INTRODUCTION: This study sets out to investigate any differences in dietary practices between adolescents in Singapore and Malaysia.
METHODS: An adolescent dietary practices survey was conducted in Singapore and Malaysia involving 200 adolescents (100 from each country) aged 11 to 21 years in order to have a better understanding of the adolescents' dietary practices. Dietary practices were assessed by a self-administered dietary practices questionnaire (DPQ).
RESULTS: The major differences identified between adolescents' dietary practices in Singapore and Malaysia are related to alcohol consumption and venue for taking of lunch. More Malaysian adolescents have their lunch prepared at home (32.9 percent), compared with 7.2 percent of Singaporean adolescents. More adolescents in Malaysia drink alcohol (49.4 percent), compared with only 21.7 percent of Singaporean adolescents.
CONCLUSION: From the dietary practices survey of adolescents from Singapore and Malaysia, it may be concluded that while general dietary practices are similar, the major differences identified were significantly (p-value is less than 0.05) higher alcohol consumption by Malaysian adolescents and significantly (p-value is less than 0.05) more Malaysians took their lunch at home compared with Singaporeans. The reasons for the differences are discussed in the paper.
An examination of the fat composition of the diet of a Malaysian urban hostel population obtained by chemical analysis of representative meals prepared by a 7-day rotation menu, revealed both nutritional attributes and limitations when compared against the dietary messages contained in the American Heart Association (AHA) and World Health Organisation (WHO) models. The Malaysian diet supplies 26% kcal i.e. 66 g total fat (51 g vegetable fats, 15 g animal fats) and contains
Objective: A case of caffeine-induced sleep disorder is reported to illustrate the clinical benefits of assessing culturally determined health beliefs in such presentations. Method: A middle-aged Malaysian Chinese male presented with caffeine-induced sleep disturbance arising from dietary modifications. Result: Assessing the contribution of cultural beliefs regarding hot and cold drinks led to successful management of the patient’s sleep disturbance. Conclusion: It is important for clinicians to explore health beliefs and associated dietary and lifestyle behaviours in caffeine-related sleep disorders.
Objective :This study was performed to determine changes in diet and lifestyle among breast cancer survivors in Malaysia.
Methods :This was a qualitative study done on fifteen survivors (8 Malays and 7 non-Malays) obtained from the Oncology and Surgery Department, National University of Malaysia Hospital. The study was conducted using a semi-structured interview format. The data obtained were sorted into various categories via content analysis.
Results :Majority of breast cancer survivors increased their fruit and vegetable intake following diagnosis. Some non-Malays changed to vegetarian whereas all the Malays remained on the same dietary pattern. As far as exercise was concerned, all Malays did not exercise before diagnosis, but did so after diagnosis, whereas most of non- Malays did not exercise either before or after diagnosis.
Conclusion : Some changes were noticed in dietary and lifestyle behaviors after diagnosis among some survivors. The differences were due to their different cultural and religious backgrounds.
High intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may cause adverse changes in blood lipids as shown in many epidemiological studies. The major sources of TFA in human diet come from bakery products such as cookies, cakes, muffins, breads and pastries. In this study, total fat of baked products was determined using Soxhlet method while TFA content was determined on gas chromatograph using a highly polar capillary column and flame ionization detector. Exposure to TFA from the baked product was estimated based on Food Consumption Statistics of Malaysia 2003. High level of TFA was observed in muffins (3.21-7.34 g per 100 g food) followed by pastries (2.90-6.03 g per 100 g food) and cakes (2.26-8.36 g per 100 g food) regardless of products having brand name or not. Among the TFA isomers, trans 18:1 6t was the most abundant followed by trans 18:1 9t, trans 16:1 9t, trans 18:2 and small quantities of trans 18:1 11t. Exposure to TFA based on the Malaysian Food Consumption Statistics 2003 of the baked products was ranging from 0.14-0.18 g/day. Even with the low estimated exposure, actual intake of baked products must be monitored closely as other high fat food as these products is one of main contributor to TFA in the diet following their high frequency of daily intake.
At least 6 million deaths occurred worldwide are due to cancer and this figure is expected to rise to
15 millions by the year 2020. Colorectal cancer is among the most commonly occurring cancers
both globally and in Malaysia. Numerous studies have shown significant relationships between
various dietary components and the risks for colorectal cancer. Meanwhile, several theories have
been suggested as etiological explanations, one of which is the influence of dietary factors on the
cell proliferation rate. A higher cell proliferation rate is statistically associated with increased risk
of colorectal cancer. However, evidence of a significant relationship between diet and colorectal
adenomas, a potential precursor for colorectal cancer, remains insufficient. Colorectal adenomas or
polyps are vital in their relationship with colorectal cancers as almost 70% of all colorectal cancers
are developed from these polyps. Studying the modifiable risk factors related to polyps will provide
an opportunity for the prevention of colorectal cancer even before it develops. This paper reviews
the available evidence linking dietary factors with the risk for colorectal adenomas. As the numbers
of published studies are limited, of which most are concentrated in Western countries, there is a
need for epidemiological studies in Malaysia to strengthen the evidence of a relationship between
diet and colorectal adenomas.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the overall diet quality of husbands and wives in a selected urban area in Selangor.
Methodology: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor among 150 married couples aged 20 and above, who voluntarily agreed to participate and were not practicing any special diet. Data were collected using a 2-day 24-Hour Dietary Recall and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to evaluate the quality of diet among husbands and wives using the Diet Quality Index Revised (DQI-R).
Result: Majority of husbands and wives in this study were in the middle-age group, had received tertiary education, had household monthly income of more than RM3, 500 and encompass household size of 3 to 5 persons. The mean DQI-R score for husbands (mean age= 43.33 + 11.16 years) and wives (mean age= 41.28 + 10.93 years) were 67.8 + 9.1 and 64.4 + 9.3 respectively and there was a significant different in scores between the husbands and wives (p < 0.001). In general, the diet quality of this study population was not satisfactory and that the diet quality of husbands was better compared to their wives.
Conclusion: This study gives an insight picture of husbands and wives’ quality of diet. It can be used as a guideline to improve health intervention programs in the future.
This study aimed to identify the association of dietary patterns with sociodemographic and health-related characteristics among coronary artery disease patients. In this cross-sectional study, the participants were 250 patients coronary artery disease aged ≥ 40 years old. Data collection was done using questionnaires related to sociodemographics, health-related factors, and food-frequency intake information. Three dietary patterns (traditional, western, and healthy) were obtained using principal component analysis. The result showed that dietary patterns were associated with sociodemographic and health-related factors. According to the result, all the factors were taken very seriously when planning a promotional program for healthy lifestyle in prevention of CAD.
This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of low glycemic index (GI) dietary intervention for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), specifically from the Asian perspective. A systematic review of the literature using multiple databases without time restriction was conducted. Three studies were retrieved based upon a priori inclusion criteria. While there was a trend towards improvement, no significant differences were observed in overall glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes in GDM women. However, a tendency for lower birth weight and birth centile if the intervention began earlier was noted. Low GI diets were well accepted and had identical macro-micronutrient compositions as the control diets. However, due to genetic, environment and especially food pattern discrepancies between Western countries and Asians, these results may not be contributed to Asian context. Clearly, there are limited studies focusing on the effect of low GI dietary intervention in women with GDM, particularly in Asia.
Hunger is complex, encompassing experiences ranging from a family's forced acceptance of a monotonous diet to individual physiological pain. I evaluate the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) as a means of capturing the universal elements of hunger without doing violence to its culturally-specific expressions within two Malay communities. The HFIAS is assessed conceptually by comparing its assumptions and concept-to-measurement gap with competing indicators and practically with respect to village conditions and practices. This case study recommends the HFIAS for this site and for communities that similarly lack maternal buffering, while highlighting the unique features of the local hunger experience.
BACKGROUND: Eating habits have been a major concern among university students as a determinant of health status. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of eating habits and its associated social and psychological factors among medical students.
METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 132 medical students of pre-clinical phase at a Malaysian university. A self-administered questionnaire was used which included questions on socio-demography, anthropometry, eating habits and psychosocial factors.
RESULTS: Mean (± SD) age of the respondents was 22.7 (± 2.4) years and (the age) ranged from 18 to 30 years. More than half had regular meals and breakfast (57.6% &, 56.1% respectively). Majority (73.5%) consumed fruits less than three times per week, 51.5% had fried food twice or more a week and 59.8% drank water less than 2 liters daily. Eating habits score was significantly low among younger students (18-22 years), smokers, alcohol drinkers and those who did not exercise. (p<0.05). Four psychological factors out of six, were significantly associated with eating habits (p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, age and 'eating because of feeling happy' were significantly associated with eating habits score (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Most of the students in this study had healthy eating habits. Social and psychological factors were important determinants of eating habits among medical students.
Study site: Management and Science University, Selangor, Malaysia
Scales & Questionnaires: Compulsive Eating Scale
Food variety scores (FVS) and dietary diversity scores (DDS) were estimated based on foods consumed weekly by 285 Malaysian households using a food frequency questionnaire. The scoring system of FVS and DDS was based on a scale of 0-7 and 0-6 respectively. The mean household FVS and DDS was 164.1 ± 93 and 6 ± 0.4. The age of respondents (husbands or wives; p < .01), sex (p < .05), and household food expenditure (p < .01) had a significant influence on both FVS and DDS. The food-intake pattern of Malaysian households showed that their typical diets had high protein and energy-based foods.
Colorectal cancer is the third and fourth leading cause of cancer incidence and mortality among men and women, respectively in Iran. However, the role of dietary factors that could contribute to this high cancer incidence remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and its relationship with colorectal cancer.
Maternal nutrition has a programming effect on fetal growth. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between maternal micronutrient, fruit and vegetable intake with birth size. Nutrient and food intake were examined using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. One hundred twenty-one pregnant women at 28 to 38 weeks gestation aged 19-40 years, were recruited from the Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital, Malaysia. Birth weight, length and head circumference were obtained from the medical records. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results indicate no significant association between any of the measured micronutrients and birth size. However, 2 of the 6 vegetable subgroups and those consumed fruit during pregnancy had children whose birth size was significantly associated with consumption. An increase of 10 g of leafy vegetables per day was associated with a 1.78 cm increase in head circumference (p = 0.04), and tuber vegetable intake was associated with birth length (beta = 0.21, p = 0.03) and head circumference (beta = 0.21, p = 0.01). Fruit intake was associated with birth weight (beta = 0.19, p = 0.04), birth length (beta = 0.20, p = 0.04) and head circumference (beta = 0.19, p = 0.03). The lack of association between maternal nutrient intake and fetal growth and the significant association between fruit and vegetable intake and birth size suggests the existence of other micronutrients and phytochemicals present in foods that play an important role in birth size. The types of nutrients and their roles in birth size warrant further investigation.
The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is exceptionally low among the Malays in the north-eastern region of Peninsular Malaysia. The reasons are unknown. Our aim was to compare environmental factors that differed in relation to H. pylori prevalence among Malays born and residing in Kelantan.
INTRDUCTION: Obesity and chronic diseases have been increasing since the last few decades alongside rapid economic development in developed and developing countries. The alarming increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity had been shown by many epidemiological studies worldwide. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese school children in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, and to map the association between dietary practices and their nutritional status.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 278 school children aged 10 to 12 years old (144 boys and 134 girls) studying in a Chinese primary school in Kota Bharu.
RESULTS: The survey revealed that while only 1.4% (n=4) were overweight, 23.4% (n=65) of the children were obese. A total of 67.7% (n=44) of the obese children were boys. The overweight and obese children (n=70) were compared with a randomly selected group of normal weight children (n=70). Dietary assessment showed that protein, fat and total calorie intake were significantly higher among the overweight group (p<0.05). A significantly higher proportion of the normal weight children (85.7%) took breakfast daily or at least 4 days per week compared to the overweight groups (59.4%) (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of obesity among school children in the study is a matter of concern. These findings may be useful in targeting programmes and strategies for prevention and intervention of childhood obesity.
Tracheobronchial foreign bodies, which are common in children, are a leading cause of accidental deaths in children under four years of age. Three cases of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in children less than two years old are described. One of the foreign bodies was unsuspected; the other two were probably related to food habits. All three cases improved without sequelae following prompt bronchoscopic intervention. Young children should not be given food containing bones or hard chitinous shells.
The recovery of six adult Gnathostoma spinigerum Owen, 1936 from a civet cat, Prionodon linsang Hardwick, constitutes the second reported record of this parasite and the first authenticated case of adult worms found in a wild animal from Malaysia. The food habits of the infected P. linsang as an important link in the transmission of G. spinigerum in the intermediate and definitive hosts together with the probable distribution of this parasite are discussed.