Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 45 in total

  1. Alsaleh M, Abdul-Rahim AS, Abdulwakil MM
    J Environ Manage, 2021 Sep 15;294:112960.
    PMID: 34116310 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112960
    This study examined the impact of worldwide governance indicators on the sustainability of the bioenergy industry in selected European countries for the period 1996-2018. Applying the Fixed Effect (FE) Model, the results reveal that the bioenergy industry can significantly grow by improving the quality of worldwide governance indicators in European countries, especially in Western European Countries (WEC). Government effectiveness, rule of law, regulatory quality, and voice and accountability are found to be increasing the growth of the bioenergy industry. Precisely, the results further show that the magnitude of the effect of government effectiveness, voice and accountability, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on bioenergy output is higher in Western European Countries (WEC) as compared to the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC). Also, the findings further elaborate that the significant positive impact of regulatory quality and rule of law on bioenergy output is higher in CEEC countries compared to the WEC countries. The finding implies that the growth of the bioenergy industry in European countries can be effectively increased by improving the practice and quality of worldwide governance indicators. The study recommends for European countries to increase the efficiency of worldwide governance in their bioenergy industry to increase the sustainability of bioenergy production and reduce Dioxide Carbon (CO2) emissions. Policymakers in these countries should also invest more in worldwide governance to increase its effectiveness and transparency in the bioenergy industry. The authorities should equally emphasize the effectiveness and transparency of worldwide governance indicators to attain bioenergy security and lessen the dependence on fossil fuels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels*
  2. Rafindadi AA, Yusof Z, Zaman K, Kyophilavong P, Akhmat G
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2014 Oct;21(19):11395-400.
    PMID: 24898296 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-3095-1
    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels*
  3. Go YH, Lau LS, Liew FM, Senadjki A
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Jan;28(3):3421-3433.
    PMID: 32918263 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10736-w
    Validity of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis is consistently and widely debated among economists and environmentalists alike throughout time. In Malaysia, transport is one of the "dirtiest" sectors; it intensively consumes energy in powering engines by using fossil fuels and poses significant threats to environmental quality. Therefore, this study attempted an examination into the impact of corruption on transport carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. By adopting the fully modified ordinary least squares, canonical cointegrating regression, and dynamic ordinary least squares in performing long-run estimations, the results obtained based on the annual data spanning from 1990 to 2017 yielded various notable findings. First, more corruption would be attributable towards increased transport CO2 emissions. Second, a monotonic increment of transport CO2 emission was seen with higher economic growth and thus invalidated the presence of EKC. Overall, this study suggests that Malaysia has yet to reach the level of economic growth synonymous with transport CO2 emission reduction due to the lack of high technology usage in the current system implemented. Therefore, this study could position policy recommendations of use to the Malaysian authorities in designing the appropriate economic and environmental policies, particularly for the transport sector.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels*
  4. Bello MO, Solarin SA, Yen YY
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 May;27(14):17162-17174.
    PMID: 32146676 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-08251-z
    The main objective of this paper is to estimate the interfuel substitution elasticities between hydropower and the fossil fuels of coal and natural gas used in the generation of electricity for Malaysia. Due to the violation of the assumption behind the ordinary least squares (OLS) method on account of the correlated error terms in the system of equations, the econometrics techniques of seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) was adopted to obtain the parameter estimates using dataset that covers the period 1988 to 2016. The main finding is that there exists substantial substitution possibility between hydropower and fossil fuels in the generation of electricity for Malaysia. CO2 emissions mitigation scenarios were also conducted to explore the possible effects of substituting fossil fuels for hydropower to generate electricity. The results show that switching from high carbon-emitting fuels to renewable energy such as hydropower will substantially reduce CO2 emission and assist the country towards achieving the carbon emissions reduction targets. Policy recommendations are offered in the body of the manuscript.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels*
  5. Khoo KS, Chew KW, Yew GY, Leong WH, Chai YH, Show PL, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 May;304:122996.
    PMID: 32115347 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.122996
    The world energy system faces two major challenges: the requirement for more energy and less carbon. It is important to address biofuels production as an alternative to the usage of fossil fuel by utilizing microalgae as the potential feedstock. Yet, the commercialization of microalgae remains contentious caused by factors relating to the life cycle assessment and feasibility of microalgae-based biofuels. This present review starts with an introduction to the benefits of microalgae, followed by intensive elaboration on microalgae cultivation parameters. Subsequently, the fundamental principle along with the advantages and disadvantages of various pretreatment techniques of microalgae were reviewed. In addition, the conventional and recent advances in lipid extraction techniques from microalgae were comprehensively evaluated. Comparative analysis regard to the gaps from previous studies was discussed point-by-point in each section. The effort presented in this review will provide an insight for future researches dealing with microalgae-biofuel production on downstream processing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels
  6. Shakib M, Yumei H, Rauf A, Alam M, Murshed M, Mahmood H
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2022 Jan;29(3):3808-3825.
    PMID: 34402005 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-15860-9
    The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is an ambitious development project initiated by the Chinese government to foster economic progress worldwide. In this regard, this study aims to investigate the dynamics of energy, economy, and environment among 42 BRI developing countries using an annual frequency panel dataset from 1995 to 2019. The major findings from the econometric analyses revealed that higher levels of energy consumption, economic growth, population growth rate, and FDI inflows exhibit adverse environmental consequences by boosting the CO2 emission figures of the selected developing BRI member nations. However, it is interesting to observe that exploiting renewable energy sources, which are relatively cleaner compared to the traditionally-consumed fossil fuels, and fostering agricultural sector development can significantly improve environmental well-being by curbing the emission levels further. On the other hand, financial development is found to be ineffective in explaining the variations in the CO2 emission figures of the selected countries. Besides, the causality analysis shows that higher energy consumption, FDI inflows, and agricultural development cause environmental pollution by boosting CO2 emissions. However, economic growth, technology development, financial progress, and renewable energy consumption are evidenced to exhibit bidirectional causal associations with CO2 emissions. In line with these findings, several relevant policies can be recommended for the BRI to be environmentally sustainable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels
  7. Erdiwansyah, Mamat R, Sani MSM, Sudhakar K
    Sci Total Environ, 2019 Jun 20;670:1095-1102.
    PMID: 31018425 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.273
    Southeast Asian countries stand at a crossroads concerning their shared energy future and heavily rely on fossil fuels for transport and electricity. Within Asia, especially India and China lead the world renewable energy generation undergoing a period of energy transition and economic transformation. Southeast Asian countries have huge potentials for sustainable energy sources. However they are yet to perform globally in renewable energy deployment due to various challenges. The primary objective of the study is to examine the renewable energy growth and analyse the government policies to scale up the deployment of renewables for power generation substantially. The study also offers policy recommendations to accelerate renewable energy exploitation sustainably across the region. To achieve the ambitious target of 23% renewables in the primary energy mix by 2025, ASEAN Governments should take proactive measures like removal of subsidies of fossil fuels, regional market integration and rapid implementation of the existing project. Eventually, each of this strategy will necessitate sustained leadership, political determination, and concrete actions from stakeholders, in particular, increased cooperation across the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels
  8. Hashimi AS, Nohan MANM, Chin SX, Khiew PS, Zakaria S, Chia CH
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2020 Jun 12;10(6).
    PMID: 32545513 DOI: 10.3390/nano10061153
    : Hydrogen (H2) is a clean energy carrier which can help to solve environmental issues with the depletion of fossil fuels. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is a promising candidate material for solid state hydrogen storage due to its huge hydrogen storage capacity and nontoxicity. However, the hydrolysis of NaBH4 usually requires expensive noble metal catalysts for a high H2 generation rate (HGR). Here, we synthesized high-aspect ratio copper nanowires (CuNWs) using a hydrothermal method and used them as the catalyst for the hydrolysis of NaBH4 to produce H2. The catalytic H2 generation demonstrated that 0.1 ng of CuNWs could achieve the highest volume of H2 gas in 240 min. The as-prepared CuNWs exhibited remarkable catalytic performance: the HGR of this study (2.7 × 1010 mL min-1 g-1) is ~3.27 × 107 times higher than a previous study on a Cu-based catalyst. Furthermore, a low activation energy (Ea) of 42.48 kJ mol-1 was calculated. Next, the retreated CuNWs showed an outstanding and stable performance for five consecutive cycles. Moreover, consistent catalytic activity was observed when the same CuNWs strip was used for four consecutive weeks. Based on the results obtained, we have shown that CuNWs can be a plausible candidate for the replacement of a costly catalyst for H2 generation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels
  9. Sharif A, Bhattacharya M, Afshan S, Shahbaz M
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Nov;28(41):57582-57601.
    PMID: 34089449 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-13829-2
    A key objective of renewable energy development in the USA is to reduce CO2 emissions by decreasing reliance on fossil fuels in the coming decades. Using quantile-on-quantile regressions, this research examines the relationship between disaggregated sources of renewable energy (biomass, biofuel, geothermal, hydroelectric, solar, wind, wood, and waste) and CO2 emissions in the USA during the period from 1995 to 2017. Our findings support the deployment of various types of renewables in combating CO2 emissions for each quantile. In particular, a negative effect of renewable energy consumption on CO2 emissions is observed for the lower quantiles in almost all types of renewables. The effect of all the renewable energy sources taken together is significant for the lower and upper quantiles of the provisional distribution of CO2 emissions. The effect of renewable energy becomes stronger and more significant in the middle quantiles, where a pronounced causal effect of return and volatility is detected for the lower and upper middle quantiles. At the same time, heterogeneity in the findings across various types of renewable energy sources reveals differences in the relative importance of each type within the energy sector taken as a whole. Future US initiatives in renewable energy deployment at both the federal and the state levels should take into consideration the relative importance of each type, so as to maximize the efficacy of renewable energy policies in combating CO2 emissions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels
  10. Nasir MK, Md Noor R, Kalam MA, Masum BM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:836375.
    PMID: 25032239 DOI: 10.1155/2014/836375
    Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels/adverse effects; Fossil Fuels/utilization
  11. Abdul-Manan AF, Baharuddin A, Chang LW
    Eval Program Plann, 2015 Oct;52:39-49.
    PMID: 25898073 DOI: 10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2015.03.007
    Theory-based evaluation (TBE) is an effectiveness assessment technique that critically analyses the theory underlying an intervention. Whilst its use has been widely reported in the area of social programmes, it is less applied in the field of energy and climate change policy evaluations. This paper reports a recent study that has evaluated the effectiveness of the national biofuel policy (NBP) for the transport sector in Malaysia by adapting a TBE approach. Three evaluation criteria were derived from the official goals of the NBP, those are (i) improve sustainability and environmental friendliness, (ii) reduce fossil fuel dependency, and (iii) enhance stakeholders' welfare. The policy theory underlying the NBP has been reconstructed through critical examination of the policy and regulatory documents followed by a rigorous appraisal of the causal link within the policy theory through the application of scientific knowledge. This study has identified several weaknesses in the policy framework that may engender the policy to be ineffective. Experiences with the use of a TBE approach for policy evaluations are also shared in this report.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels/adverse effects*; Fossil Fuels/economics; Fossil Fuels/standards
  12. Nita Salina Abu Bakar, Zal U’yun Wan Mahmood, Ahmad Saat, Abdul Kadir Ishak
    Anthropogenic airborne depositions of 210Po,
    210Pb and 210Po/210Pb in the mosses and surface soils
    collected at the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant were studied. The purpose of the study was to
    determine activity concentrations of 210Po,
    210Pb and 210Po/210Pb for assessing their variation
    accumulation in the mosses and surface soils collected at the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant.
    Other purposes were to determine their concentration factor (CF) in relation to track the potential
    source of those radionuclides and to identify most suitable moss species as a biological indicator
    for atmospheric deposition contaminants. In this study, different species of moss Leucobryum
    aduncum, Campylopus serratus, Syrrhopodon ciliates and Vesicularia montagnei were collected in
    May 2011 at the area around 15 km radius from Tanjung Bin coal-fired power plant located in
    Pontian, Johor. The activity concentrations of 210Po,
    210Pb and 210Po/210Pb in mosses were in the
    range of 76.81 ± 4.94 – 251.33 ± 16.33 Bq/kg dry wt., 54.37 ± 3.38 – 164.63 ± 11.64 Bq/kg dry wt.
    and 1.10 – 2.00, respectively. Meanwhile the ranges for those radionuclides in the surface soil
    were 33.53 ± 2.10 – 179.67 ± 12.15 Bq/kg dry wt., 20.55 ± 1.33 – 106.62 ± 6.64 Bq/kg dry wt. and
    1.61 – 2.44, respectively. Corresponding high ability of Leucobryum aduncum to accumulate more
    210Po and 210Pb, wide geographical distribution, most abundant and high CF, therefore, the
    findings can be concluded this species was the most suitable as a biological indicator for
    atmospheric deposition contaminants such as 210Po and 210Pb. Furthermore, it is clear the
    accumulation of 210Po and 210Pb in mosses might be supplied from various sources of atmospheric
    deposition such as coal-fired power plant operation, industrial, agriculture and fertilizer activities,
    burned fuel fossil and forest; and other potential sources. Meanwhile, the
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels
  13. Ng, Inn Khuan, Kok, Kuan Ying, Nur Ubaidah Saidin, Choo, Thye Foo
    Thermoelectric nanostructures hold great promise for capturing and directly converting into electricity some vast amount of low-grade waste heats now being lost to the environment (e.g. from nuclear power plant, fossil fuel burning, automotives and household appliances). In this study, large-area vertically-aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays were synthesized in an aqueous solution containing AgN•i and HF on p-type Si (100) substrate by self-selective electroless etching process. The etching conditions were systematically varied in order to achieve different stages of nanowire formation. Diameters of the SiNWs obtained varied from approximately 50 to 200 nm and their lengths ranged from several to a few tens of um. Te/Bi2Tex.Si thermoelectric core-shell nanostructures were subsequently obtained via galvanic displacement of SiNWs in acidic HF electrolytes containing HTe02+ and 139' /HTe02+ ions. The reactions were basically a nano-electrochemical process due to the difference in redox potentials between the materials. The surface-modified SiNWs of core-shell structures had roughened surface morphologies and, therefore, higher surface-to-bulk ratios compared to unmodified SiNWs. They have potential applications in sensors, photovoltaic and thermoelectric nanodevices. Growth study on the SiNWs and core-shell nanostructures produced is presented using various microscopy, diffraction and probe-based techniques for microstructural, morphological and chemical characterizations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels
  14. Zal U’yun Wan Mahmood, Mei, Wo Yii, Abdul Kadir Ishak
    This study was performed to observe the variation in the distribution of 210Po,210Pb and 210Po/210Pb activity ratio throughtheir vertical profile of the sediment cores takenat surrounding Sungai Linggi estuary. Five sediment cores were takenin February 2011 and were cutto an intervalof 2 cm layer. Activity concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb were determined using alpha radiochemical analysis and gamma direct measurement, respectively. Generally, the measured activity of 210Po, 210Pb and 210Po/210Pbwere in the ranges of 22.73 –139.06 Bqkg-1dw., 37.88 –176.24 Bqkg-1dw.and 0.23 –1.34, respectively. The variation in the distribution profile for the radionuclides are believed to be influencedby human activities such as agriculture, fertilizer, vehicles, burned fuel fossil and forest, industrialand others via river input from land-base.Other factor is due to organic mattercontent played importantrole as the geochemical carrier to transportthose radionuclides at study area. It was provedthat hasa strong correlation between the radionuclide distribution and the sedimentcomposition of organic matter.Furthermore, in those rangesreflectedthat 210Pb activities were higher than210Po with an activity ratio average of 0.79. This is probably due to dramatic increase of excess 210Pb supplied from atmospheric deposition, in situ decay of 226Ra and as a result of diagenetic remolibilazationof 210Pbin deeper layesof the sediment column. Thus, thosefactors are majorcontributions on thevariation of 210Po and 210Pb in the sediment core at surrounding Sungai Linggi estuary.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels
  15. Mohanan M, Go YI
    Glob Chall, 2020 Apr;4(4):1900093.
    PMID: 32257382 DOI: 10.1002/gch2.201900093
    A large-scale solar photovoltaic system (LSS PV) aims to reduce the gap as Malaysia plans to shift electricity generation from conventional sources like fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. The government plans to increase renewable energy to 20% of the generation mix by 2025. The first and second round of Malaysia's LSS programme has 958 MW of PV projects to be realized by 2020. The third round of the LSS program goes for an aggregate capacity of 500 MW. Being an intermittent source of energy, the major complication is with grid integration of the LSS PV system into the national power grid. This research aims to identify an optimum power system management scheme for LSS in Malaysia to stabilize voltage fluctuations by utilizing IEEE bus configuration. The simulation and planning of network type is based on PSS/E and PVSyst. The expected outcome of this research is to develop a solution for LSS grid integration with minimal loss in the system and in accordance with electricity standards as per Malaysian grid code. Additionally, the harmony of incorporating power electronic devices for reactive power compensation is tested. This work can be stated as a reference model for utility provider in other countries having similar network and grid configuration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels
  16. Godil DI, Ahmad P, Ashraf MS, Sarwat S, Sharif A, Shabib-Ul-Hasan S, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 May;28(17):21486-21498.
    PMID: 33415625 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-11839-0
    This study is a scholarly effort to broaden the existing literature on the impact of transportation services, urbanization, and financial development on ecological footprints in Pakistan. Data used in this study covers the period of 39 years from 1980 to 2018. This study adopted the QARDL model to tackle the non-linear association of variables and test their long-run stability across the different quantiles. The findings of this study indicated a significant negative association of transportation services and financial development with ecological footprints in Pakistan at almost all quantiles whereas, the urban population was found to be positively associated with the ecological footprint in Pakistan. Results also justify the existence of the EKC hypothesis in the scenario of Pakistan. Policymakers are advised to frame strategies for investors to invest more in eco-friendly projects to curtail the ecological footprints in Pakistan. Minimizing the dependency of the transportation sector on fossil fuel, and increased use of energy-efficient appliances in the urban population would be beneficial to control the negative influence on ecological footprints in Pakistan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels
  17. Zhang C, Show PL, Ho SH
    Bioresour Technol, 2019 Oct;289:121700.
    PMID: 31262543 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121700
    There is a growing interest in developing bio-based biodegradable plastics to reduce the dependence on depleting fossil fuels and provide a sustainable alternative. Bio-based plastics can usually be produced from lipids, proteins or carbohydrates, which are major components of microalgae. Despite its potential for algal plastics, little information is available on strain selection, culture optimization and bioplastics fabrication mechanism. In this review, we summarized the recent developments in understanding the utilization of seaweed polysaccharides, such as alginate and carrageenan for bio-based plastics. In addition, a conceptual biorefinery framework for algal plastics through promising components (e.g., lipids, carbohydrates and proteins) from microalgae is comprehensively presented. Moreover, the reasons for variations in bioplastics performance and underlying mechanism of various algal biocomposites have been critically discussed. We believe this review can provide valuable information to accelerate the development of innovative green technologies for improving the commercial viability of algal plastics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels
  18. Dasan YK, Lam MK, Yusup S, Lim JW, Lee KT
    Sci Total Environ, 2019 Oct 20;688:112-128.
    PMID: 31229809 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.181
    The rapid depletion of fossil fuels and ever-increasing environmental pollution have forced humankind to look for a renewable energy source. Microalgae, a renewable biomass source, has been proposed as a promising feedstock to generate biofuels due to their fast growth rate with high lipid content. However, literatures have indicated that sustainable production of microalgae biofuels are only viable with a highly optimized production system. In the present study, a cradle-to-gate approach was used to provide expedient insights on the effect of different cultivation systems and biomass productivity toward life cycle energy (LCEA), carbon balance (LCCO2) and economic (LCC) of microalgae biodiesel production pathways. In addition, a co-production of bioethanol from microalgae residue was proposed in order to improve the economic sustainability of the overall system. The results attained in the present work indicated that traditional microalgae biofuels processing pathways resulted to several shortcomings, such as dehydration and lipid extraction of microalgae biomass required high energy input and contributed nearly 21 to 30% and 39 to 57% of the total energy requirement, respectively. Besides, the microalgae biofuels production system also required a high capital investment, which accounted for 47 to 86% of total production costs that subsequently resulted to poor techno-economic performances. Moreover, current analysis of environmental aspects of microalgae biorefinery had revealed negative CO2 balance in producing microalgae biofuels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels
  19. Nur Arina Bazilah Aziz
    MATEMATIKA, 2019;35(1):39-49.
    Inventory Routing Problem (IRP) has been continuously developed and improved due to pressure from global warming issue particularly related to greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission. The burning of fossil fuel for transportations such as cars, trucks, ships, trains, and planes primarily emits GHGs. Carbon dioxide (CO2) from burning of fossil fuel to power transportation and industrial process is the largest contributor to global GHGs emission. Therefore, the focus of this study is on solving a multi-period inventory routing problem (MIRP) involving carbon emission consideration based on carbon cap and offset policy. Hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) based on allocation first and routing second is used to compute a solution for the MIRP in this study. The objective of this study is to solve the proposed MIRP model with HGA then validate the effectiveness of the proposed HGA on data of different sizes. Upon validation, the proposed MIRP model and HGA is applied on real-world data. The HGA is found to be able to solve small size and large size instances effectively by providing near optimal solution in relatively short CPU execution time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels
  20. Liu J, Andersson A, Zhong G, Geng X, Ding P, Zhu S, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2020 Jul 03;744:140359.
    PMID: 32688001 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140359
    Black Carbon (BC) deteriorates air quality and contributes to climate warming, yet its regionally- and seasonally-varying emission sources are poorly constrained. Here we employ natural abundance radiocarbon (14C) measurements of BC intercepted at a northern Malaysia regional receptor site, Bachok, to quantify the relative biomass vs. fossil source contributions of atmospheric BC, in a first year-round study for SE Asia (December 2015-December 2016). The annual average 14C signature suggests as large contributions from biomass burning as from fossil fuel combustion. This is similar to findings from analogous measurements at S Asian receptors sites (~50% biomass burning), while E Asia sites are dominated by fossil emission (~20% biomass burning). The 14C-based source fingerprinting of BC in the dry spring season in SE Asia signals an even more elevated biomass burning contribution (~70% or even higher), presumably from forest, shrub and agricultural fires. This is consistent with this period showing also elevated ratio of organic carbon to BC (up from ~5 to 30) and estimates of BC emissions from satellite fire data. Hence, the present study emphasizes the importance of mitigating dry season vegetation fires in SE Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fossil Fuels
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