Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 55 in total

  1. Yang Z, Cui Q, Zhou W, Qiu L, Han B
    Mol Genet Genomic Med, 2019 06;7(6):e680.
    PMID: 30968607 DOI: 10.1002/mgg3.680
    BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is a common genetic disorder. High prevalence of thalassemia is found in South China, Southeast Asia, India, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean regions. Thalassemia was thought to exist only in southern China, but an increasing number of cases from northern China have been recently reported.

    METHODS: During 2012 to 2017, suspected thalassemia people were detected for common α- and β-thalassemia mutations by gap-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and reverse dot blot (RDB) analysis in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. One thousand and fifty-nine people with thalassemia mutations were analyzed retrospectively. We picked mutated individuals who originally came from northern areas, and conducted telephone follow-up survey in order to collect their ancestral information. Besides, we used "thalassemia", "mutation", and "Southeast Asian countries" as keywords to search the relevant studies in PubMed and Embase databases.

    RESULTS: All carriers included in our study were resided in northern China. Among them, 17.3% were native northerners and 82.7% were immigrants from southern China. Although substantial difference was found in α- and β-thalassemia ratio and detailed spectrum of α- and β-globin mutation spectrum between our data and data obtained from a previous meta-analysis literature focused on southern China, the most common gene mutations were the same. Similar β-thalassemia mutation spectrum was found among Thai, Malaysian Chinese, and Guangdong people, however, no other similarities in gene profile were found between Chinese and other ethnic groups in Southeast Asia.

    CONCLUSION: Chinese people in different areas had similar gene mutation, whereas they had significantly different mutation spectrums from other ethnic groups in Southeast Asia.

    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Globins/genetics*; beta-Globins/genetics*
  2. Suali L, Mohammad Salih FA, Ibrahim MY, Jeffree MSB, Thomas FM, Siew Moy F, et al.
    Hemoglobin, 2022 Nov;46(6):317-324.
    PMID: 36815306 DOI: 10.1080/03630269.2023.2169154
    β-thalassemia is a serious public health problem in Sabah due to its high prevalence. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different types of β-globin gene mutations, coinheritance with α-globin gene mutations, XmnI-Gγ, and rs368698783 polymorphisms on the β-thalassemia phenotypes in Sabahan patients. A total of 111 patients were included in this study. The sociodemographic profile of the patients was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, while clinical data were obtained from their medical records. Gap-PCR, ARMS-PCR, RFLP-PCR, and multiplex PCR were performed to detect β- and α-globin gene mutations, as well as XmnI-Gγ and rs368698783 polymorphisms. Our data show that the high prevalence of β-thalassemia in Sabah is not due to consanguineous marriages (5.4%). A total of six different β-globin gene mutations were detected, with Filipino β°-deletion being the most dominant (87.4%). There were 77.5% homozygous β-thalassemia patients, 16.2% compound heterozygous β-thalassemia patients, and 6.3% β-thalassemia/Hb E patients. Further evaluation on compound heterozygous β-thalassemia and β-thalassemia/Hb E patients found no concomitant α-globin gene mutations and the rs368698783 polymorphism. Furthermore, the XmnI-Gγ (-/+) genotype did not demonstrate a strong impact on the disease phenotype, as only two of five patients in the compound heterozygous β-thalassemia group and two of three patients in the β-thalassemia/Hb E group had a moderate phenotype. Our findings indicate that the severity of the β-thalassemia phenotypes is closely related to the type of β-globin gene mutations but not to the XmnI-Gγ and rs368698783 polymorphisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Globins/genetics; beta-Globins/genetics
  3. Koh DXR, Raja Sabudin RZA, Mohd Yusoff M, Hussin NH, Ahmad R, Othman A, et al.
    Ann. Hum. Genet., 2017 Sep;81(5):205-212.
    PMID: 28620953 DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12201
    Thalassaemia is a public health problem in Malaysia, with each ethnic group having their own common mutations. However, there is a lack on data on the prevalence and common mutations among the indigenous people. This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the common mutations of α- and β-thalassaemia among the subethnic groups of Senoi, the largest Orang Asli group in Peninsular Malaysia. Blood samples collected from six Senoi subethnic groups were analysed for full blood count and haemoglobin analysis (HbAn). Samples with abnormal findings were then screened for α- and β-globin gene mutations. Out of the 752 samples collected, 255 showed abnormal HbAn results, and 122 cases showing abnormal red cell indices with normal HbAn findings were subjected to molecular screening. DNA analysis revealed a mixture of α- and β-globin gene mutations with 25 concomitant cases. The types of gene abnormalities detected for α-thalassaemia were termination codon (T>C) Hb CS (αCS α), Cd59 (G>A) haemoglobin Adana (Hb Adana) (αCd59 α), initiation codon (ATG>A-G) (αIniCd α), two-gene deletion (-SEA ), and single-gene 3.7-kb deletion (-α3.7 ). For β-thalassaemia, there were Cd26 (G>A) Hb E (βE ), Cd19 (A>G) Haemoglobin Malay (Hb Malay) (βCd19 ), and IVS 1-5 (G>C) (βIVS 1-5 ).
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Globins/genetics*; beta-Globins/genetics*
  4. Lim WF, Muniandi L, George E, Sathar J, Teh LK, Gan GG, et al.
    Blood Cells Mol. Dis., 2012 Jan 15;48(1):17-21.
    PMID: 22079025 DOI: 10.1016/j.bcmd.2011.10.002
    The alpha haemoglobin stabilising protein (AHSP) acts as a molecular chaperone for α-globin by stabilising nascent α-globin before transferring it to waiting free β-globin chains. Binding of AHSP to α-globin renders α-globin chemically inert whereby preventing it from precipitating and forming reactive oxygen species byproducts. The AHSP has been actively studied in the recent years, particularly in its relation to β-thalassaemia. Studies have shown that AHSP is a modifier in β-thalassaemia mice models. However, this relationship is less established in humans. Studies by some groups showed no correlation between the AHSP haplotypes and the severity of β-thalassaemia, whereas others have shown that certain AHSP haplotype could modify the phenotype of β-thalassaemia intermedia patients. We investigated the expression of AHSP in relation to selected demographic data, full blood count, HPLC results, HbE/β-thalassaemia genotype, Xmn-1 Gγ polymorphism, α-globin, β-globin and γ-globin expression. We found that AHSP expression was significantly correlated to mean cell haemoglobin level, HbF %, α-globin, β-globin and excess α-globin expression. We concluded that AHSP could be a secondary compensatory mechanism in red blood cells to counterbalance the excess α-globin chains in HbE/β-thalassaemia individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Globins/genetics*; beta-Globins/genetics; gamma-Globins/genetics
  5. Teh LK, George E, Lai MI, Tan JA, Wong L, Ismail P
    J Hum Genet, 2014 Mar;59(3):119-23.
    PMID: 24369358 DOI: 10.1038/jhg.2013.131
    Beta-thalassemia is one of the most prevalent inherited diseases and a public health problem in Malaysia. Malaysia is geographically divided into West and East Malaysia. In Sabah, a state in East Malaysia, there are over 1000 estimated cases of β-thalassemia major patients. Accurate population frequency data of the molecular basis of β-thalassemia major are needed for planning its control in the high-risk population of Sabah. Characterization of β-globin gene defects was done in 252 transfusion dependent β-thalassemia patients incorporating few PCR techniques. The study demonstrates that β-thalassemia mutations inherited are ethnically dependent. It is important to note that 86.9% of transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major patients in Sabah were of the indigenous population and homozygous for a single mutation. The Filipino β(0)-deletion was a unique mutation found in the indigenous population of Sabah. Mutations common in West Malaysia were found in 11 (4.3%) patients. Four rare mutations (Hb Monroe, CD 8/9, CD 123/124/125 and IVS I-2) were also found. This study is informative on the population genetics of β-thalassemia major in Sabah.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Globins/genetics
  6. Sivalingam M, Looi ML, Zakaria SZ, Hamidah NH, Alias H, Latiff ZA, et al.
    Int J Lab Hematol, 2012 Aug;34(4):377-82.
    PMID: 22335963 DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-553X.2012.01405.x
    INTRODUCTION: To study the ß-gene mutations spectrum, the genotype/phenotype correlation, the modulatory effect of co-inherited factors such as α-gene mutations and of Xmn1 polymorphism in a large cohort of Malaysian patients.
    METHODS: A total of 264 cases clinically diagnosed as Thalassemia major (TM) (111), Thalassemia intermedia (21), HbE-β Thalassemia (131), and 1 HbE homozygous were studied. The detection of α and ß gene mutations and characterization of Xmn1 polymorphism were performed by multiplex PCR, amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), DNA sequencing, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR.
    RESULTS: A total of 19 ß Thalassemia mutations were characterized. CD26 and CD41/42 were the most common found in the Malay and Chinese population, respectively. The sensitivity of the clinical diagnosis for β TM, thalassemia intermedia, and HbE/β thalassemia was 94.0%, 15.2%, and 89.2%, respectively. Patients with Xmn1 heterozygosity [+/-] required less frequent transfusion compared with those without the polymorphism. Co-inheritance of α-thalassemia alleviates the severity of HbE-β thalassemia in our cohort.
    CONCLUSION: Molecular analysis should be used for a better diagnosis and management of β thalassemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Globins/genetics*
  7. George E, Jama T, Azian AS, Rahimah A, Zubaidah Z
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Dec;64(4):321-2.
    PMID: 20954559
    A rare case of thalassaemia-intermedia involving a non-deletion alpha thalassemia point mutation in the alpha1-globin gene CD59 (GGC --> GAC) and a deletion alpha+ (-alpha(3.7)) thalassaemia in which use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) C-gram Hb subtype profile and DNA molecular analysis helped establish the diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Globins/genetics*
  8. Teh AH, Saito JA, Najimudin N, Alam M
    Sci Rep, 2015;5:11407.
    PMID: 26094577 DOI: 10.1038/srep11407
    Globins are haem-binding proteins with a conserved fold made up of α-helices and can possess diverse properties. A putative globin-coupled sensor from Methylacidiphilum infernorum, HGbRL, contains an N-terminal globin domain whose open and closed structures reveal an untypical dimeric architecture. Helices E and F fuse into an elongated helix, resulting in a novel site-swapped globin fold made up of helices A-E, hence the distal site, from one subunit and helices F-H, the proximal site, from another. The open structure possesses a large cavity binding an imidazole molecule, while the closed structure forms a unique Lys-His hexacoordinated species, with the first turn of helix E unravelling to allow Lys52(E10) to bind to the haem. Ligand binding induces reorganization of loop CE, which is stabilized in the closed form, and helix E, triggering a large conformational movement in the open form. These provide a mechanical insight into how a signal may be relayed between the globin domain and the C-terminal domain of HGbRL, a Roadblock/LC7 domain. Comparison with HGbI, a closely related globin, further underlines the high degree of structural versatility that the globin fold is capable of, enabling it to perform a diversity of functions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Globins/genetics
  9. Thong MK, Rudzki Z, Hall J, Tan JA, Chan LL, Yap SF
    Hum Mutat, 1999;13(5):413.
    PMID: 10338100 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1999)13:5<413::AID-HUMU15>
    Beta-thalassemia major is one of the commonest genetic disorders in South-East Asia. The spectrum of beta-thalassemia mutations in the various ethnic sub-populations on the island of Borneo is unknown. We studied 20 Dusun children from the East Malaysian state of Sabah (North Borneo) with a severe beta-thalassemia major phenotype, using a combination of Southern analysis, polymerase chain reaction analysis and direct sequencing. We found the children to be homozygous for a large deletion, which has a 5' breakpoint at position -4279 from the cap site of the beta-globin gene (HBB) with the 3' breakpoint located in a L1 family of repetitive sequences at an unknown distance from the beta-globin gene. This was similar to a recent finding of a large deletion causing beta-thalassemia first described in unrelated beta-thalassemia heterozygotes of Filipino descent. This report describes the first 20 families with homozygosity of the deletion causing a severe phenotype. It provides the first information on the molecular epidemiology of beta-thalassemia in Sabah. This finding has implications for the population genetics and preventative strategies for beta-thalassemia major for nearly 300 million individuals in South-East Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Globins/genetics*
  10. George E, Faridah K, Trent RJ, Padanilam BJ, Huang HJ, Huisman TH
    Hemoglobin, 1986;10(4):353-63.
    PMID: 2427478
    Hematological and clinical data are presented for a young Malay patient with a homozygous (delta beta)zero-thalassemic condition. His red blood cells contained 100% fetal hemoglobin with alpha and G gamma chains only. Detailed gene mapping defined a large deletion with a 5' end between the Aha III and Apa I sites, some 200-400 bp 5' to the A gamma globin gene and a 3' end beyond sequences 17-18 kb 3' to the beta globin gene. This G gamma (A gamma delta beta)zero-type of thalassemia is different from all the other six types described before. Comparison of the hematological data of this patient with those of homozygotes for either the Sicilian or Spanish types of G gamma A gamma (delta beta)zero-thalassemia showed no differences; all homozygotes have a moderate anemia which is accentuated by the relatively high oxygen affinity of the Hb F containing erythrocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Globins/genetics
  11. Mahmud N, Maffei M, Mogni M, Forni GL, Pinto VM, Barberio G, et al.
    Genes (Basel), 2021 11 19;12(11).
    PMID: 34828427 DOI: 10.3390/genes12111821
    BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin A (Hb A) (α2β2) in the normal adult subject constitutes 96-98% of hemoglobin, and Hb F is normally less than 1%, while for hemoglobin A2 (Hb A2) (α2δ2), the normal reference values are between 2.0 and 3.3%. It is important to evaluate the presence of possible delta gene mutations in a population at high risk for globin gene defects in order to correctly diagnose the β-thalassemia carrier.

    METHODS: The most used methods for the quantification of Hb A2 are based on automated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). In particular Hb analyses were performed by HPLC on three dedicated devices. DNA analyses were performed according to local standard protocols.

    RESULTS: Here, we described eight new δ-globin gene variants discovered and characterized in some laboratories in Northern Italy in recent years. These new variants were added to the many already known Hb A2 variants that were found with an estimated frequency of about 1-2% during the screening tests in our laboratories.

    CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge recognition of the delta variant on Hb analysis and accurate molecular characterization is crucial to provide an accurate definitive thalassemia diagnosis, particularly in young subjects who would like to ask for a prenatal diagnosis or preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: delta-Globins/genetics*
  12. Rozitah R, Nizam MZ, Nur Shafawati AR, Nor Atifah MA, Dewi M, Kannan TP, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2008 Dec;49(12):1046-9.
    PMID: 19122960
    Beta-thalassaemia major is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in severe microcytic, hypochromic, haemolytic anaemia among affected patients. Beta-thalassaemia has emerged as one of the most common public health problems in Malaysia, particularly among Malaysian Chinese and Malays. This study aimed to observe the spectrum of mutations found in Kelantan Malay beta-thalassaemia major patients who attended the Paediatrics Daycare Unit, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia, the data of which was being used in establishing the prenatal diagnosis in this Human Genome Centre.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Globins/genetics*
  13. Mahmoud Ahmed NH, Lai MI
    PMID: 36734897 DOI: 10.2174/1871529X23666230123140926
    β-thalassaemia is a genetic disorder resulting in a reduction or absence of β-globin gene expression. Due to the high prevalence of β-thalassaemia and the lack of available treatment other than blood transfusion and haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation, the disease represents a considerable burden to clinical and economic systems. Foetal haemoglobin has an appreciated ameliorating effect in β-haemoglobinopathy, as the γ-globin chain substitutes the β-globin chain reduction by pairing with the excess α-globin chain in β-thalassaemia and reduces sickling in sickle cell disease (SCD). BCL11A is a critical regulator and repressor of foetal haemoglobin. Downregulation of BCL11A in adult erythroblasts and cell lines expressing adult haemoglobin led to a significant increase in foetal haemoglobin levels. Disruption of BCL11A erythroid enhancer resulted in disruption of the BCL11A gene solely in the erythroid lineages and increased γ-globin expression in adult erythroid cells. Autologous haematopoietic stem cell gene therapy represents an attractive treatment option to overcome the immune complications and donor availability associated with allogeneic transplantation. Using genome editing technologies, the disruption of BCL11A to induce γ- globin expression in HSCs has emerged as an alternative approach to treat β-thalassaemia. Targeting the +58 BCL11A erythroid enhancer or BCL11A binding motif at the γ-gene promoter with CRISPR-Cas9 or base editors has successfully disrupted the gene and the binding motif with a subsequent increment in HbF levels. This review outlines the critical role of BCL11A in γ-globin gene silencing and discusses the different genome editing approaches to downregulate BCL11A as a means for ameliorating β-thalassaemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: gamma-Globins/genetics
  14. Tan JA, Chin SS, Ong GB, Mohamed Unni MN, Soosay AE, Gudum HR, et al.
    Public Health Genomics, 2015;18(1):60-4.
    PMID: 25412720 DOI: 10.1159/000368342
    BACKGROUND: Although thalassemia is a genetic hemoglobinopathy in Malaysia, there is limited data on thalassemia mutations in the indigenous groups. This study aims to identify the types of globin gene mutations in transfusion-dependent patients in Northern Sarawak.
    METHODS: Blood was collected from 32 patients from the Malay, Chinese, Kedayan, Bisayah, Kadazandusun, Tagal, and Bugis populations. The α- and β-globin gene mutations were characterized using DNA amplification and genomic sequencing.
    RESULTS: Ten β- and 2 previously reported α-globin defects were identified. The Filipino β-deletion represented the majority of the β-thalassemia alleles in the indigenous patients. Homozygosity for the deletion was observed in all Bisayah, Kadazandusun and Tagal patients. The β-globin gene mutations in the Chinese patients were similar to the Chinese in West Malaysia. Hb Adana (HBA2:c.179G>A) and the -α(3.7)/αα deletion were detected in 5 patients. A novel 24-bp deletion in the α2-globin gene (HBA2:c.95 + 5_95 + 28delGGCTCCCTCCCCTGCTCCGACCCG) was identified by sequencing. Co-inheritance of α-thalassemia with β-thalassemia did not ameliorate the severity of thalassemia major in the patients.
    CONCLUSION: The Filipino β-deletion was the most common gene defect observed. Homozygosity for the Filipino β-deletion appears to be unique to the Malays in Sarawak. Genomic sequencing is an essential tool to detect rare genetic variants in the study of new populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Globins/genetics*
  15. Teh LK, Lee TY, Tan JA, Lai MI, George E
    Int J Lab Hematol, 2015 Feb;37(1):79-89.
    PMID: 24725998 DOI: 10.1111/ijlh.12240
    In Malaysia, β-thalassaemia is a common inherited blood disorder in haemoglobin synthesis with a carrier rate of 4.5%. Currently, PCR-incorporating techniques such as amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) or reverse dot blot hybridization (RDBH) are used in β-thalassaemia mutation detection. ARMS allows single-mutation identification using two reactions, one for wild type and another for mutant alleles. RDBH requires probe immobilization and optimization of hybridization and washing temperatures which is time consuming. The aim of our study was to investigate whether β-thalassaemia mutations can be identified in samples with low DNA concentrations.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Globins/genetics*
  16. Yatim NF, Rahim MA, Menon K, Al-Hassan FM, Ahmad R, Manocha AB, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(5):8835-45.
    PMID: 24857915 DOI: 10.3390/ijms15058835
    Both α- and β-thalassaemia syndromes are public health problems in the multi-ethnic population of Malaysia. To molecularly characterise the α- and β-thalassaemia deletions and mutations among Malays from Penang, Gap-PCR and multiplexed amplification refractory mutation systems were used to study 13 α-thalassaemia determinants and 20 β-thalassaemia mutations in 28 and 40 unrelated Malays, respectively. Four α-thalassaemia deletions and mutations were demonstrated. --SEA deletion and αCSα accounted for more than 70% of the α-thalassaemia alleles. Out of the 20 β-thalassaemia alleles studied, nine different β-thalassaemia mutations were identified of which βE accounted for more than 40%. We concluded that the highest prevalence of (α- and β-thalassaemia alleles in the Malays from Penang are --SEA deletion and βE mutation, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Globins/genetics
  17. Harano K, Harano T
    Rinsho Byori, 2010 Apr;58(4):325-31.
    PMID: 20496759
    Hb and gene analyses of a Malaysian mother and her two daughters with microcytic anemia living in Japan were performed. Hb analyses of their hemolysates by IEF and DEAE-HPLC revealed high values of Hb A2 and HbF, but abnormal Hbs such as Hb E and Hb Constant Spring, which cause beta- and alpha-thalassemia traits, were not detected. From these data, they were suspected to be beta-thalassemia carriers. The thalassemic mutations commonly found in the Asian area by ARMS and nucleotide sequencing methods were not detected, and the frameworks of the beta-globin gene and the haplotypes of the beta-like globin gene cluster between the mother and daughters were not identical. These results led us to conclude that there was a beta(0)-thalassemia mutation with a large deletion from the beta-globin gene beyond the 3'beta/BamHI polymorphic site 3' downstream to the beta-globin gene. However, the range of the deletion from the beta-like globin gene cluster has not yet been completed in detail. Recently, there have been many foreigners mainly from Asian countries in Japan. We may encounter people with the rare type thalassemic mutation described in the text besides the mutations frequently found in Asian countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Globins/genetics*
  18. Thong MK, Tan JA, Tan KL, Yap SF
    J Trop Pediatr, 2005 Dec;51(6):328-33.
    PMID: 15967770 DOI: 10.1093/tropej/fmi052
    beta-thalassaemia major, an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy, is one of the most common single gene disorders in multi-racial Malaysia. The control of beta-thalassaemia major requires a multi-disciplinary approach that includes population screening, genetic counselling, prenatal diagnosis and the option of termination of affected pregnancies. To achieve this objective, the molecular characterisation of the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in each of the affected ethnic groups is required. We studied 88 consecutive unrelated individuals and their respective families with beta-thalassaemia (74 beta-thalassaemia major, 12 HbE-beta-thalassaemia, 2 with HbE homozygotes) and four individuals with beta-thalassaemia trait that contributed a total 180 alleles for study. Using a 2-step molecular diagnostic strategy consisting of amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) to identify the 8 most common mutations followed by other DNA-based diagnostic techniques, a total of 177 (98.3 per cent) of the 180 beta-thalassaemia alleles were characterised. One out of 91 (1 per cent) of the Chinese alleles, one out of 46 (2.2 per cent) Malay alleles and one out of two Indian alleles remained unknown. A 100 per cent success rate was achieved in studying the Kadazandusun community in this study. A strategy to identify beta-globin gene mutations in Malaysians with beta-thalassaemia is proposed based on this outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Globins/genetics*
  19. Etemad A, Vasudevan R, Aziz AF, Yusof AK, Khazaei S, Fawzi N, et al.
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2016 Apr 07;15(2).
    PMID: 27173202 DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15025845
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is believed to be associated with excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms result in decreased or absent enzyme activity and altered oxidative stress, and have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The present study assessed the effect of GST polymorphisms on the risk of developing T2DM in individuals of Malaysian Malay ethnicity. A total of 287 subjects, consisting of 87 T2DM and 64 CVD/T2DM patients, as well as 136 healthy gender- and age-matched controls were genotyped for selected polymorphisms to evaluate associations with T2DM susceptibility. Genomic DNA was extracted using commercially available kits, and GSTM1, GSTT1, and α-globin sequences were amplified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Biochemical parameters were measured with a Hitachi autoanalyzer. The Fisher exact test, the chi-square statistic, and means ± standard deviations were calculated using the SPSS software. Overall, we observed no significant differences regarding genotype and allele frequencies between each group (P = 0.224 and 0.199, respectively). However, in the combined analysis of genotypes and blood measurements, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and triglyceride levels, followed by age, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, and history of T2DM significantly differed according to GST polymorphism (P ˂ 0.05). Genetically induced absence of the GSTT1 enzyme is an independent and powerful predictor of premature vascular morbidity and death in individuals with T2DM, and might be triggered by cigarette smoking's oxidative effects. These polymorphisms could be screened in other ethnicities within Malaysia to determine further possible risk factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Globins/genetics
  20. Chen JJ, Tan JA, Chua KH, Tan PC, George E
    BMJ Open, 2015 Jul 22;5(7):e007648.
    PMID: 26201722 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-007648
    OBJECTIVES: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with a mutation can be used to identify the presence of the paternally-inherited wild-type or mutant allele as result of the inheritance of either allele in the fetus and allows the prediction of the fetal genotype. This study aims to identify paternal SNPs located at the flanking regions upstream or downstream from the β-globin gene mutations at CD41/42 (HBB:c.127_130delCTTT), IVS1-5 (HBB:c.92+5G>C) and IVS2-654 (HBB:c.316-197C>T) using free-circulating fetal DNA.

    SETTING: Haematology Lab, Department of Biomedical Science, University of Malaya.

    PARTICIPANTS: Eight couples characterised as β-thalassaemia carriers where both partners posed the same β-globin gene mutations at CD41/42, IVS1-5 and IVS2-654, were recruited in this study.

    OUTCOME MEASURES: Genotyping was performed by allele specific-PCR and the locations of SNPs were identified after sequencing alignment.

    RESULTS: Genotype analysis revealed that at least one paternal SNP was present for each of the couples. Amplification on free-circulating DNA revealed that the paternal mutant allele of SNP was present in three fcDNA. Thus, the fetuses may be β-thalassaemia carriers or β-thalassaemia major. Paternal wild-type alleles of SNP were present in the remaining five fcDNA samples, thus indicating that the fetal genotypes would not be homozygous mutants.

    CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary research demonstrates that paternal allele of SNP can be used as a non-invasive prenatal diagnosis approach for at-risk couples to determine the β-thalassaemia status of the fetus.

    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Globins/genetics*
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