase-3/7, -8, and -9 activities (p < 0.05). The ROS level showed 1.3-fold increase (p < 0.05) at the low concentrations used and thus it was concluded that the compounds increased the ROS level eventually leading to apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through intrinsic as well as extrinsic pathways.
A natural pentacyclic triterpenoid oleanolic acid 1 and its biotransformed metabolites 2-3 are potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. To elucidate the inhibitory mechanism of compounds 1, 2 and 3 against α-glucosidase, we calculated (i) their electronic and optical properties using DFT and TD-DFT at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level in gas and IEF-PCM solvent; and (ii) their binding energies to α-glucosidase via docking study. DFT results showed that the α-glucosidase inhibtion is mainly depend on the polarity parameters of the studied compounds. Docking results revealed that the activity increased with binding energies (i.e. the stability of ligand-receptor complex). The specroscopic data of oleanolic acid 1 and its metabolites 2 and 3 are well predicetd for 13C NMR chemical shifts (R2=99%) and 1H NMR chemical shifts (R2=90%); and for (ii) UV/vis spectra. The assignments and interpretation of NMR chemical shifts and bathochromic shift of λMAX absorption bands are discussed.
We synthesized a series of novel 5-24 derivatives of oxindole. The synthesis started from 5-chlorooxindole, which was condensed with methyl 4-carboxybezoate and result in the formation of benzolyester derivatives of oxindole which was then treated with hydrazine hydrate. The oxindole benzoylhydrazide was treated with aryl acetophenones and aldehydes to get target compounds 5-24. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for urease inhibition; the compound 5 (IC50 = 13.00 ± 0.35 μM) and 11 (IC50 = 19.20 ± 0.50 μM) showed potent activity as compared to the standard drug thiourea (IC50 = 21.00 ± 0.01 μM). Other compounds showed moderate to weak activity. All synthetic compounds were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR and EI MS. The molecular interactions of the active compounds within the binding site of urease enzyme were studied through molecular docking simulations.
Chrysin is a natural flavonoid currently under investigation due to its important biological anti-cancer properties. In most of the cancer cells tested, chrysin has shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis, and is more potent than other tested flavonoids in leukemia cells, where chrysin is likely to act via activation of caspases and inactivation of Akt signaling in the cells. Moreover, structure-activity relationships have revealed that the chemical structure of chrysin meets the key structural requirements of flavonoids for potent cytotoxicity in leukemia cells. It is possible that combination therapy or modified chrysin could be more potent than single-agent use or administration of unmodified chrysin. This study may help to develop ways of improving the effectiveness of chrysin in the treatment of leukemia and other human cancers in vitro.
The effects of palm gamma-tocotrienol (GGT) on oxidative stress-induced cellular ageing was investigated in normal human skin fibroblast cell lines derived from different age groups; young (21-year-old, YF), middle (40-year-old, MF) and old (68-year-old, OF). Fibroblast cells were treated with gamma-tocotrienol for 24 hours before or after incubation with IC50 dose of H2O2 for 2 hours. Changes in cell viability, telomere length and telomerase activity were assessed using the MTS assay (Promega, USA), Southern blot analysis and telomere repeat amplification protocol respectively. Results showed that treatment with different concentrations of gamma-tocotrienol increased fibroblasts viability with optimum dose of 80 microM for YF and 40 microM for both MF and OF. At higher concentrations, gamma-tocotrienol treatment caused marked decrease in cell viability with IC50 value of 200 microM (YF), 300 microM (MF) and 100 microM (OF). Exposure to H2O2 decreased cell viability in dose dependent manner, shortened telomere length and reduced telomerase activity in all age groups. The IC50 of H2O2 was found to be; YF (700 microM), MF (400 microM) and OF (100 microM). Results showed that viability increased significantly (p < 0.05) when cells were treated with 80 microM and 40 microM gamma-tocotrienol prior or after H2O2-induced oxidative stress in all age groups. In YF and OF, pretreatment with gamma-tocotrienol prevented shortening of telomere length and reduction in telomerase activity. In MF, telomerase activity increased while no changes in telomere length was observed. However, post-treatment of gamma-tocotrienol did not exert any significant effects on telomere length and telomerase activity. Thus, these data suggest that gamma-tocotrienol protects against oxidative stress-induced cellular ageing by modulating the telomere length possibly via telomerase.
F16 is a plant-derived pharmacologically active fraction extracted from Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Previously, we have reported that F16 inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death while having some degree of cytoselectivity on a normal human breast cell line, MCF-10A. In this study, we attempted to further elucidate the mode of action of F16. We found that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was invoked, with the reduction of Bcl-2 protein. Then, executioner caspase-7 was cleaved and activated in response to F16 treatment. Furthermore, apoptosis in the MCF- 7 cells was accompanied by the specific proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Surprisingly, caspase-9 and p53 were unchanged with F16 treatment. We believe that the F16-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells occurs independently of caspase-9 and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that F16 from E. longifolia exerts anti-proliferative action and growth inhibition on MCF-7 cells through apoptosis induction and that it may have anticancer properties.
Amylase is one of the most important enzymes in the world due to its wide application in various industries and biotechnological processes. In this study, amylase enzyme from Hylocereus polyrhizus was encapsulated for the first time in an Arabic gum-chitosan matrix using freeze drying. The encapsulated amylase retained complete biocatalytic activity and exhibited a shift in the optimum temperature and considerable increase in the pH and temperature stabilities compared to the free enzyme. Encapsulation of the enzyme protected the activity in the presence of ionic and non-ionic surfactants and oxidizing agents (H₂O₂) and enhanced the shelf life. The storage stability of amylase is found to markedly increase after immobilization and the freeze dried amylase exhibited maximum encapsulation efficiency value (96.2%) after the encapsulation process. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that the encapsulation of the enzyme in a coating agent using freeze drying is an efficient method to keep the enzyme active and stable until required in industry.
Arachidonic acid and its metabolites have generated a heightened interest due to their significant role in inflammation. Inhibiting the enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism has been considered as the synergistic anti-inflammatory effect. A series of novel curcumin diarylpentanoid analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory effects on activity of secretory phospholipase A2 , cyclooxygenases, soybean lipo-oxygenase as well as microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1. Among the curcumin analogues, compounds 3, 6, 9, 12, and 17 exhibited strong inhibition of secretory phospholipase A2 activity, with IC50 values ranging from 5.89 to 11.02 μm. Seven curcumin analogues 1, 3, 6, 7, 9, 11, and 12 showed inhibition of cyclooxygenases-2 with IC50 values in the range of 46.11 to 94.86 μm, which were lower than that of curcumin. Compounds 3, 6, 7, 12, and 17 showed strong inhibition of lipo-oxygenase enzyme activity. Preliminary screening of diarylpentanoid curcumin analogues for microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 activity revealed that four diarylpentanoid curcumin analogues 5, 6, 7, and 13 demonstrated higher inhibition of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 activity with IC50 ranging from 2.41 to 4.48 μm, which was less than that of curcumin. The present results suggest that some of these diarylpentanoid analogues were able to inhibit the activity of these enzymes. This raises the possibility that diarylpentanoid analogues of curcumin might serve as useful starting point for the design of improved anti-inflammatory agents.
Free radicals are widely known to be the major cause of human diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, allergy and autoimmune diseases. Human cells are equipped with a powerful natural antioxidant enzyme network. However, antioxidants, particularly those originating from natural sources such as fruits and vegetables, are still considered essential. Rutin, a quercetin glycoside, has been proven to possess antioxidant potential. However, the neuroprotective effect of rutin in pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells has not been studied extensively. Therefore, the present study was designed to establish the neuroprotective role of rutin as well as to elucidate the antioxidant mechanism of rutin in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in PC-12 neuronal cells. PC-12 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of rutin for 4, 8 and 12 h and subsequently incubated with 6-OHDA for 24 h to induce oxidative stress. A significant cytoprotective activity was observed in rutin pretreated cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, there was marked activation of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total glutathione (GSH) in rutin pretreated cells compared to cells incubated with 6-OHDA alone. Rutin significantly reduced lipid peroxidation in 6-OHDA-induced PC-12 cells. On the basis of these observations, it was concluded that the bioflavonoid rutin inhibited 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in PC-12 cells by improving antioxidant enzyme levels and inhibiting lipid peroxidation.
Melanoma incidence and mortality have risen dramatically in recent years. No effective treatment for metastatic melanoma exists; hence currently, an intense effort for new drug evaluation is being carried out. In this study, we investigated the effects of a palm oil-derived nanopolymer called Bio-12 against human malignant melanoma. The nanopolymers of Bio-12 are lipid esters derived from a range of fatty acids of palm oil. Our study aims to identify the anti-proliferative properties of Bio-12 against human malignant melanoma cell line (MeWo) and to elucidate the mode of actions whereby Bio-12 brings about cell death. Bio-12 significantly inhibited the growth of MeWo cells in a concentration- and time- dependent manner with a median inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) value of 1/25 dilution after 72 h but was ineffective on human normal skin fibroblasts (CCD-1059sk). We further investigated the mode of actions of Bio-12 on MeWo cells. Cell cycle flow cytometry demonstrated that MeWo cells treated with increasing concentrations of Bio-12 resulted in S-phase arrest, accompanied by the detection of sub-G1 content, indicative of apoptotic cell death. Induction of apoptosis was further confirmed via caspase (substrate) cleavage assay which showed induction of early apoptosis in MeWo cells. In addition, DNA strand breaks which are terminal event in apoptosis were evident through increase of TUNEL positive cells and formation of a characteristic DNA ladder on agarose gel electrophoresis. Moreover, treatment of MeWo cells with Bio-12 induced significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. These results show that Bio-12 possesses the ability to suppress proliferation of human malignant melanoma MeWo cells and this suppression is at least partly attributed to the initiation of the S-phase arrest, apoptosis and necrosis, suggesting that it is indeed worth for further investigations.
Cutinase belongs to a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of esters and triglycerides. Structural studies on the enzyme from Fusarium solani have revealed the presence of a classic catalytic triad that has been implicated in the enzyme's mechanism. We have solved the crystal structure of Glomerella cingulata cutinase in the absence and in the presence of the inhibitors E600 (diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate) and PETFP (3-phenethylthio-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-one) to resolutions between 2.6 and 1.9 A. Analysis of these structures reveals that the catalytic triad (Ser136, Asp191, and His204) adopts an unusual configuration with the putative essential histidine His204 swung out of the active site into a position where it is unable to participate in catalysis, with the imidazole ring 11 A away from its expected position. Solution-state NMR experiments are consistent with the disrupted configuration of the triad observed crystallographically. H204N, a site-directed mutant, was shown to be catalytically inactive, confirming the importance of this residue in the enzyme mechanism. These findings suggest that, during its catalytic cycle, cutinase undergoes a significant conformational rearrangement converting the loop bearing the histidine from an inactive conformation, in which the histidine of the triad is solvent exposed, to an active conformation, in which the triad assumes a classic configuration.
Goniothalamin, a plant styrylpyrone derivative isolated from Goniothalamus andersonii, induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-cells as assessed by the externalisation of phosphatidylserine. Immunoblotting showed processing of caspases-3 and -7 with the appearance of their catalytically active large subunits of 17 and 19 kDa, respectively. Activation of these caspases was further evidenced by detection of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage (PARP). Pre-treatment with the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD.FMK) blocked apoptosis and the resultant cleavage of these caspases and PARP. Our results demonstrate that activation of at least two effector caspases is a key feature of goniothalamin-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-cells.
Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is known to potentiate the progression of inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and atherosclerosis. IFN-γ has been found to disrupt the barrier integrity of epithelial and endothelial cell both in vivo and in vitro. However, the mechanisms of IFN-γ underlying increased endothelial cell permeability have not been extensively elucidated. We reported that IFN-γ exhibits a biphasic nature in increasing endothelial permeability. The changes observed in the first phase (4-8 h) involve cell retraction and rounding in addition to condensed peripheral F-actin without a significant change in the F-/G-actin ratio. However, cell elongation, stress fiber formation, and an increased F-/G-actin ratio were noticed in the second phase (16-24 h). Consistent with our finding from the permeability assay, IFN-γ induced the formation of intercellular gaps in both phases. A delayed phase of increased permeability was observed at 12 h, which paralleled the onset of cell elongation, stress fiber formation, and increased F-/G-actin ratio. In addition, IFN-γ stimulated p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphorylation over a 24 h period. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase by SB203580 prevented increases in paracellular permeability, actin rearrangement, and increases in the F-/G-actin ratio caused by IFN-γ. Our results suggest that p38 MAP kinase is activated in response to IFN-γ and causes actin rearrangement and altered cell morphology, which in turn mediates endothelial cell hyperpermeability. The F-/G-actin ratio might be involved in the regulation of actin distribution and cell morphology rather than the increased permeability induced by IFN-γ.
This study investigates the effect of ACE2 activation on leptin-induced changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria, endothelial activation and ACE2 expression during pregnancy in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant rats were given subcutaneous injection of either saline, or leptin, or leptin plus xanthenone (ACE2 activator), or xanthenone (XTN) alone. SBP, serum ACE, ACE2, endothelin-1, E-selectin and ICAM-1 levels were estimated; also their gene expressions were determined in the kidney and aorta respectively. Compared to control, SBP was higher in the leptin-only treated group (P<0.001) and lower in rats treated with xanthenone alone (P<0.01). Proteinuria, markers of endothelial activation were significantly higher than controls in leptin-only treated rats (P<0.05). ACE2 activity and expression were lower in leptin-only treated rats when compared to controls (P<0.05). It seems, leptin administration during pregnancy significantly increases SBP, proteinuria, endothelial activation, but decreases ACE2 level and expression. These effects are prevented by concurrent administration of xanthenone.
Oxalate toxicity is mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via a process that is partly dependent on mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we investigated whether C-phycocyanin (CP) could protect against oxidative stress-mediated intracellular damage triggered by oxalate in MDCK cells. DCFDA, a fluorescence-based probe and hexanoyl-lysine adduct (HEL), an oxidative stress marker were used to investigate the effect of CP on oxalate-induced ROS production and membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO). The role of CP against oxalate-induced oxidative stress was studied by the evaluation of mitochondrial membrane potential by JC1 fluorescein staining, quantification of ATP synthesis and stress-induced MAP kinases (JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2). Our results revealed that oxalate-induced cells show markedly increased ROS levels and HEL protein expression that were significantly decreased following pre-treatment with CP. Further, JC1 staining showed that CP pre-treatment conferred significant protection from mitochondrial membrane permeability and increased ATP production in CP-treated cells than oxalate-alone-treated cells. In addition, CP treated cells significantly decreased the expression of phosphorylated JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2 as compared to oxalate-alone-treated cells. We concluded that CP could be used as a potential free radical-scavenging therapeutic strategy against oxidative stress-associated diseases including urolithiasis.
Thymoquinone (TQ), a bioactive constituent of Nigella sativa Linn (N. sativa) has demonstrated several neuropharmacological attributes. In the present study, the neuroprotective properties of TQ were investigated by studying its anti-apoptotic potential to diminish β-amyloid peptide 1-40 sequence (Aβ1-40)-induced neuronal cell death in primary cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). The effects of TQ against Aβ1-40-induced neurotoxicity, morphological damages, DNA condensation, the generation of reactive oxygen species, and caspase-3, -8, and -9 activation were investigated. Pretreatment of CGNs with TQ (0.1 and 1 μM) and subsequent exposure to 10 μM Aβ1-40 protected the CGNs against the neurotoxic effects of the latter. In addition, the CGNs were better preserved with intact cell bodies, extensive neurite networks, a loss of condensed chromatin and less free radical generation than those exposed to Aβ1-40 alone. TQ pretreatment inhibited Aβ1-40-induced apoptosis of CGNs via both extrinsic and intrinsic caspase pathways. Thus, the findings of this study suggest that TQ may prevent neurotoxicity and Aβ1-40-induced apoptosis. TQ is, therefore, worth studying further for its potential to reduce the risks of developing Alzheimer's disease.
Plants that help in slowing down the digestion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in the pancreas and small intestine of humans play an important role in the reduction of obesity. On the other hand, there may be plants or plant parts that stimulate intestinal lipolytic activity, thus contributing to greater TAG assimilation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aqueous methanolic extracts of ninety eight (98) medicinal, herbal and aquatic plant materials from Malaysia for their effect on porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) activity and to identify the structure of an anti-lipase compound from one of the sources. The degree of inhibition was also quantified as relative to orlistat activity against PPL (orlistat equivalents). Results revealed that while 19.4% of the extracts were found to have anti-lipase activity ≥80%, 12% were actually found to promote PPL activity. Twenty two percent (22.4%) exhibited moderate inhibition (41%-80%) and 2% were neutral toward PPL activity. The ripe fruit of Averrhoa carambola and the leaves of Archidendron jiringa (Jack) I.C Nielsen L. (jering), Cynometra cauliflora (nam-nam) and Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd (candle nut/buah keras) had the highest (100%) anti-lipase activity and are equivalent to 0.11 µg orlistat/mL. Plants that stimulated lipase activity included Pimpinella anisum L. (aniseed/jintan manis), activating the enzyme by 186.5%. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of C. cauliflora leaves and found to be an active lipase inhibitor. The structure was elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR analyses.