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  1. Sohaimi ES, Md Amin R, Sahibu A, Mohd Akhir MF
    Data Brief, 2021 Apr;35:106893.
    PMID: 33718548 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2021.106893
    In this article, the abundance of phytoplankton community structure in Malacca Straits (MS); from Port Klang to Langkawi Island are reported. The datasets include data from 25 selected sampling sites that were acquired in August 2019 on board the RV Discovery's cruise expedition. These data contain details on the density of phytoplankton (cell L-1), total number of species, volume seawater filtered (in L) and the concentration factors (ml) in MS. Data presented in this article consists of 163 species, including unidentified species from 6 phyla of phytoplankton, along with the percentage of a major community group in MS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Expeditions
  2. Freitag H, Pangantihon CV, Njunjić I
    Zookeys, 2018.
    PMID: 29740222 DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.754.24276
    Further results are presented of the first field course at Maliau Basin, Malaysian Borneo organized by Taxon Expeditions, an organization which enables citizen scientists to be directly involved in taxonomic discoveries. Three new species of the aquatic beetle genus Grouvellinus Champion, 1923, namely G. leonardodicaprioisp. n., G. andrekuipersisp. n., and G. questsp. n. were collected jointly by the citizen scientists and taxonomists during the fieldwork in Maliau Basin. Material was mainly sampled from sandstone bottom rocks of blackwater streams at altitudes between 900 m and 1,000 m using fine-meshed hand-nets. The genus is widely distributed in the Oriental and Palearctic regions, but these are the first records from the island of Borneo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Expeditions
  3. Schilthuizen M, Berenyi AEA, Limin A, Brahim A, Cicuzza D, Eales AJ, et al.
    PMID: 30740026 DOI: 10.3897/BDJ.7.e32555
    Background: Clavicornaltica is a genus of very small flea beetles living in the leaf litter layer of Asian forests, easily sampled with Winkler extraction. The genus is presumably very rich in species, but their taxonomy is hampered by their small size and morphological uniformity.

    New information: On a 'taxon expedition'-style field course at Kuala Belalong Field Studies Centre in Brunei Darussalam (Borneo), a new species, Clavicornaltica belalongensis n. sp., was discovered and taxonomically treated by the course participants. We also present the first DNA barcodes for the genus.

    Matched MeSH terms: Expeditions
  4. Kuek FWI, Aazani Mujahid, Lim Pt, Leaw Cp, Müller M
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:915-931.
    Little is known about the diversity and roles of microbial communities in the South China Sea, especially the eastern
    region. This study aimed to expand our knowledge on the diversity of these communities in Malaysian waters, as well as
    their potential involvement in the breakdown or osmoregulation of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP). Water samples
    were collected during local cruises (Kuching, Kota Kinabalu, and Semporna) from the SHIVA expedition and the diversity
    of bacterial communities were analysed through the isolation and identification of 176 strains of cultured bacteria. The
    bacteria were further screened for the existence of two key genes (dmdA, dddP) which were involved in competing,
    enzymatically-mediated DMSP degradation pathways. The composition of bacterial communities in the three areas varied
    and changes were mirrored in physico-chemical parameters. Riverine input was highest in Kuching, which was mirrored
    by dominance of potentially pathogenic Vibrio sp., whereas the Kota Kinabalu community was more indicative of an
    open ocean environment. Isolates obtained from Kota Kinabalu and Semporna showed that the communities in these
    areas have potential roles in bioremediation, nitrogen fixing and sulphate reduction. Bacteria isolated from Kuching
    displayed the highest abundance (44%) of both DMSP-degrading genes, while the bacterial community in Kota Kinabalu
    had the highest percentage (28%) of dmdA gene occurrence and the dddP gene responsible for DMS production was
    most abundant (33%) within the community in Semporna. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study looking at
    the diversity of culturable bacteria in coastal waters of East Malaysia and also their potential roles in the DMS(P) cycle.
    Matched MeSH terms: Expeditions
  5. Madulid DA
    J Ethnopharmacol, 1996 Apr;51(1-3):205-8.
    PMID: 9213618
    In October, 1993, 16 months after the United Nations approved the International Convention on Biodiversity held in Rio de Janeiro, June, 1992, the Philippine Congress ratified and adopted the Convention. This is a manifestation of the full support of the Philippines for the principles and policies adopted by the UN body on the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable development of biological resources and equitable sharing of benefits between users and owners of biodiversity resources. The Philippine scientific community has long recognized the need for and importance of a national guideline and policy with regard to the collection of plants and animals in the Philippines for scientific or commercial purposes. A series of consultative meetings were held by representatives of government agencies, non-government organizations, private organizations, academic and private persons concerned with biodiversity conservation to formulate national guidelines that regulate the collection of plant and animal specimens in the country. Guidelines were unanimously adopted by various government agencies and academia and a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) was signed on September 28, 1990. Very recently a new document was drafted, specifically to serve as a guideline for those who desire to undertake sample collecting in the Philippines for biodiversity prospecting. The document is now being reviewed by government departments and agencies and will be presented to the President of the Philippines for signing as an Executive Order (EO). Once signed, this EO will serve as a national policy for bioprospecting in the country. The Philippines is one of the countries in Southeast Asia that has endorsed the adoption of regional guidelines on the collection of plant and animal organisms for drug development. The ASEAN Agreement on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (1985). The Manila Declaration (1992) and lately, the Melaka Accord (1994), all of which were signed by various countries in Asia, are manifestations of this interest.
    Matched MeSH terms: Expeditions/legislation & jurisprudence*
  6. Muid S, Abu Bakar NA, Abdul Rahman T, Tengku Ismail TS, Kholin SF, Suvorov AV, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2019 Dec;41(3):283-292.
    PMID: 31901913
    INTRODUCTION: Apart from inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, other key components in the development of atherogenesis include prothrombogenesis and oxidative stress. The effects of long-term confinement and isolation, exposure to radiation and different gravity forces during space travel could potentially increase the long-term risk of atherosclerosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study determining the status of prothrombogenesis and oxidative stress in six cosmonauts subjected to the longest duration of confined isolation period of 520 days in preparation for prospective undetermined manned space travel to Mars.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This collaborative research between the National Space Agency (ANGKASA), Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia and Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), Russia was conducted at the Russian Academy of Sciences IBMP, Moscow, Russia. Six multi-national cosmonauts were assigned to live in a ground-based confined module for 520 days. Standard exercise and diet regime were instituted throughout the isolation phase. Six age, ethnic and gender-matched healthy, free-living ground controls were recruited in parallel. Serial serum and whole blood were analysed for biomarkers of prothrombogenesis [plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and homocysteine] and oxidative stress [oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and malondialdehyde (MDA)].

    RESULTS: There were significantly lower concentrations of PAI-1 and homocysteine in cosmonauts during confinement compared to the controls. There were no significant differences seen in the concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress during confinement but there was a significant percentage change increment for serum MDA in cosmonauts.

    CONCLUSION: Long-term confinement decreased the risk of prothrombogenesis and this could be attributed to the exercise and diet regime which includes omega-3 fatty acids supplementation given to the crew members during their confinement period. However, oxidative damage could not be excluded and may be attributed to the influence of psychological stress during this prolonged confinement.

    Matched MeSH terms: Expeditions*
  7. Shahrudin S, Jaafar IH, Rahim ND, Akil MA
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2011 May;22(1):13-24.
    PMID: 24575206
    The herpetofauna of Beris Valley, Kedah, Malaysia, was studied using a rapid assessment survey during a scientific expedition organised by the School of Biological Sciences at the Universiti Sains Malaysia, from 14-17 August 2009. All amphibians and reptiles were observed and captured during the four-day survey along the ditches, roads, dam areas, swamps, forest trails and streams. The results showed that 14 species of amphibians from 9 genera and 5 families inhabit the area, and 7 species of lizards, 5 species of snakes and 2 species of freshwater turtles were also present in the area. Fejervarya limnocharis and Microhyla butleri seemed to be the most common amphibians, while Hemidactylus frenatus and Varanus salvator were the most common reptiles in the area. This report constitutes a preliminary checklist and first record of amphibians and reptiles in Beris Valley, Kedah. The number of specimens was less than expected because of the very short survey period, but we hope to record more species in future studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Expeditions
  8. Jaaman, S.A., Mohamed, C.A.R.
    ASM Science Journal, 2014;8(2):143-149.
    MyJurnal
    Marine mammal searches were opportunistically conducted during the East Coast Johor Scientific Expedition (ECJSE) on 21-30 May 2012, on a live-on-board (LOB) diving vessel, MV BLACK PEARL. The expedition was designed mainly to survey coral reef ecosystems and water quality. Daylight visual observations of the sea were undertaken during sailing and stopping/anchored from the most upper open-deck of the vessel. The survey resulted in two sightings of long-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus capensis), each at Pulau Aur and Pulau Tinggi. Both observations were brief (< 5 minutes) and were made when the vessel was anchored. Based on anecdotal evidences, skeletal remains and previous surveys, the vulnerable dugong, Indo-Pacific bottlenose, Indo-Pacific humpback, Irrawaddy and long-beaked common dolphins, the false killer and pygmy killer whales, and the baleen whales are known to occur in the East Coast Johor waters, at least occasionally. The low sighting rate with marine mammals during this survey is highly likely caused by the survey design and also may be due to the environmental conditions and ecological factors. Dedicated and periodical boat and aerial surveys for marine mammals need to be conducted to determine species diversity and to understand the seasonality, habitat use, and social interactions of the marine mammal populations in the area. The findings will be most useful for marine park and fisheries authorities to plan conservation management strategies for marine mammals and promote their conservation through eco-tourism activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Expeditions
  9. Wong RR, Lim ZS, Shaharuddin NA, Zulkharnain A, Gomez-Fuentes C, Ahmad SA
    PMID: 33562609 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18041512
    Diesel acts as a main energy source to complement human activities in Antarctica. However, the increased expedition in Antarctica has threatened the environment as well as its living organisms. While more efforts on the use of renewable energy are being done, most activities in Antarctica still depend heavily on the use of diesel. Diesel contaminants in their natural state are known to be persistent, complex and toxic. The low temperature in Antarctica worsens these issues, making pollutants more significantly toxic to their environment and indigenous organisms. A bibliometric analysis had demonstrated a gradual increase in the number of studies on the microbial hydrocarbon remediation in Antarctica over the year. It was also found that these studies were dominated by those that used bacteria as remediating agents, whereas very little focus was given on fungi and microalgae. This review presents a summary of the collective and past understanding to the current findings of Antarctic microbial enzymatic degradation of hydrocarbons as well as its genotypic adaptation to the extreme low temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Expeditions
  10. Barrett JP, Behrens RH
    J Travel Med, 1996 Mar 01;3(1):60-61.
    PMID: 9815425
    Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax was originally reported in Papua, New Guinea by Reickman in 1989.1 In the same year, in Colombia, South America, Arias and Corredor2 reported relapses of 11 patients suffering from vivax malaria, following a chloroquine-primaquine regimen. Garavelli and Corti3 suggested chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax may be present in Brazil following these therapeutic relapses. Further therapeutic failures in returned travelers from South America were reported by Moore et al (1994).4 We report vivax malaria in a group of expeditioners visiting Guyana who, whereas compliant with antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, developed clinical malaria, adding evidence to the presence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax in South America. Raleigh International is a youth development charity that undertakes environmental and community projects around the world. These are usually in remote locations. Nine expeditions in countries such as Chile, Belize, Zimbabwe, Uganda, and Malaysia are organized annually. A project manager and a medical officer are placed at each site, along with approximately 10 venturers (age 17-25.) Participants are of all nationalities, but, at present, they are predominantly British.
    Matched MeSH terms: Expeditions
  11. Nazrina Hassan, Yong Meng Hsien, Wan Haslina Wan Abdul Halim, Norshamsiah Md Din
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: High altitude retinopathy (HAR) is part of high altitude illness (HAI) which includes acute mountain sickness, high altitude cerebral oedema and pulmonary oedema. We present a case of bilateral HAR with right eye central scotoma during Mount Everest expedition. Case description: A 37-year-old lady presented with decreased right eye (OD) vision and central scotoma during ascending to the top of Mount Everest at 5100m. She developed respiratory symptoms with shortness of breath at the same time and warranted her a rapid descend on day eight of her excursion. Ocular examination revealed visual acuity of 6/36 OD and 6/6 left eye (OS). Both pupils were normal without relative afferent pupillary defect. Anterior segment and intraocular pressure were unremarkable. Fundus examination revealed bilateral multiple retinal haemorrhages along vascular arcades, with macula involvement in the right eye only. Otherwise there was no sign of optic disc swelling, vascular sheathing or choroidal involvement. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the macula showed hyperreflectivity changes on the right fovea at the level of superficial nerve fiber layer. Diagnosis of bilateral HAR was made and treated conservatively. She was also diag-nosed with HAI with acute pulmonary oedema and pneumonia by the treating physician. The retinal haemorrhages started to resolve after two weeks with full recovery of vision in ten weeks. Conclusion: With increasing popularity of mountaineering, ophthalmologists should be prepared to recognise HAR as part of HAI. Visual impairment depends on the location and extent of the lesions. HAR is self-limiting with good prognosis but can be associated with poten-tially fatal conditions of HAI e.g. pulmonary oedema in our case.
    Matched MeSH terms: Expeditions
  12. Thuhairah Rahman, Radzi Ahmad, Suhaila Muid, Tengku Saifudin Tengku Ismail, Buravkova, Ludmila B., Hapizah Nawawi
    MyJurnal
    Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are key components in atherogenesis. Should the status of these pro-atherogenesis factors be enhanced during prolonged confined space travel, specific countermeasures need to be instituted to prevent these processes to ensure safe outcome for astronauts during space expeditions. Six crew members were exposed to prolonged, confined isolation for 520 days. Standard exercise and diet regime were instituted throughout isolation phase. Age and gender-matched healthy, free living controls were recruited in parallel. Serial serum and whole blood were analysed for biomarkers of inflammation (hsCRP and IL-6) and endothelial activation (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and E-selectin). Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the artery was performed following the standard protocols set by the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force by trained personnel. There was decreased sVCAM-1 concentration in crew members compared to baseline. However, there was significant decrease in percentage dilatation from baseline in FMD of the brachial artery in the crew members. Percent change increment was observed in hsCRP while percent change reduction was seen in sVCAM-1. The enhanced inflammation and reduced endothelial function could possibly be attributed to the rigorous exercise instituted throughout the confinement period. Furthermore, possible haemoconcentration as a result of psychosocial stress and/ or exercise-induced physiological response could further explain elevations in hsCRP, and unlikely pathological. Furthermore, endothelial activation was attenuated during isolation, suggesting that the diet and exercise program instated throughout the period improved endothelial function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Expeditions
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