MATERIALS AND METHODS: The object of the study were samples of biological substrates (leukocyte mass, saliva, urine) taken from patients who underwent liver and kidney transplantation. Detection of CMV DNA was carried out by a real-time PCR using commercial diagnostic AmpliSense CMV-FL test systems (Central Research Institute for Epidemiology, Moscow, Russia). DNA extraction was performed using DNA-sorb AM and DNA-sorb V kits (Central Research Institute for Epidemiology) in accordance with manufacturer's manual. The quality of the prepared DNA library for sequencing was assessed by means of the QIAxcel Advanced System capillary gel electrophoresis system (QIAGEN, Germany). Alignment and assembly of nucleotide sequences were carried out using CLC Genomics Workbench 5.5 software (CLC bio, USA). The sequencing results were analyzed using BLAST of NCBI server.
RESULTS: CMV DNA samples were selected for genotyping. The two variable genes, UL55(gB) and UL73(gN), were used for CMV genotype determination, which was performed using NGS technology MiSeq sequencer (Illumina, USA). Based on the exploratory studies and analysis of literature sources, primers for genotyping on the UL55(gB) and UL73(gN) genes have been selected and the optimal conditions for the PCR reaction have been defined. The results of sequencing the UL55(gB) and UL73(gN) gene fragments of CMV clinical isolates from recipients of solid organs made it possible to determine the virus genotypes, among which gB2, gN4c, and gN4b were dominant. In some cases, association of two and three CMV genotypes has been revealed.
CONCLUSION: The application of the NGS technology for genotyping cytomegalovirus strains can become one of the main methods of CMV infection molecular epidemiology, as it allows for obtaining reliable results with a significant reduction in research time.
METHODS: A total of 46 csp genes were subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification. The genes were obtained from P. knowlesi isolates collected from different divisions of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, and Peninsular Malaysia. The targeted gene fragments were cloned into a commercial vector and sequenced, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed while incorporating 168 csp sequences retrieved from the GenBank database. The genetic diversity and natural evolution of the csp sequences were analysed using MEGA6 and DnaSP ver. 5.10.01. A genealogical network of the csp haplotypes was generated using NETWORK ver. 220.127.116.11.
RESULTS: The phylogenetic analysis revealed indistinguishable clusters of P. knowlesi isolates across different geographic regions, including Malaysian Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia. Nucleotide analysis showed that the csp non-repeat regions of zoonotic P. knowlesi isolates obtained in this study underwent purifying selection with population expansion, which was supported by extensive haplotype sharing observed between humans and macaques. Novel variations were observed in the C-terminal non-repeat region of csp.
CONCLUSIONS: The csp non-repeat regions are relatively conserved and there is no distinct cluster of P. knowlesi isolates from Malaysian Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia. Distinctive variation data obtained in the C-terminal non-repeat region of csp could be beneficial for the design and development of vaccines to treat P. knowlesi.
RESULTS: In general, the genetic diversity decreased from Costa Rica towards the north (Honduras) and south-east (Colombia). Principle coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed a single cluster indicating low divergence among palms. The phylogenetic tree and STRUCTURE analysis revealed clusters based on country of origin, indicating considerable gene flow among populations within countries. Based on the values of the genetic diversity parameters, some genetically diverse populations could be identified. Further, a total of 34 individual palms that collectively captured maximum allelic diversity with reduced redundancy were also identified. High pairwise genetic differentiation (Fst > 0.250) among populations was evident, particularly between the Colombian populations and those from Honduras, Panama and Costa Rica. Crossing selected palms from highly differentiated populations could generate off-springs that retain more genetic diversity.
CONCLUSION: The results attained are useful for selecting palms and populations for core collection. The selected materials can also be included into crossing scheme to generate offsprings that capture greater genetic diversity for selection gain in the future.
METHODS: Using data from 12 microsatellite loci, we assessed the genetic diversity and genetic/geographic structure for 353 cempedak and 175 bangkong accessions from Malaysia and neighboring countries and employed clonal analysis to characterize cempedak cultivars. We conducted haplotype network analyses on the trnH-psbA region in a subset of these samples. We also analyzed key vegetative characters that reportedly differentiate cempedak and bangkong.
KEY RESULTS: We show that cempedak and bangkong are sister taxa and distinct genetically and morphologically, but the directionality of domestication origin is unclear. Genetic diversity was generally higher in bangkong than in cempedak. We found a distinct genetic cluster for cempedak from Borneo as compared to cempedak from Peninsular Malaysia. Finally, cempedak cultivars with the same names did not always share the same genetic fingerprint.
CONCLUSIONS: Cempedak origins are complex, with likely admixture and hybridization with bangkong, warranting further investigation. We provide a baseline of genetic diversity of cempedak and bangkong in Malaysia and found that germplasm collections in Malaysia represent diverse coverage of the four cempedak genetic clusters detected.
RESULTS: The morphologies of the myxospores from Icelandic eels were very similar but the overall dimensions were significantly different from the various tissue locations. Myxospores from the kidney of the Malaysian tarpon, Megalops cyprinoides (Broussonet), were noticeably smaller. However, the SSU rDNA sequences from the different tissues locations in eels, were all very distinct, with percentage similarities ranging from 92.93% to as low as 89.8%, with the sequence from Malaysia being even more dissimilar. Molecular phylogenies consistently placed these sequences together in a clade that we refer to as the Paramyxidium clade that is strongly associated with the Myxidium clade (sensu stricto). We erect the genus Paramyxidium n. g. (Myxidiidae) to accommodate these histozoic taxa, and transfer Myxidium giardi as Paramyxidium giardi Cépède, 1906 n. comb. as the type-species.
CONCLUSIONS: There is not a single species of Myxidium (M. giardi) causing systemic infections in eels in Iceland. There are three species, confirmed with a robust phylogeny, one of which represents Paramyxidium giardi n. comb. Additional species probably exist that infect different tissues in the eel and the site of infection in the host fish is an important diagnostic feature for this group (Paramyxidium n. g. clade). Myxospore morphology is generally conserved in the Paramyxidium clade, although actual spore dimensions can vary between some species. Paramyxidium spp. are currently only known to infect fishes from the Elopomorpha.