Between June 1977 and May 1982, 2,291 samples of raw, cooked and dried foods were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Of these samples, 43 were positive, isolations being made from raw foods (4.8%) and cooked foods (0.4%) but not from dried foods. 14 Salmonella seratypes were isolated, Salmonella anatum being the most predominant. The significance of these isolations is discussed and the need for consumer education to reduce the incidence of human salmonellosis is emphasised.
A total of 234 samples of food, consisting of 158 of raw and 76 samples of ready-to-eat food were examined for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes. The frequencies of L. monocytogenes contamination in raw foods were: chicken portions (60%), liver (60%) and gizzard (62%), beef (50%), beansprout (85%), prawns (44%), kupang (dried oysters) (33%), bean cake (25%), satay (48%) and leafy vegetables (22%). Of the ready-to-eat foods: satay (26%), prawns, squids, clams and chicken dishes (22%), cucumber (80%) and peanut sauce (20%) were found to yield L. monocytogenes.
Amino acids (AAs) are vital elements for growth, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Current technology uses genetically engineered microorganisms for AAs production, which has urged the search for a safer food-grade AA producer strain. The extracellular proteolytic activities of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be a vital tool to hydrolyze extracellular protein molecules into free AAs, thereby exhibiting great potential for functional AA production. In this study, eight LAB isolated from Malaysian foods were determined for their extracellular proteolytic activities and their capability of producing AAs. All studied LAB exhibited versatile extracellular proteolytic activities from acidic to alkaline pH conditions. In comparison, Pediococcus pentosaceus UP-2 exhibited the highest ability to produce 15 AAs extracellularly, including aspartate, lysine, methionine, threonine, isoleucine, glutamate, proline, alanine, valine, leucine, tryptophan, tyrosine, serine, glycine, and cystine, followed by Pediococcus pentosaceus UL-2, Pediococcus acidilactici UB-6, and Pediococcus acidilactici UP-1 with 11 to 12 different AAs production detected extracellularly. Pediococcus pentosaceus UL-6 demonstrated the highest increment of proline production at 24 h of incubation. However, Pediococcusacidilactici UL-3 and Lactobacillus plantarum I-UL4 exhibited the greatest requirement for AA. The results of this study showed that different LAB possess different extracellular proteolytic activities and potentials as extracellular AA producers.
A study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella among broilers retailed at wet-markets and processing plants. Litter and feed samples obtained from both broiler and breeder farms were also examined for Salmonella. A total of 158 out of 445 (35.5%) and 52 out of 104 (50.0%) broiler carcasses obtained from wet-markets and processing plants were contaminated with Salmonella, respectively. Salmonella was isolated from 14 out of 98 (14.3%) samples of intestinal content. Litter samples from broiler and breeder farms were positive for Salmonella, 8/40 (20%) and 2/10 (20%), respectively. Salmonella isolates (230) belonging to 15 different serovars were isolated. Predominant serovars were S. enteritidis, S. muenchen, S. kentucky and S. blockley.
Enterotoxin production by strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods unconnected with outbreaks offood poisoning was investigated. Twenty-three percent of 217 strains examined produced enterotoxins A, B, C, D or E. Enterotoxin C was found to occur most frequently. Enterotoxin A was not detected alone from any of the strains examined, but occurred together with other enterotoxins. The overall number of strains isolated from raw foods which produced one or more enterotoxins was higher than that for cooked foods. Antibiotic sensitivities were unrelated to enterotoxin production and no correlation could be found between methicillin resistance and enterotoxigenicity.
Forty samples of Malaysian cooked foods were examined for the presence of antibiotic-resistant coliforms and R plasmids. Twenty seven (68%) of the foods had antibiotic-resistant coliforms and 5 (13%) had R plasmids. Nineteen samples (48%) had total bacterial counts over 10(6) per gm and in 5 samples, no coliforms were detected. Our findings show that cooked food may be one possible way by which R plasmids are spread. The control of the spread of R plasmids is discussed.
A survey of lettuce sold in Penang markets showed them to be heavily contaminated with faecal coliforms and nearly half the samples were positive for Salmonella or Shigella. The use of night soil on these vegetables is a likely cause of gastroenteritis.
Large-scale food-borne outbreaks caused by Salmonella are rarely seen nowadays, thanks to the advanced nature of the medical system. However, small, localised outbreaks in certain regions still exist and could possess a huge threat to the public health if eradication measure is not initiated. This review discusses the progress of Salmonella detection approaches covering their basic principles, characteristics, applications, and performances. Conventional Salmonella detection is usually performed using a culture-based method, which is time-consuming, labour intensive, and unsuitable for on-site testing and high-throughput analysis. To date, there are many detection methods with a unique detection system available for Salmonella detection utilising immunological-based techniques, molecular-based techniques, mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, optical phenotyping, and biosensor methods. The electrochemical biosensor has growing interest in Salmonella detection mainly due to its excellent sensitivity, rapidity, and portability. The use of a highly specific bioreceptor, such as aptamers, and the application of nanomaterials are contributing factors to these excellent characteristics. Furthermore, insight on the types of biorecognition elements, the principles of electrochemical transduction elements, and the miniaturisation potential of electrochemical biosensors are discussed.
A total of 63 beef offal samples (beef liver = 16; beef lung = 14; beef intestine = 9; beef tripe = 15; beef spleen = 9) from three wet markets (A, B, and C) in Selangor, Malaysia were examined for the prevalence and microbial load of Listeria monocytogenes. A combination of the most probable number and polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) method was employed in this study. It was found that L. monocytogenes detected in 33.33% of the beef offal samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in beef offal purchased from wet markets A, B, and C were 22.73%, 37.50% and 41.18% respectively. The density of L. monocytogenes in all the samples ranged from < 3 up to > 2,400 MPN/g. The findings in this study indicate that beef offal can be a potential vehicle of foodborne listeriosis.
This study was conducted to determine the Campylobacter contamination rate of chicken carcasses and the processing lines of modern processing plants in Malaysia. Three hundred sixty samples were collected from 24 flocks of broiler chickens at 12 modern poultry processing plants in 6 states of Malaysia. Fresh fecal droppings were collected from crates in the arrival area. Neck skin samples were taken from processed chicken carcasses at 3 different processing stages: before inside-outside washing, after inside-outside washing and post chilling. Swab samples from the scalding tank, chilling tank and conveyer belt before chilling were also collected to determine contamination with Campylobacter in the slaughter house environment prior to slaughter. Isolation for Campylobacter was performed following ISO 10272-1:2006(E). The overall of contamination rate with Campylobacter at the 12 plants was 61.0% (220/360). Eighty point six percent of the samples from before the inside-outside wishing step were contaminated with Campylobacter, as were 62.5% of the samples after the inside washing and 38.9% after the post-chilling step. This study shows extensive contamination of chicken carcasses and slaughtering houses in Malaysia with Campylobacter.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence Listeria monocytogenes in raw chicken meat samples at hypermarkets and wet markets. Chicken drumsticks, breasts, and thighs were randomly selected. The most probable number (MPN) PCR method was used to quantify the L. monocytogenes in the samples. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in 20% of the samples. Occurrence of L. monocytogenes was highest in breast (42.03%) followed by drumstick (11.27%) and thigh (7.14%). Samples from hypermarkets showed higher occurrence (25.71%) of L. monocytogenes compared with wet markets (14.29%). The density of L. monocytogenes found in samples ranged from <3.0 to 16 MPN•g(-1). The presence of L. monocytogenes in raw chicken meat is unwanted but unpreventable. Thus, further research on the processing method to reduce and eliminate this kind of bacteria in chicken meat before consumption is necessary. The presence of L. monocytogenes in chicken samples suggests the importance of this pathogen in chicken. Thus, more study is needed to find ways to eliminate this pathogen from poultry.
Experiments were performed to determine the thermal resistance of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in three types of dairy products containing increased amounts of fat content (skim milk, homogenized milk; 3.5% MFG, and table cream; 18% MFG). HAV-inoculated dairy products were introduced into custom-made U-shaped microcapillary tubes that in turn were simultaneously immersed in a waterbath, using custom-made floating boats and a carrying platform. Following exposure to the desired time and temperature combinations, the contents of each of the tubes was retrieved and was tested by plaque assay to determine the reduction in virus titer. Our data indicated that < 0.5 min at 85 degrees C was sufficient to cause a 5-log reduction in HAV titer in all three dairy products, whereas at 80 degrees C, < or = 0.68 min (for skim and homogenized milk), and 1.24 min (for cream) were needed to cause a similar log reduction. Using a nonlinear two-phase negative exponential model (two-compartment model) to analyze the data, it was found that at temperatures of 65, 67, 69, 71, and 75 degrees C, significantly (P < 0.05) higher exposure times were needed to achieve a 1-log reduction in virus titer in cream, as compared to skim and homogenized milk. For example, at 71 degrees C, a significantly (P < 0.05) higher exposure time of 0.52 min (for cream) was needed as compared to < or = 0.18 min (for skim and homogenized milk) to achieve a 1-log reduction in virus titer. A similar trend of inactivation was observed at 73 and 75 degrees C where significantly (P < 0.05) higher exposure times of 0.29 to 0.36 min for cream were needed to cause a 1-log reduction in HAV in cream, as compared to < or = 0.17 min for skim and homogenized milk. This study has provided information on the heat resistance of HAV in skim milk, homogenized milk, and table cream and demonstrated that an increase in fat content appears to play a protective role and contributes to the heat stability of HAV.
The incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in products of the Malaysian export shrimp processing industry was investigated through the stages from the catch to that of the cooked, peeled and frozen product. The organism was commonly found in freshly caught and landed shrimp, and could be detected by enrichment culture at all stages of processing. The number of V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp varied from nil to 4x10(4), and 19 of the 50 serotypes in the current antigenic scheme were found, O1-K38 and O1-K32 occurring most often. All the isolates were Kanagawa-negative; one strain was a sucrose-positive variant. The study indicated that specifications of 10(2) g-1 for V. parahaemolyticus in raw tropical shellfish are too stringent but that the Malaysian shrimp industry should be able to meet this requirement for cooked shrimp.
A total of 360 samples including fresh fecal droppings, neck skins, and swab samples was collected from 24 broiler flocks and processed by 12 modern processing plants in 6 states in Malaysia. Ninety samples from 10 traditional wet markets located in the same states as modern processing plants were also collected. Microbiological isolation for Campylobacter was performed following ISO 10272-1:2006 (E). The overall rate of contamination for Campylobacter in modern processing plants and in traditional wet markets was 61.1% (220/360) and 85.6% (77/90), respectively. Campylobacter jejuni was detected as the majority with approximately 70% for both facilities. In the modern processing plants, the contamination rate for Campylobacter gradually declined from 80.6% before the inside-outside washing to 62.5% after inside-outside washing and to 38.9% after the post chilling step. The contamination rate for Campylobacter from processed chicken neck skin in traditional wet markets (93.3%) was significantly (P<0.01) higher than in modern processing plants (38.9%).
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most frequent causes of bacterial gastrointestinal food-borne infection worldwide. This species is part of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tracts of animals used for food production, including poultry, which is regarded as the primary source of human Campylobacter infections. The survival and persistence of C. jejuni in food processing environments, especially in poultry processing plants, represent significant risk factors that contribute to the spread of this pathogen through the food chain. Compared to other food-borne pathogens, C. jejuni is more fastidious in its growth requirements and is very susceptible to various environmental stressors. Biofilm formation is suggested to play a significant role in the survival of C. jejuni in the food production and processing environment. The aims of this minireview were (i) to examine the evidence that C. jejuni forms biofilms and (ii) to establish the extent to which reported and largely laboratory-based studies of C. jejuni biofilms provide evidence for biofilm formation by this pathogen in food processing environments. Overall existing studies do not provide strong evidence for biofilm formation (as usually defined) by most C. jejuni strains in food-related environments under the combined conditions of atmosphere, temperature, and shear that they are likely to encounter. Simple attachment to and survival on surfaces and in existing biofilms of other species are far more likely to contribute to C. jejuni survival in food-related environments based on our current understanding of this species.
Since the introduction of the molecularly imprinting technology (MIT) in 1970s, it becomes an emerging technology with the potential for wide-ranging applications in food manufacturing, processing, analysis and quality control. It has been successfully applied in food microbiology, removal of undesirable components
from food matrices, detection of hazardous residues or pollutants and sensors. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) is the most common application so far. The review describes the methods of making the molecularly imprinted polymer systems, the application of the technology in food safety issues and the remaining challenges.
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) combined with powerful bioinformatic approaches are revolutionising food microbiology. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of single isolates allows the most detailed comparison possible hitherto of individual strains. The two principle approaches for strain discrimination, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and genomic multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) are showing concordant results for phylogenetic clustering and are complementary to each other. Metabarcoding and metagenomics, applied to total DNA isolated from either food materials or the production environment, allows the identification of complete microbial populations. Metagenomics identifies the entire gene content and when coupled to transcriptomics or proteomics, allows the identification of functional capacity and biochemical activity of microbial populations. The focus of this review is on the recent use and future potential of NGS in food microbiology and on current challenges. Guidance is provided for new users, such as public health departments and the food industry, on the implementation of NGS and how to critically interpret results and place them in a broader context. The review aims to promote the broader application of NGS technologies within the food industry as well as highlight knowledge gaps and novel applications of NGS with the aim of driving future research and increasing food safety outputs from its wider use.
As one of Lianyungang's most famous specialties, Acanthogobius hasta is delicious and nutritious fish, but is extremely susceptible to spoilage during transportation and storage. In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum MMB-07 was isolated from traditional fermented sour fish to reduce losses and improve the utilization and food value of A. hasta. L. plantarum MMB-07 had good ability of acid production and acid resistance. Moreover, it could also inhibit common pathogens in food or aquatic products to ensure the safety of fermented products. MMB-07 was used to ferment A. hasta and obtain fermented Suanyu rich in nutrition value and good flavor. The volatile base nitrogen was 18.44 mg/100 g and the fermented fish meat maintained second-grade freshness. Thiobarbituric acid assay was 0.90 mg/kg and fat in fish meat was oxidized to a low degree. The studies indicated that MMB-07 has a high application prospect in low salt fermented fish.
A total of 90 samples comprising powdered infant formulas (n=51), follow-up formulas (n=21), and infant foods (n=18) from 15 domestic and imported brands were purchased from various retailers in Klang Valley, Malaysia and evaluated in terms of microbiological quality and the similarity of rehydration instructions on the product label to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Microbiological analysis included the determination of aerobic plate count (APC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Cronobacter spp. Isolates of interest were identified using ID 32E (bioMérieux France, Craponne, France). In this study, 87% of powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods analyzed had an APC below the permitted level of <10(4) cfu/g. These acceptable APC ranged between <10(2) to 7.2×10(3) cfu/g. The most frequently isolated Enterobacteriaceae was Enterobacter cloacae, which was present in 3 infant formulas and 1 infant food tested. Other Enterobacteriaceae detected from powdered infant and follow-up formulas were Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and other Enterobacter spp. No Cronobacter species were found in any samples. Rehydration instructions from the product labels were collated and it was observed that none directed the use of water with a temperature >70°C for formula preparation, as specified by the 2008 revised World Health Organization guidelines. Six brands instructed the use of water at 40 to 55°C, a temperature range that would support the survival and even growth of Enterobacteriaceae.
Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has emerged as a promising nanomaterial for reliable detection of pathogenic bacteria due to its exceptional properties such as ultrahigh electron transfer ability, large surface to volume ratio, biocompatibility, and its unique interactions with DNA bases of the aptamer. In this study, rGO-azophloxine (AP) nanocomposite aptasensor was developed for a sensitive, rapid, and robust detection of foodborne pathogens. Besides providing an excellent conductive and soluble rGO nanocomposite, the AP dye also acts as an electroactive indicator for redox reactions. The interaction of the label-free single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) aptamer with the test organism, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry analysis, and this aptasensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity for whole-cell bacteria detection. Under optimum conditions, this aptasensor exhibited a linear range of detection from 108 to 101 cfu mL-1 with good linearity (R 2 = 0.98) and a detection limit of 101 cfu mL-1. Furthermore, the developed aptasensor was evaluated with non-Salmonella bacteria and artificially spiked chicken food sample with S. Typhimurium. The results demonstrated that the rGO-AP aptasensor possesses high potential to be adapted for the effective and rapid detection of a specific foodborne pathogen by an electrochemical approach. Graphical abstract Fabrication of graphene-based nanocomposite aptasensor for detection of foodborne pathogen.