METHODS: Using the full-length sequences of SARS-CoV-2 with intact geographic, demographic, and temporal information worldwide from the GISAID database during 26 December 2019 and 30 November 2020, we constructed the transmission tree to depict the evolutionary process by the R package "outbreaker". The affinity of the mutated receptor-binding region of the spike protein to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was predicted using mCSM-PPI2 software. Viral infectivity and antigenicity were tested in ACE2-transfected HEK293T cells by pseudovirus transfection and neutralizing antibody test.
RESULTS: From 26 December 2019 to 8 March 2020, early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 strains identified worldwide were mainly composed of three clusters: the Europe-based cluster including two USA-based sub-clusters; the Asia-based cluster including isolates in China, Japan, the USA, Singapore, Australia, Malaysia, and Italy; and the USA-based cluster. The SARS-CoV-2 strains identified in the USA formed four independent clades while those identified in China formed one clade. After 8 March 2020, the clusters of SARS-CoV-2 strains tended to be independent and became "pure" in each of the major countries. Twenty-two of 60 mutations in the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein were predicted to increase the binding affinity of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2. Of all predicted mutants, the number of E484K was the largest one with 86 585 sequences, followed by S477N with 55 442 sequences worldwide. In more than ten countries, the frequencies of the isolates with E484K and S477N increased significantly. V367F and N354D mutations increased the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses (P
RESULTS: Except for two tuberous deciduous species and a species with upright stems, a majority of Sino-Vietnamese limestone Begonia (SVLB), including sect. Coelocentrum (19 species sampled) and five species of sect. Diploclinium, Leprosae, and Petermannia, are rhizomatous and grouped in a strongly supported and yet internally poorly resolved clade (Clade SVLB), suggesting a single evolutionary origin of the adaptation to limestone substrates by rhizomatous species, subsequent species radiation, and a strong tendency to retain their ancestral niche. Divergence-time estimates indicate a late Miocene diversification of Clade SVLB, coinciding with the onset of the East Asian monsoon and the period of extensive karstification in the area.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on our phylogenetic study, Begonia sect. Coelocentrum is recircumscribed and expanded to include other members of the Clade SVLB (sect. Diploclinium: B. cavaleriei, B. pulvinifera, and B. wangii; sect. Leprosae: B. cylindrica and B. leprosa; sect. Petermannia: B. sinofloribunda). Because species of Clade SVLB have strong niche conservatism to retain in their ancestral habitats in cave-like microhabitats and Begonia are generally poor dispersers prone to diversify allopatrically, we propose that extensive and continuous karstification of the Sino-Vietnamese limestone region facilitated by the onset of East Asian monsoon since the late Miocene has been the major driving force for species accumulation via geographic isolation in Clade SVLB. Morphologically species of Clade SVLB differ mainly in vegetative traits without apparent adaptive value, suggesting that limestone Begonia radiation is better characterized as non-adaptive, an underappreciated speciation mode crucial for rapid species accumulations in organisms of low vagility and strong niche conservatism.
RESULTS: We used 43,310 SNPs to infer the population structure, evidence of local adaptation and sources of introduction. The overall genetic differentiation of this species was low. The native populations were differentiated into three genetic clusters, corresponding to the Yangtze, Pearl and Heilongjiang River Systems, respectively. The populations in Malaysia, India and Nepal were introduced from both the Yangtze and Pearl River Systems. Loci and genes involved in putative local selection for native locations were identified. Evidence of both positive and balancing selection was found in the introduced locations. Genes associated with loci under putative selection were involved in many biological functions. Outlier loci were grouped into clusters as genomic islands within some specific genomic regions, which likely agrees with the divergence hitchhiking scenario of divergence-with-gene-flow.
CONCLUSIONS: This study, for the first time, sheds novel insights on the population differentiation of the grass carp, genetics of its strong ability in adaption to diverse environments and sources of some introduced grass carp populations. Our data also suggests that the natural populations of the grass carp have been affected by the aquaculture besides neutral and adaptive forces.