Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 280 in total

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  1. Md Tahir P, Liew WP, Lee SY, Ang AF, Lee SH, Mohamed R, et al.
    Waste Manag, 2019 Dec;100:128-137.
    PMID: 31536923 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2019.09.002
    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is the most significant waste generated from the agricultural industry in Malaysia. Composting is one of the potential approaches to utilize EFB. However, composting of EFB is a time-consuming process, thus impractical for industrial application. The composting process can be shortened by introducing competent fungi into an optimal EFB composting system. This study was conducted to isolate and identify competent fungi that can naturally compost EFB. Samplings were carried out at eight different time points over a 20-weeks experimental period. The physical properties of EFB samples such as pH, residual oil content, and moisture content were measured and the EFB composting process that was indicated by the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were assessed. The fungal growth, distribution, and lignocellulolytic enzyme activities were evaluated. The results indicated that the changes in physical properties of EFB were correlated to the fungal growth. The gradual reduction in moisture content and residual oil, and the increment in pH values in EFB samples throughout the experimental period resulted in reduced fungal growth and diversity. Such phenomenon delayed EFB composting process as revealed by the changes in EFB lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose contents. The most dominant and resilient fungi (Lichtheimia ramosa and Neurospora crassa) survived up to 16 weeks and were capable of producing various lignocellulolytic enzymes. Further understanding of these factors that would contribute to effective EFB composting could be useful for future industrial applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fungi
  2. Ramalingam S
    Med J Malaya, 1966 Jun;20(4):334.
    PMID: 4380827
    Matched MeSH terms: Fungi*
  3. Sutton BC
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 1975;41(2):179-84.
    PMID: 1080394
    Raffaelea variabilis is described as a new species in culture from Lannea grandis. It is distinguished by turbinate to cuneiform conidia measuring 4-16 times 2.5-7.5 mum, and compared and contrasted with established species. Trichocladium lobatum is described as a new species in culture with 1-2 euseptate spherical conidia, 19-22 mum diam., ornamented with flabelliform, spathulate or petaloid lobes 7 mum long. It is compared and contrasted with established Trichocladium species and representatives of Chlamydomyces, Histoplasma, Mycogone, Sepedonium and Thermomyces.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification*
  4. Eslaminejad T, Zakaria M
    Microb Pathog, 2011 Nov;51(5):325-37.
    PMID: 21839160 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2011.07.007
    Roselle, or Jamaica sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a popular vegetable in many tropical regions, cultivated for its leaves, seeds, stems and calyces which, the dried calyces are used to prepare tea, syrup, jams and jellies and as beverages. The main objectives of this study were to identify and characterise fungal pathogens associated with Roselle diseases based on their morphological and cultural characteristics and to determine the pathogenicity of four fungi infecting Roselle seedlings, namely Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai, Fusarium tgcq and Rhizoctonia solani in Penang. A total of 200 fungal isolates were obtained from 90 samples of symptomatic Roselle tissues. The isolates were identified based on cultural and morphological characteristics, as well as their pathogenicity. The fungal pathogen most frequently isolated was P. exigua (present in 45% of the samples), followed by F. nygamai (25%), Rhizoctonia solani (19%) and F. camptoceras (11%). Pathogenicity tests showed that P. exigua, F. nygamai, F. camptoceras and R. solani were able to infect both wounded and unwounded seedlings with different degrees of severity as indicated by the Disease severity (DS). R. solani was the most pathogenic fungus affecting both wounded and unwounded Roselle seedlings, followed by P. exigua that was highly pathogenic on wounded seedlings. F. nygamai was less pathogenic while the least pathogenic fungus was F. camptoceras, infecting only the unwounded seedlings but, surprisingly, not the wounded plants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fungi/classification; Fungi/growth & development*; Fungi/isolation & purification; Fungi/pathogenicity*
  5. Chin VK, Yong VC, Chong PP, Amin Nordin S, Basir R, Abdullah M
    Mediators Inflamm, 2020;2020:9560684.
    PMID: 32322167 DOI: 10.1155/2020/9560684
    Human gut is home to a diverse and complex microbial ecosystem encompassing bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, and other microorganisms that have an undisputable role in maintaining good health for the host. Studies on the interplay between microbiota in the gut and various human diseases remain the key focus among many researchers. Nevertheless, advances in sequencing technologies and computational biology have helped us to identify a diversity of fungal community that reside in the gut known as the mycobiome. Although studies on gut mycobiome are still in its infancy, numerous sources have reported its potential role in host homeostasis and disease development. Nonetheless, the actual mechanism of its involvement remains largely unknown and underexplored. Thus, in this review, we attempt to discuss the recent advances in gut mycobiome research from multiple perspectives. This includes understanding the composition of fungal communities in the gut and the involvement of gut mycobiome in host immunity and gut-brain axis. Further, we also discuss on multibiome interactions in the gut with emphasis on fungi-bacteria interaction and the influence of diet in shaping gut mycobiome composition. This review also highlights the relation between fungal metabolites and gut mycobiota in human homeostasis and the role of gut mycobiome in various human diseases. This multiperspective review on gut mycobiome could perhaps shed new light for future studies in the mycobiome research area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fungi/metabolism; Fungi/physiology
  6. Kooy N, Mohamed K, Pin LT, Guan OS
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2014;9(1):320.
    PMID: 25024682 DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-9-320
    Since its introduction in 1995, nanoimprint lithography has been demonstrated in many researches as a simple, low-cost, and high-throughput process for replicating micro- and nanoscale patterns. Due to its advantages, the nanoimprint lithography method has been rapidly developed over the years as a promising alternative to conventional nanolithography processes to fulfill the demands generated from the recent developments in the semiconductor and flexible electronics industries, which results in variations of the process. Roll-to-roll (R2R) nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is the most demanded technique due to its high-throughput fulfilling industrial-scale application. In the present work, a general literature review on the various types of nanoimprint lithography processes especially R2R NIL and the methods commonly adapted to fabricate imprint molds are presented to provide a clear view and understanding on the nanoimprint lithography technique as well as its recent developments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fungi
  7. Chan CL, Yew SM, Na SL, Tan YC, Lee KW, Yee WY, et al.
    Genome Announc, 2014;2(2).
    PMID: 24744321 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00074-14
    Ochroconis constricta is a soilborne dematiaceous fungus that has never been reported to be associated with human infection. Here we report the first draft genome sequence of strain UM 578, isolated from human skin scraping. The genomic information revealed will contribute to a better understanding of this species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mitosporic Fungi
  8. Mohd Nizam T, Binting RA, Mohd Saari S, Kumar TV, Muhammad M, Satim H, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 May;23(3):32-9.
    PMID: 27418867 MyJurnal
    This study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of various antifungal agents against moulds isolated from dermatological specimens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fungi
  9. Waghule T, Sankar S, Rapalli VK, Gorantla S, Dubey SK, Chellappan DK, et al.
    Dermatol Ther, 2020 11;33(6):e13905.
    PMID: 32588940 DOI: 10.1111/dth.13905
    The incidences of fungal infections have greatly increased over the past few years, particularly in humid and industrialized areas. The severity of such infections ranges from being asymptomatic-mild to potentially life-threatening systemic infections. There are limited classes of drugs that are approved for the treatment of such infections like polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins. Some fungi have developed resistance to these drugs. Therefore, to counter drug resistance, intensive large scale studies on novel targeting strategies and formulations are being conducted, which have gained impetus lately. Conventional formulations have limitations such as higher doses, frequent dosing, and several side effects. Such limiting factors have paved the path for the emergence of nanotechnology and its applications. This further gave formulation scientists the possibility of encapsulating the existing potential drug moieties into nanocarriers, which when loaded into gels or creams provided prolonged release and improved permeation, thus giving on-target effect. This review thus discusses the newer targeting strategies and the role of nanocarriers that could be administered topically for the treatment of various fungal infections. Furthermore, this approach opens newer avenues for continued and sustained research in pharmaceuticals with much more effective outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fungi
  10. Boroumand Moghaddam A, Namvar F, Moniri M, Md Tahir P, Azizi S, Mohamad R
    Molecules, 2015;20(9):16540-65.
    PMID: 26378513 DOI: 10.3390/molecules200916540
    In the field of nanotechnology, the use of various biological units instead of toxic chemicals for the reduction and stabilization of nanoparticles, has received extensive attention. Among the many possible bio resources, biologically active products from fungi and yeast represent excellent scaffolds for this purpose. Since fungi and yeast are very effective secretors of extracellular enzymes and number of species grow fast and therefore culturing and keeping them in the laboratory are very simple. They are able to produce metal nanoparticles and nanostructure via reducing enzyme intracellularly or extracellularly. The focus of this review is the application of fungi and yeast in the green synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. Meanwhile the domain of biosynthesized nanoparticles is somewhat novel; the innovative uses in nano medicine in different areas including the delivery of drug, cancer therapy, antibacterial, biosensors, and MRI and medical imaging are reviewed. The proposed signaling pathways of nanoparticles induced apoptosis in cancerous cells and anti-angiogenesis effects also are reviewed. In this article, we provide a short summary of the present study universally on the utilization of eukaryotes like yeast and fungi in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) and their uses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fungi/metabolism*
  11. Chong YH, Ponnampalam JT
    Med J Malaya, 1967 Dec;22(2):104-9.
    PMID: 4231974
    Matched MeSH terms: Fungi*
  12. Hoenigl M, Salmanton-García J, Walsh TJ, Nucci M, Neoh CF, Jenks JD, et al.
    Lancet Infect Dis, 2021 08;21(8):e246-e257.
    PMID: 33606997 DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30784-2
    With increasing numbers of patients needing intensive care or who are immunosuppressed, infections caused by moulds other than Aspergillus spp or Mucorales are increasing. Although antifungal prophylaxis has shown effectiveness in preventing many invasive fungal infections, selective pressure has caused an increase of breakthrough infections caused by Fusarium, Lomentospora, and Scedosporium species, as well as by dematiaceous moulds, Rasamsonia, Schizophyllum, Scopulariopsis, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Talaromyces and Purpureocillium species. Guidance on the complex multidisciplinary management of infections caused by these pathogens has the potential to improve prognosis. Management routes depend on the availability of diagnostic and therapeutic options. The present recommendations are part of the One World-One Guideline initiative to incorporate regional differences in the epidemiology and management of rare mould infections. Experts from 24 countries contributed their knowledge and analysed published evidence on the diagnosis and treatment of rare mould infections. This consensus document intends to provide practical guidance in clinical decision making by engaging physicians and scientists involved in various aspects of clinical management. Moreover, we identify areas of uncertainty and constraints in optimising this management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fungi/drug effects; Fungi/genetics; Fungi/isolation & purification; Fungi/physiology
  13. Ismail SI, Batzer JC, Harrington TC, Crous PW, Lavrov DV, Li H, et al.
    Mycologia, 2016 Mar-Apr;108(2):292-302.
    PMID: 26740537 DOI: 10.3852/15-036
    Members of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex are epiphytic fungi in the Ascomycota that cause economically damaging blemishes of apples worldwide. SBFS fungi are polyphyletic, but approx. 96% of SBFS species are in the Capnodiales. Evolutionary origins of SBFS fungi remain unclear, so we attempted to infer their origins by means of ancestral state reconstruction on a phylogenetic tree built utilizing genes for the nuc 28S rDNA (approx. 830 bp from near the 59 end) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). The analyzed taxa included the well-known genera of SBFS as well as non-SBFS fungi from seven families within the Capnodiales. The non-SBFS taxa were selected based on their distinct ecological niches, including plant-parasitic and saprophytic species. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that most SBFS species in the Capnodiales are closely related to plant-parasitic fungi. Ancestral state reconstruction provided strong evidence that plant-parasitic fungi were the ancestors of the major SBFS lineages. Knowledge gained from this study may help to better understand the ecology and evolution of epiphytic fungi.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fungi/classification*; Fungi/genetics*
  14. Yamashita S, Hattori T, Ohkubo T, Nakashizuka T
    Mycol. Res., 2009 Oct;113(Pt 10):1200-7.
    PMID: 19682573 DOI: 10.1016/j.mycres.2009.08.004
    The spatial distribution of basidiocarps provides much information on the dispersal abilities, habitat preferences, and inter- and intraspecific interactions of aphyllophoraceous fungi. To reveal the spatial distribution and resource utilization patterns of aphyllophoraceous fungi in Malaysia, we conducted field observations in a primary forest in 2006 and analyzed the relationships between the abundance of eight dominant fungal species and various environmental factors. The topographical characteristics were significantly patchily distributed at the 100-m scale, whereas woody debris and most fungal species were distributed randomly. Although the dominant fungal species differed among the decay classes and diameters of the woody debris, the abundance of a few dominant species was significantly correlated with environmental factors. Although the latter factors might affect the spatial distribution of these fungi, the effects appear to be so small that they would not create an aggregated distribution at a few 100-m scales.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fungi/classification; Fungi/isolation & purification*
  15. Molla AH, Fakhru'l-Razi A, Hanafi MM, Abd-Aziz S, Alam MZ
    PMID: 12369641
    Ten filamentous fungi adapted to domestic wastewater sludge (DWS) were further studied to evaluate their potential in terms of adaptation to higher sludge supplemented growing media and phytopathogenicity (induction of diseases to plants) to three germinating crop (Corn: Zea mays, Mung bean: Phaseolus aureus and Mustard: Brassica napus) seeds. The performances of the fungi in seed germination were evaluated based on percent germination index (GI) and infected/spotted seeds on direct fungal biomass (FBM) and fungal metabolite (FM). Significantly the highest biomass production was achieved with RW-P1 512 and Penicillium corylophilum (WW-P1003) at the highest (25%) sludge supplemented growing media that implied its excellent potentiality of adaptation and multiplication to domestic wastewater sludge. Significantly encouraging results of percent GI and spotted/infected seedlings were observed in FM than FBM by all fungi except the strain Aspergillus niger. A. niger gave the poorest percent of GI (24.30, 26.98 and 00.00%) and the highest percent of infected/spotted seeds (70, 100, and 100%) using FBM for corn, mung bean and mustard, respectively. On the other hand, comparatively the highest percent of GI (107.99, 106.25 and 117.67%) and the lowest percent of spotted/infected seedlings (3.3, 3.3 and 3.3%) were achieved with the isolate RW-P1 512 using FM. In FBM, the superior results of percent GI (86.61, 95.92 and 83.87%) and spotted/infected seedlings (3.3, 63.3 and 43.3%) were obtained by A. versicolor. Several crop seeds were responded differently for different fungal treatments. Hundred percent infected/spotted seeds in FM were recorded only for mustard with Trichoderma family that implied its strong sensitiveness to its metabolites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fungi/growth & development; Fungi/isolation & purification*
  16. Varghese G
    Mycopathol Mycol Appl, 1972 Oct 09;48(1):43-61.
    PMID: 4677628
    Matched MeSH terms: Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification; Fungi/classification; Fungi/growth & development; Fungi/isolation & purification*
  17. Fakhru'l-Razi A, Molla AH
    J Hazard Mater, 2007 Aug 17;147(1-2):350-6.
    PMID: 17321676
    A promising biological, sustainable, non-hazardous, safe and environmental friendly management and disposal technique of domestic wastewater sludge is global expectation. Fungal entrapped biosolids as a result of prior fungal treated raw wastewater sludge was recycled to evaluate its performance as inoculum for bioseparation/bioconversion of supplemented sludge in view of continuous as well as scale up wastewater sludge treatment. Encouraging results were achieved in bioseparation of suspended solids and in dewaterability/filterability of treated domestic wastewater sludge. Fungal entrapped biosolids offered 98% removal of total suspended solids (TSS) in supplemented sludge treatment at 6-day without nutrient (wheat flour, WF) supply. Consequently, 99% removal of turbidity and 87% removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were achieved in supernatant of treated sludge. The lowest value (1.75 x 10(12)m/kg) of specific resistance to filtration (SRF) was observed at 6-day after treatment, which was equivalent to the 70% decrease of SRF. The all results except SRF were not influenced further in treatments accompanied with WF supplementation. The present treatments offered significant (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Fungi*
  18. Ibrahim CO
    Bioresour Technol, 2008 Jul;99(11):4572-82.
    PMID: 18164196 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.07.040
    Malaysian enzyme industry is considered almost non-existence, although the import volume is large. Realizing the importance of enzymes, encompassing a wide range of applications in bioindustry, the development of home grown technologies for enzyme production and applications becomes one of the national priorities in industrial biotechnology. Enzyme production from indigenous microbial isolates was performed either by submerged or solid state fermentation processes. Based on its wide and unique spectrum of properties, enzymes have been developed for wide applications in various industrial processes. The development of the enzyme catalysed applications is based on the modification of the reaction systems to enhance their catalytic activities. Some of the applications of the industrial enzymes include the fine chemicals production, oleochemicals modification, detergent formulation, enzymatic drinking of waste papers, animal feed formulation and effluent treatment processes. Enzymes have also shown to be successfully used as analytical tool in the determination of compounds in body fluids. Although, most of these enzyme catalysed reactions were performed in aqueous phase, the use of enzymes in organic solvents was found to be significant for the production of new chemicals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fungi/enzymology*
  19. Juneidi I, Hayyan M, Mohd Ali O
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2016 Apr;23(8):7648-59.
    PMID: 26743645 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-6003-4
    An investigation on the toxicological assessment of 10 choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) towards four fungi strains and Cyprinus carpio fish was conducted. ChCl was combined with materials from different chemical groups such as alcohols, sugars, acids and others to form DESs. The study was carried out on the individual DES components, their aqueous mixture before DES formation and their formed DESs. The agar disc diffusion method was followed to investigate their toxicity on four fungi strains selected as a model of eukaryotic microorganisms (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Lentinus tigrinus and Candida cylindracea). Among these DESs, ChCl:ZnCl2 exhibited the highest inhibition zone diameter towards the tested fungi growth in vitro, followed by the acidic group (malonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid). Another study was conducted to test the acute toxicity and determine the lethal concentration at 50 % (LC50) of the same DESs on C. carpio fish. The inhibition range and LC50 of DESs were found to be different from their individual components. DESs were found to be less toxic than their mixture or individual components. The LC50 of ChCl:MADES is much higher than that of ChCl:MAMix. Moreover, the DESs acidic group showed a lower inhibition zone on fungi growth. Thus, DESs should be considered as new components with different physicochemical properties and toxicological profiles, and not merely compositions of compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fungi/drug effects*
  20. Fakhrul-Razi A, Alam MZ, Idris A, Abd-Aziz S, Molla AH
    PMID: 11929070
    A study was carried out to isolate and identify filamentous fungi for the treatment of domestic wastewater sludge by enhancing biodegradability, settleability and dewaterability of treated sludge using liquid state bioconversion process. A total of 70 strains of filamentous fungi were isolated from three different sources (wastewater, sewage sludge and leachate) of IWK's (Indah Water Konsortium) sewage treatment plant, Malaysia. The isolated strains were purified by conventional techniques and identified by microscopic examination. The strains isolated belonged to the genera of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Spicaria and Hyaloflorae The distribution of observed isolated fungi were 41% in sewage sludge followed by 39% in wastewater and 20% in leachate. The predominant fungus was Penicillium (39 strains). The second and third most common isolates were Aspergillus (14 strains) and Trichoderma (12 strains). The other isolates were Spicaria (3 strains) and Hyaloflorae (2 strains). Three strains (WWZP1003, LZP3001, LZP3005) of Penicillium (P. corylophilum, P. waksmanii, and P. citrinum respectively), 2 strains (WWZA1006 and SS2017) of Aspergillus (A. terrues and A. flavus respectively) and one strain (SSZT2008) of Trichoderma (T. harzianum) were tentatively identified up to species level and finally verified by CABI Bioscience Identification Services, UK.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fungi/isolation & purification*
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