Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 526 in total

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  1. Nijman V
    Zoo Biol., ;35(1):1-3.
    PMID: 26661798 DOI: 10.1002/zoo.21256
    Ogata and Seino [Zoo Biol, 2015, 34:76-79] sequenced the mitochondrial D-loop of five proboscis monkeys Nasalis larvatus from Yokahama Zoo, Japan, that were imported from Surabaya Zoo, Indonesia. They compared their sequences with those of 16 proboscis monkeys from Sabah, Malaysia, and on the basis of a haplotype network analysis of 256 base pairs concluded that the northern Malaysian and southern Indonesian populations of proboscis monkeys are genetically differentiated. I provide information on the origin of the Indonesian proboscis monkeys, showing that they were the first-generation offspring of wild-caught individuals from the Pulau Kaget Strict Nature Reserve in the province of South Kalimantan. Using a phylogenetic approach and adding additional sequences from Indonesia and Malaysia, I reanalyzed their data, and found no support for a north-south divide. Instead the resulting tree based on 433 base pairs sequences show two strongly supported clades, both containing individuals from Indonesia and Malaysia. Work on captive individuals, as reported by Ogata and Seino, can aid in developing appropriate markers and techniques, but to obtain a more complete understanding of the genetic diversity and differentiation of wild proboscis monkeys, more detailed geographic sampling from all over Borneo is needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation*
  2. Nikzad S, Tan SG, Yong Seok Yien C, Ng J, Alitheen NB, Khan R, et al.
    J. Med. Primatol., 2014 Dec;43(6):433-44.
    PMID: 24930735 DOI: 10.1111/jmp.12130
    The genetic diversity and structure of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Peninsular Malaysia, a widely used non-human primate species in biomedical research, have not been thoroughly characterized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation*
  3. Noh A, Rafii MY, Saleh G, Kushairi A, Latif MA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:792601.
    PMID: 22701095 DOI: 10.1100/2012/792601
    The performance of 11 oil palm AVROS (Algemene Vereniging van Rubberplanters ter Oostkust van Sumatra) pisiferas was evaluated based on their 40 dura x pisifera (DxP) progenies tested on inland soils, predominantly of Serdang Series. Fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield of each pisiferas ranged from 121.93 to 143.9 kg palm⁻¹ yr⁻¹ with trial mean of 131.62 kg palm⁻¹ yr⁻¹. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed low genetic variability among pisifera parents for most of the characters indicating uniformity of the pisifera population. This was anticipated as the AVROS pisiferas were derived from small population and were inbred materials. However, some of the pisiferas have shown good general combining ability (GCA) for certain important economic traits. Three pisiferas (P1 (0.174/247), P3 (0.174/498), P11 (0.182/308)) were identified of having good GCA for FFB yield while pisiferas P1 (0.174/247), P10 (0.182/348), and P11 (0.182/308) were good combiners for oil-to-bunch ratio (O/B). The narrow genetic base of these materials was the main obstacle in breeding and population improvement. However, efforts have been made to introgress this material with the vast oil palm germplasm collections of MPOB for rectifying the problem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation/genetics*
  4. Sohrabi M, Rafii MY, Hanafi MM, Siti Nor Akmar A, Latif MA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:416291.
    PMID: 22654604 DOI: 10.1100/2012/416291
    Genetic diversity is prerequisite for any crop improvement program as it helps in the development of superior recombinants. Fifty Malaysian upland rice accessions were evaluated for 12 growth traits, yield and yield components. All of the traits were significant and highly significant among the accessions. The higher magnitudes of genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were recorded for flag leaf length-to-width ratio, spikelet fertility, and days to flowering. High heritability along with high genetic advance was registered for yield of plant, days to flowering, and flag leaf length-to-width ratio suggesting preponderance of additive gene action in the gene expression of these characters. Plant height showed highly significant positive correlation with most of the traits. According to UPGMA cluster analysis all accessions were clustered into six groups. Twelve morphological traits provided around 77% of total variation among the accessions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation/genetics*
  5. Mostafa N, Omar H, Tan SG, Napis S
    Molecules, 2011 Mar 22;16(3):2599-608.
    PMID: 21441863 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16032599
    Haematococcus pluvialis (Flotow) is a unicellular green alga, which is considered to be the best astaxanthin-producing organism. Molecular markers are suitable tools for the purpose of finding out genetic variations in organisms; however there have been no studies conducted on ISSR or RAPD molecular markers for this organism. The DNA of 10 different strains of H. pluvialis (four strains from Iran, two strains from Finland, one strain from Switzerland and three strains from the USA) was extracted. A genetic similarity study was carried out using 14 ISSR and 12 RAPD primers. Moreover, the molecular weights of the bands produced ranged from 0.14 to 3.4 Kb. The PCA and dendrogram clustered the H. pluvialis strains into various groups according to their geographical origin. The lowest genetic similarity was between the Iran2 and USA2 strains (0.08) and the highest genetic similarity was between Finland1 and Finland2 (0.64). The maximum numbers of bands produced by the ISSR and RAPD primers were 35 and 6 bands, respectively. The results showed that ISSR and RAPD markers are useful for genetic diversity studies of Haematococcus as they showed geographical discrimination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation*
  6. Fix AG
    Ann. Hum. Genet., 1978 Jan;41(3):329-39.
    PMID: 626477
    Most current models of human population structure view migration solely as a deterministic force reducing the variance in gene frequencies among the local colonies of a subdivided population. By an empirical example and through simulation experiments, it is shown that migration structured along kinship lines (by analogy to the lineal or 'kinship' effect) does not always reduce the variances of gene frequencies arising through intergenerational random genetic drift. Thus populations experiencing high rates of migration may not be genetically homogenous.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation*
  7. Rogatcheva MB, Borodin PM, Oda SI, Searle JB
    Genome, 1997 Feb;40(1):18-24.
    PMID: 9061910
    A high-resolution G-banding technique was used to identify five metacentrics that characterize Suncus murinus from Sri Lanka. These metacentrics were shown to be the product of Robertsonian fusion of acrocentric chromosomes identical to those in the standard karyotype defined by M.B. Rogatcheva et al. Two of the metacentrics in the Sri Lankan shrews (Rb(10.12) and Rb(14.15)) were the same as those reported by C.H. Sam et al. in Malayan populations of S. murinus. This finding provides strong support for the suggestion of T.H. Yosida that metacentric-carrying shrews colonized Malaya from Sri Lanka and hybridized with individuals of standard karyotype, generating the Robertsonian polymorphism now observed. In addition to the Robertsonian variation in S. murinus, we have used our high resolution technique (G- and C-banding) to characterize variants on chromosome 7, the X chromosome, and the Y chromosome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation*
  8. Ithnin M, Teh CK, Ratnam W
    BMC Genet., 2017 04 19;18(1):37.
    PMID: 28420332 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-017-0505-7
    BACKGROUND: The Elaeis oleifera genetic materials were assembled from its center of diversity in South and Central America. These materials are currently being preserved in Malaysia as ex situ living collections. Maintaining such collections is expensive and requires sizable land. Information on the genetic diversity of these collections can help achieve efficient conservation via maintenance of core collection. For this purpose, we have applied fourteen unlinked microsatellite markers to evaluate 532 E. oleifera palms representing 19 populations distributed across Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia.

    RESULTS: In general, the genetic diversity decreased from Costa Rica towards the north (Honduras) and south-east (Colombia). Principle coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed a single cluster indicating low divergence among palms. The phylogenetic tree and STRUCTURE analysis revealed clusters based on country of origin, indicating considerable gene flow among populations within countries. Based on the values of the genetic diversity parameters, some genetically diverse populations could be identified. Further, a total of 34 individual palms that collectively captured maximum allelic diversity with reduced redundancy were also identified. High pairwise genetic differentiation (Fst > 0.250) among populations was evident, particularly between the Colombian populations and those from Honduras, Panama and Costa Rica. Crossing selected palms from highly differentiated populations could generate off-springs that retain more genetic diversity.

    CONCLUSION: The results attained are useful for selecting palms and populations for core collection. The selected materials can also be included into crossing scheme to generate offsprings that capture greater genetic diversity for selection gain in the future.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation*
  9. Freeman MA, Kristmundsson Á
    Parasit Vectors, 2018 Oct 22;11(1):551.
    PMID: 30348210 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-018-3087-y
    BACKGROUND: The myxosporean Myxidium giardi Cépède, 1906 was described infecting the kidney of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.), having spindle-shaped myxospores and terminal sub-spherical polar capsules. Since then, numerous anguillid eels globally have been documented to have similar Myxidium infections. Many of these have been identified using the morphological features of myxospores or by the location of infection in the host, and some have been subsequently synonymised with M. giardi. Therefore, it is not clear whether M. giardi is a widely distributed parasite, infecting numerous species of eels, in multiple organs, or whether some infections represent other, morphologically similar but different species of myxosporeans. The aim of the present study was to assess the status of M. giardi infections in Icelandic eels, and related fish hosts in Malaysia and to use spore morphology and molecular techniques to evaluate the diversity of myxosporeans present.

    RESULTS: The morphologies of the myxospores from Icelandic eels were very similar but the overall dimensions were significantly different from the various tissue locations. Myxospores from the kidney of the Malaysian tarpon, Megalops cyprinoides (Broussonet), were noticeably smaller. However, the SSU rDNA sequences from the different tissues locations in eels, were all very distinct, with percentage similarities ranging from 92.93% to as low as 89.8%, with the sequence from Malaysia being even more dissimilar. Molecular phylogenies consistently placed these sequences together in a clade that we refer to as the Paramyxidium clade that is strongly associated with the Myxidium clade (sensu stricto). We erect the genus Paramyxidium n. g. (Myxidiidae) to accommodate these histozoic taxa, and transfer Myxidium giardi as Paramyxidium giardi Cépède, 1906 n. comb. as the type-species.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is not a single species of Myxidium (M. giardi) causing systemic infections in eels in Iceland. There are three species, confirmed with a robust phylogeny, one of which represents Paramyxidium giardi n. comb. Additional species probably exist that infect different tissues in the eel and the site of infection in the host fish is an important diagnostic feature for this group (Paramyxidium n. g. clade). Myxospore morphology is generally conserved in the Paramyxidium clade, although actual spore dimensions can vary between some species. Paramyxidium spp. are currently only known to infect fishes from the Elopomorpha.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation*
  10. Ernieenor FCL, Ernna G, Mariana A
    Exp. Appl. Acarol., 2017 Apr;71(4):387-400.
    PMID: 28409404 DOI: 10.1007/s10493-017-0120-3
    Morphotaxonomy based on phenotypic traits of immature hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) is a skill challenge and has prompted many inexperienced acarologists to adopt DNA-based methods for identifying and discriminating the species. The aim of this study is therefore to utilize COI gene for verifying the morphological status of Haemaphysalis ticks in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 19 on-host ticks collected from four localities were first identified using specific illustrated taxonomic keys that lead to the genus of Haemaphysalis. Genotypic traits of tick species were then verified molecularly based on cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene using polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Clustering analysis was carried out by constructing a phylogenetic tree to determine the genetic variation and diversity of local Haemaphysalis ticks. Based on external morphological characterizations, all immature ticks were successfully identified down to the genus level only. Molecular analysis of the genotypic using COI gene revealed 16 individuals (84%) as Haemaphysalis hystricis, and three individuals as H. humerosa with sequence homology of 97-99 and 86-87%, respectively. Haemaphysalis hystricis were clustered in their respective monophyletic group in the phylogeny trees with a bootstrap of 100%. Furthermore, a low intraspecific variation (<0.3%) was observed among Malaysian H. hystricis but high interspecific value (>15%) recorded. This study morphologically and molecularly confirms the presence of H. hystricis in Malaysia and the findings will add value to the existing knowledge in identification of ticks in this country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation
  11. Tan MP, Jamsari AF, Siti Azizah MN
    J. Fish Biol., 2016 May;88(5):1932-48.
    PMID: 27027270 DOI: 10.1111/jfb.12956
    Genetic variability and differences in wild striped snakehead Channa striata from Malaysia were analysed by genotyping nine novel nuclear microsatellite loci. Analysis revealed moderate-to-high genetic diversity in most of the populations, indicative of large effective population sizes. The highly diversified populations are admixed populations and, therefore, can be recommended as potential candidates for selective breeding and conservation since they each contain most of the alleles found in their particular region. Three homogenous groups of the wild populations were identified, apparently separated by effective barriers, in accordance with contemporary drainage patterns. The highest population pairwise FST found between members of the same group reflects the ancient population connectivity; yet prolonged geographical isolation resulted in adaptation of alleles to local contemporary environmental change. A significant relationship between genetic distance and geographical isolation was observed (r = 0·644, P < 0·01). Anthropogenic perturbations indicated apparent genetic proximity between distant populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation*
  12. Tuhina-Khatun M, Hanafi MM, Rafii Yusop M, Wong MY, Salleh FM, Ferdous J
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:290861.
    PMID: 26258135 DOI: 10.1155/2015/290861
    Upland rice is important for sustainable crop production to meet future food demands. The expansion in area of irrigated rice faces limitations due to water scarcity resulting from climate change. Therefore, this research aimed to identify potential genotypes and suitable traits of upland rice germplasm for breeding programmes. Forty-three genotypes were evaluated in a randomised complete block design with three replications. All genotypes exhibited a wide and significant variation for 22 traits. The highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation was recorded for the number of filled grains/panicle and yields/plant (g). The highest heritability was found for photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO₂, and number of filled grains/panicle and yields/plant (g). Cluster analysis based on 22 traits grouped the 43 rice genotypes into five clusters. Cluster II was the largest and consisted of 20 genotypes mostly originating from the Philippines. The first four principle components of 22 traits accounted for about 72% of the total variation and indicated a wide variation among the genotypes. The selected best trait of the number of filled grains/panicle and yields/plant (g), which showed high heritability and high genetic advance, could be used as a selection criterion for hybridisation programmes in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation*
  13. Fong MY, Rashdi SA, Yusof R, Lau YL
    Malar. J., 2015;14:91.
    PMID: 25890095 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-015-0610-x
    Plasmodium knowlesi is one of the monkey malaria parasites that can cause human malaria. The Duffy binding protein of P. knowlesi (PkDBPαII) is essential for the parasite's invasion into human and monkey erythrocytes. A previous study on P. knowlesi clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia reported high level of genetic diversity in the PkDBPαII. Furthermore, 36 amino acid haplotypes were identified and these haplotypes could be separated into allele group I and allele group II. In the present study, the PkDBPαII of clinical isolates from the Malaysian states of Sarawak and Sabah in North Borneo was investigated, and compared with the PkDBPαII of Peninsular Malaysia isolates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation*
  14. Usman MG, Rafii MY, Ismail MR, Malek MA, Abdul Latif M
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:308042.
    PMID: 25478590 DOI: 10.1155/2014/308042
    High temperature tolerance is an important component of adaptation to arid and semiarid cropping environment in chili pepper. Two experiments were carried out to study the genetic variability among chili pepper for heat tolerance and morphophysiological traits and to estimate heritability and genetic advance expected from selection. There was a highly significant variation among the genotypes in response to high temperature (CMT), photosynthesis rate, plant height, disease incidence, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. At 5% selection intensity, high genetic advance as percent of the mean (>20%) was observed for CMT, photosynthesis rate, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. Similarly, high heritability (>60%) was also observed indicating the substantial effect of additive gene more than the environmental effect. Yield per plant showed strong to moderately positive correlations (r = 0.23-0.56) at phenotypic level while at genotypic level correlation coefficient ranged from 0.16 to 0.72 for CMT, plant height, fruit length, and number of fruits. Cluster analysis revealed eight groups and Group VIII recorded the highest CMT and yield. Group IV recorded 13 genotypes while Groups II, VII, and VIII recorded one each. The results showed that the availability of genetic variance could be useful for exploitation through selection for further breeding purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation*
  15. Oladosu Y, Rafii MY, Abdullah N, Abdul Malek M, Rahim HA, Hussin G, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:190531.
    PMID: 25431777 DOI: 10.1155/2014/190531
    Genetic based knowledge of different vegetative and yield traits play a major role in varietal improvement of rice. Genetic variation gives room for recombinants which are essential for the development of a new variety in any crop. Based on this background, this work was carried out to evaluate genetic diversity of derived mutant lines and establish relationships between their yield and yield components using multivariate analysis. To achieve this objective, two field trials were carried out on 45 mutant rice genotypes to evaluate their growth and yield traits. Data were taken on vegetative traits and yield and its components, while genotypic and phenotypic coefficients, variance components, expected genetic advance, and heritability were calculated. All the genotypes showed variations for vegetative traits and yield and its components. Also, there was positive relationship between the quantitative traits and the final yield with the exception of number of tillers. Finally, the evaluated genotypes were grouped into five major clusters based on the assessed traits with the aid of UPGMA dendrogram. So hybridization of group I with group V or group VI could be used to attain higher heterosis or vigour among the genotypes. Also, this evaluation could be useful in developing reliable selection indices for important agronomic traits in rice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation/genetics*
  16. Alam MA, Juraimi AS, Rafii MY, Hamid AA, Arolu IW, Abdul Latif M
    C. R. Biol., 2015 Jan;338(1):1-11.
    PMID: 25468001 DOI: 10.1016/j.crvi.2014.10.007
    Genetic diversity and relationships among 45 collected purslane accessions were evaluated using ISSR markers. The 28 primers gave a total of 167 bands, among which 163 were polymorphic (97.6%). The genetic diversity as estimated by Shannon's information index was 0.513, revealing a quite high level of genetic diversity in the germplasm. The average number of observed allele, effective allele, expected heterozygosity, polymorphic information content (PIC) and Nei's index were 5.96, 1.59, 0.43, 0.35 and 0.35, respectively. The UPGMA dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance grouped the whole germplasm into 7 distinct clusters. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 89% of total variation occurred within population, while 11% were found among populations. Based on the constructed dendrogram using ISSR markers those accessions that are far from each other by virtue of genetic origin and diversity index (like Ac1 and Ac42; Ac19 and Ac45; Ac9 and Ac23; Ac18 and A25; Ac24 and Ac18) are strongly recommended to select as parent for future breeding program to develop high yielding and stress tolerant purslane variety in contribution to global food security.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation*
  17. NurWaliyuddin HZ, Edinur HA, Norazmi MN, Sundararajulu P, Chambers GK, Zafarina Z
    Int. J. Immunogenet., 2014 Dec;41(6):472-9.
    PMID: 25367623 DOI: 10.1111/iji.12161
    The KIR system shows variation at both gene content and allelic level across individual genome and populations. This variation reflects its role in immunity and has become a significant tool for population comparisons. In this study, we investigate KIR gene content in 120 unrelated individuals from the four Malay subethnic groups (Kelantan, Jawa, Banjar and Pattani Malays). Genotyping using commercial polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) kits revealed a total of 34 different KIR genotypes; 17 for Kelantan, 15 for Banjar, 14 for Jawa and 13 for Pattani Malays. Two new variants observed in Banjar Malays have not previously been reported. Genotype AA and haplotype A were the most common in Jawa (0.47 and 0.65, respectively), Banjar (0.37 and 0.52, respectively) and Pattani (0.40 and 0.60, respectively) Malays. In contrast, Kelantan Malays were observed to have slightly higher frequency (0.43) of genotype BB as compared with the others. Based on the KIR genes distribution, Jawa, Pattani and Banjar subethnic groups showed greater similarity and are discrete from Kelantan Malays. A principal component plot carried out using KIR gene carrier frequency shows that the four Malay subethnic groups are clustered together with other South-East Asian populations. Overall, our observation on prevalence of KIR gene content demonstrates genetic affinities between the four Malay subethnic groups and supports the common origins of the Austronesian-speaking people.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation*
  18. Asnet MJ, Rubia AG, Ramya G, Nagalakshmi RN, Shenbagarathai R
    J Vector Borne Dis, 2014 Jun;51(2):82-5.
    PMID: 24947213
    DENVirDB is a web portal that provides the sequence information and computationally curated information of dengue viral proteins. The advent of genomic technology has increased the sequences available in the public databases. In order to create relevant concise information on Dengue Virus (DENV), the genomic sequences were collected, analysed with the bioinformatics tools and presented as DENVirDB. It provides the comprehensive information of complete genome sequences of dengue virus isolates of Southeast Asia, viz. India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, East Timor, Philippines, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Brunei and China. DENVirDB also includes the structural and non-structural protein sequences of DENV. It intends to provide the integrated information on the physicochemical properties, topology, secondary structure, domain and structural properties for each protein sequences. It contains over 99 entries in complete genome sequences and 990 entries in protein sequences, respectively. Therefore, DENVirDB could serve as a user friendly database for researchers in acquiring sequences and proteomic information in one platform.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation*
  19. Taheri S, Abdullah TL, Abdullah NA, Ahmad Z, Karimi E, Shabanimofrad MR
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2014;13(3):7339-46.
    PMID: 25222232 DOI: 10.4238/2014.September.5.12
    The genus Curcuma is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) that has recently become popular for use as flowering pot plants, both indoors and as patio and landscape plants. We used PCR-based molecular markers (SSRs) to elucidate genetic variation and relationships between five varieties of Curcuma (Curcuma alismatifolia) cultivated in Malaysia. Of the primers tested, 8 (of 17) SSR primers were selected for their reproducibility and high rates of polymorphism. The number of presumed alleles revealed by the SSR analysis ranged from two to six alleles, with a mean value of 3.25 alleles per locus. The values of HO and HE ranged from 0 to 0.8 (mean value of 0.2) and 0.1837 to 0.7755 (mean value of 0.5102), respectively. Eight SSR primers yielded 26 total amplified fragments and revealed high rates of polymorphism among the varieties studied. The polymorphic information content varied from 0.26 to 0.73. Dice's similarity coefficient was calculated for all pairwise comparisons and used to construct an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram. Similarity coefficient values from 0.2105 to 0.6667 (with an average of 0.4386) were found among the five varieties examined. A cluster analysis of data using a UPGMA algorithm divided the five varieties/hybrids into 2 groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation*
  20. Ramaiya SD, Bujang JS, Zakaria MH
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:598313.
    PMID: 25050402 DOI: 10.1155/2014/598313
    This study used morphological characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA to investigate the phylogeny of Passiflora species. The samples were collected from various regions of East Malaysia, and discriminant function analysis based on linear combinations of morphological variables was used to classify the Passiflora species. The biplots generated five distinct groups discriminated by morphological variables. The group consisted of cultivars of P. edulis with high levels of genetic similarity; in contrast, P. foetida was highly divergent from other species in the morphological biplots. The final dataset of aligned sequences from nine studied Passiflora accessions and 30 other individuals obtained from GenBank database (NCBI) yielded one most parsimonious tree with two strongly supported clades. Maximum parsimony (MP) tree showed the phylogenetic relationships within this subgenus Passiflora support the classification at the series level. The constructed phylogenic tree also confirmed the divergence of P. foetida from all other species and the closeness of wild and cultivated species. The phylogenetic relationships were consistent with results of morphological assessments. The results of this study indicate that ITS region analysis represents a useful tool for evaluating genetic diversity in Passiflora at the species level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation*
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