Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 303 in total

  1. Alshiyab H, Kalil MS, Hamid AA, Yusoff WM
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Sep 01;11(17):2073-82.
    PMID: 19266920
    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of some environmental factors on bacterial metabolism. Fermentative hydrogen production by C. acetobutylicum, using glucose as the substrate. The effect of initial pH (4-8), inoculum size (1-20% (v/v)) and glucose concentration (1-30 g L(-1)) on hydrogen production were studied. The optimum cultivation temperature for hydrogen production was at 30 degrees C. The results show that substrate concentration and inoculum size resulted in hydrogen yield (Y(P/S)) of 391 mL g(-1) glucose utilized with maximum hydrogen productivity of 77.5 mL/L/h. Higher substrate concentration or inoculum size adversely affects hydrogen production, which decreases hydrogen yield by 15% to 334 mL g(-1) glucose utilized when 30% (v/v) inoculum size was used. The use of 30 g L(-1) substrate concentration resulted in a 75% decrease to 97 mL g(-1) glucose supplied. Concluded that proper Xo/So enhanced the hydrogen production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  2. Paramaesvaran N
    Med J Malaya, 1965 Mar;19(3):224-8.
    PMID: 4220475
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  3. Liyana AZ, Appannah G, Sham SYZ, Fazliana M, Nor NSM, Ambak R, et al.
    BMC Womens Health, 2018 07 19;18(Suppl 1):126.
    PMID: 30066628 DOI: 10.1186/s12905-018-0593-1
    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of lifestyle intervention for weight loss on cardiometabolic risk factors among overweight and obese individuals in the community setting remains inconclusive. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a 6-month weight loss lifestyle intervention on cardiometabolic risk factors among overweight and obese women and the sustainability of the changes in those markers at 12-month follow-up, comparing an intervention group with a control group.

    METHODS: A total of 243 participants from MyBFF@home were included in this study. Fasting blood samples at baseline, 6- and 12-month were assessed for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides. The effect of the intervention on cardiometabolic risk markers were investigated within and between study groups using t-test and general linear model (GLM) repeated measure ANOVA.

    RESULTS: Results from repeated measures ANOVA showed intervention effect only in TC where significant reduction was found in the intervention group (- 0.26 mmol/L [95% CI: - 0.47 to - 0.06], p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose Metabolism Disorders/prevention & control*
  4. Hong YH, Yang C, Betik AC, Lee-Young RS, McConell GK
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2016 05 15;310(10):E838-45.
    PMID: 27006199 DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00513.2015
    Nitric oxide influences intramuscular signaling that affects skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise. The role of the main NO-producing enzyme isoform activated during skeletal muscle contraction, neuronal nitric oxide synthase-μ (nNOSμ), in modulating glucose uptake has not been investigated in a physiological exercise model. In this study, conscious and unrestrained chronically catheterized nNOSμ(+/+) and nNOSμ(-/-) mice either remained at rest or ran on a treadmill at 17 m/min for 30 min. Both groups of mice demonstrated similar exercise capacity during a maximal exercise test to exhaustion (17.7 ± 0.6 vs. 15.9 ± 0.9 min for nNOSμ(+/+) and nNOSμ(-/-), respectively, P > 0.05). Resting and exercise blood glucose levels were comparable between the genotypes. Very low levels of NOS activity were detected in skeletal muscle from nNOSμ(-/-) mice, and exercise increased NOS activity only in nNOSμ(+/+) mice (4.4 ± 0.3 to 5.2 ± 0.4 pmol·mg(-1)·min(-1), P < 0.05). Exercise significantly increased glucose uptake in gastrocnemius muscle (5- to 7-fold) and, surprisingly, more so in nNOSμ(-/-) than in nNOSμ(+/+) mice (P < 0.05). This is in parallel with a greater increase in AMPK phosphorylation during exercise in nNOSμ(-/-) mice. In conclusion, nNOSμ is not essential for skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise, and the higher skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise in nNOSμ(-/-) mice may be due to compensatory increases in AMPK activation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism*; Glucose/metabolism
  5. Tiong XT, Nursara Shahirah A, Pun VC, Wong KY, Fong AYY, Sy RG, et al.
    Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 2018 08;28(8):856-863.
    PMID: 29853430 DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2018.04.014
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Despite a growing body of evidence from Western populations on the health benefits of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets, their applicability in South East Asian settings is not clear. We examined cross-sectional associations between DASH diet and cardio-metabolic risk factors among 1837 Malaysian and 2898 Philippines participants in a multi-national cohort.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood pressures, fasting lipid profile and fasting glucose were measured, and DASH score was computed based on a 22-item food frequency questionnaire. Older individuals, women, those not consuming alcohol and those undertaking regular physical activity were more likely to have higher DASH scores. In the Malaysian cohort, while total DASH score was not significantly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors after adjusting for confounders, significant associations were observed for intake of green vegetable [0.011, standard error (SE): 0.004], and red and processed meat (-0.009, SE: 0.004) with total cholesterol. In the Philippines cohort, a 5-unit increase in total DASH score was significantly and inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (-1.41, SE: 0.40), diastolic blood pressure (-1.09, SE: 0.28), total cholesterol (-0.015, SE: 0.005), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.025, SE: 0.008), and triglyceride (-0.034, SE: 0.012) after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle groups. Intake of milk and dairy products, red and processed meat, and sugared drinks were found to significantly associated with most risk factors.

    CONCLUSIONS: Differential associations of DASH diet and dietary components with cardio-metabolic risk factors by country suggest the need for country-specific tailoring of dietary interventions to improve cardio-metabolic risk profiles.

    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism*; Glucose Metabolism Disorders/blood; Glucose Metabolism Disorders/diet therapy*; Glucose Metabolism Disorders/epidemiology
  6. Thent ZC, Das S, Henry LJ
    PLoS One, 2013;8(11):e80436.
    PMID: 24236181 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080436
    Background: Exercise training programs have emerged as a useful therapeutic regimen for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Majority of the Western studies highlighted the effective role of exercise in T2DM. Therefore, the main aim was to focus on the extent, type of exercise and its clinical significance in T2DM in order to educate the clinicians from developing countries, especially in Asians.

    Methods: Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google scholar were searched using the terms "type 2 diabetes mellitus," "type 2 DM," "exercise," and/or "physical activity," and "type 2 diabetes mellitus with exercise." Only clinical or human studies published in English language between 2000 and 2012 were included. Certain criteria were assigned to achieve appropriate results.

    Results: Twenty five studies met the selected criteria. The majority of the studies were randomized controlled trial study design (65%). Most of the aerobic exercise based studies showed a beneficial effect in T2DM. Resistance exercise also proved to have positive effect on T2DM patients. Minimal studies related to other types of exercises such as yoga classes, joba riding and endurance-type exercise were found. On the other hand, United States of America (USA) showed strong interest of exercise management towards T2DM.

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise is more common in clinical practice compared to resistance exercise in managing T2DM. Treatment of T2DM with exercise training showed promising role in USA. A large number of researches are mandatory in the developing countries for incorporating exercise in the effective management of T2DM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  7. Lee WS, Tay CG, Nazrul N, Paed M, Chai PF
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Mar;64(1):83-5.
    PMID: 19852331 MyJurnal
    A five-month-old Indian girl, product of consanguineous marriage, presented with diarrhoea with an onset within two days after birth, severe malnutrition and metabolic acidosis. The diarrhoea persisted even with lactose-free formula, amino acid-based formula and glucose-containing oral rehydration solution, but stopped when fasted. She required prolonged parenteral nutrition. Fructose and glucose tolerance tests were performed, confirming the child was able to absorb and metabolize fructose but not glucose, indicating a diagnosis of glucose-galactose malabsorption. This case illustrate how simple and pertinent clinical observations and laboratory investigations is sufficient to allow a firm diagnosis to be made.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  8. Wang M, Han L, Liu S, Zhao X, Yang J, Loh SK, et al.
    Biotechnol J, 2015 Sep;10(9):1424-33.
    PMID: 26121186 DOI: 10.1002/biot.201400723
    Renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass has been deemed an alternative to depleting fossil fuels. In order to improve this technology, we aim to develop robust mathematical models for the enzymatic lignocellulose degradation process. By analyzing 96 groups of previously published and newly obtained lignocellulose saccharification results and fitting them to Weibull distribution, we discovered Weibull statistics can accurately predict lignocellulose saccharification data, regardless of the type of substrates, enzymes and saccharification conditions. A mathematical model for enzymatic lignocellulose degradation was subsequently constructed based on Weibull statistics. Further analysis of the mathematical structure of the model and experimental saccharification data showed the significance of the two parameters in this model. In particular, the λ value, defined the characteristic time, represents the overall performance of the saccharification system. This suggestion was further supported by statistical analysis of experimental saccharification data and analysis of the glucose production levels when λ and n values change. In conclusion, the constructed Weibull statistics-based model can accurately predict lignocellulose hydrolysis behavior and we can use the λ parameter to assess the overall performance of enzymatic lignocellulose degradation. Advantages and potential applications of the model and the λ value in saccharification performance assessment were discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  9. Najafpour G, Younesi H, Syahidah Ku Ismail K
    Bioresour Technol, 2004 May;92(3):251-60.
    PMID: 14766158
    Fermentation of sugar by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for production of ethanol in an immobilized cell reactor (ICR) was successfully carried out to improve the performance of the fermentation process. The fermentation set-up was comprised of a column packed with beads of immobilized cells. The immobilization of S. cerevisiae was simply performed by the enriched cells cultured media harvested at exponential growth phase. The fixed cell loaded ICR was carried out at initial stage of operation and the cell was entrapped by calcium alginate. The production of ethanol was steady after 24 h of operation. The concentration of ethanol was affected by the media flow rates and residence time distribution from 2 to 7 h. In addition, batch fermentation was carried out with 50 g/l glucose concentration. Subsequently, the ethanol productions and the reactor productivities of batch fermentation and immobilized cells were compared. In batch fermentation, sugar consumption and ethanol production obtained were 99.6% and 12.5% v/v after 27 h while in the ICR, 88.2% and 16.7% v/v were obtained with 6 h retention time. Nearly 5% ethanol production was achieved with high glucose concentration (150 g/l) at 6 h retention time. A yield of 38% was obtained with 150 g/l glucose. The yield was improved approximately 27% on ICR and a 24 h fermentation time was reduced to 7 h. The cell growth rate was based on the Monod rate equation. The kinetic constants (K(s) and mu(m)) of batch fermentation were 2.3 g/l and 0.35 g/lh, respectively. The maximum yield of biomass on substrate (Y(X-S)) and the maximum yield of product on substrate (Y(P-S)) in batch fermentations were 50.8% and 31.2% respectively. Productivity of the ICR were 1.3, 2.3, and 2.8 g/lh for 25, 35, 50 g/l of glucose concentration, respectively. The productivity of ethanol in batch fermentation with 50 g/l glucose was calculated as 0.29 g/lh. Maximum production of ethanol in ICR when compared to batch reactor has shown to increase approximately 10-fold. The performance of the two reactors was compared and a respective rate model was proposed. The present research has shown that high sugar concentration (150 g/l) in the ICR column was successfully converted to ethanol. The achieved results in ICR with high substrate concentration are promising for scale up operation. The proposed model can be used to design a lager scale ICR column for production of high ethanol concentration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  10. Azaman SNA, Wong DCJ, Tan SW, Yusoff FM, Nagao N, Yeap SK
    Sci Rep, 2020 10 15;10(1):17331.
    PMID: 33060668 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-74410-4
    Chlorella can produce an unusually wide range of metabolites under various nutrient availability, carbon source, and light availability. Glucose, an essential molecule for the growth of microorganisms, also contributes significantly to the metabolism of various metabolic compounds produced by Chlorella. In addition, manipulation of light intensity also induces the formation of secondary metabolites such as pigments, and carotenoids in Chlorella. This study will focus on the effect of glucose addition, and moderate light on the regulation of carotenoid, lipid, starch, and other key metabolic pathways in Chlorella sorokiniana. To gain knowledge about this, we performed transcriptome profiling on C. sorokiniana strain NIES-2168 in response to moderate light stress supplemented with glucose under mixotrophic conditions. A total of 60,982,352 raw paired-end (PE) reads 100 bp in length was obtained from both normal, and mixotrophic samples of C. sorokiniana. After pre-processing, 93.63% high-quality PE reads were obtained, and 18,310 predicted full-length transcripts were assembled. Differential gene expression showed that a total of 937, and 1124 genes were upregulated, and downregulated in mixotrophic samples, respectively. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the mixotrophic condition caused upregulation of genes involved in carotenoids production (specifically lutein biosynthesis), fatty acid biosynthesis, TAG accumulation, and the majority of the carbon fixation pathways. Conversely, starch biosynthesis, sucrose biosynthesis, and isoprenoid biosynthesis were downregulated. Novel insights into the pathways that link the enhanced production of valuable metabolites (such as carotenoids in C. sorokiniana) grown under mixotrophic conditions is presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  11. Chew YH, Shia YL, Lee CT, Majid FA, Chua LS, Sarmidi MR, et al.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2009 May 6;303(1-2):13-24.
    PMID: 19428987 DOI: 10.1016/j.mce.2009.01.018
    A model of glucose regulation system was combined with a model of insulin-signaling pathways in this study. A feedback loop was added to link the transportation of glucose into cells (by GLUT4 in the insulin-signaling pathways) and the insulin-dependent glucose uptake in the glucose regulation model using the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model. A value of K(m) for GLUT4 was estimated using Genetic Algorithm. The estimated value was found to be 25.3 mM, which was in the range of K(m) values found experimentally from in vivo and in vitro human studies. Based on the results of this study, the combined model enables us to understand the overall dynamics of glucose at the systemic level, monitor the time profile of components in the insulin-signaling pathways at the cellular level and gives a good estimate of the K(m) value of glucose transportation by GLUT4. In conclusion, metabolic modeling such as displayed in this study provides a good predictive method to study the step-by-step reactions in an organism at different levels and should be used in combination with experimental approach to increase our understanding of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  12. Zamani AI, Barig S, Ibrahim S, Mohd Yusof H, Ibrahim J, Low JYS, et al.
    Microb Cell Fact, 2020 Sep 09;19(1):179.
    PMID: 32907579 DOI: 10.1186/s12934-020-01434-w
    BACKGROUND: Sugars and triglycerides are common carbon sources for microorganisms. Nonetheless, a systematic comparative interpretation of metabolic changes upon vegetable oil or glucose as sole carbon source is still lacking. Selected fungi that can grow in acidic mineral salt media (MSM) with vegetable oil had been identified recently. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the overall metabolite changes of an omnipotent fungus and to reveal changes at central carbon metabolism corresponding to both carbon sources.

    RESULTS: Targeted and non-targeted metabolomics for both polar and semi-polar metabolites of Phialemonium curvatum AWO2 (DSM 23903) cultivated in MSM with palm oil (MSM-P) or glucose (MSM-G) as carbon sources were obtained. Targeted metabolomics on central carbon metabolism of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and glyoxylate cycle were analysed using LC-MS/MS-TripleQ and GC-MS, while untargeted metabolite profiling was performed using LC-MS/MS-QTOF followed by multivariate analysis. Targeted metabolomics analysis showed that glyoxylate pathway and TCA cycle were recruited at central carbon metabolism for triglyceride and glucose catabolism, respectively. Significant differences in organic acids concentration of about 4- to 8-fold were observed for citric acid, succinic acid, malic acid, and oxaloacetic acid. Correlation of organic acids concentration and key enzymes involved in the central carbon metabolism was further determined by enzymatic assays. On the other hand, the untargeted profiling revealed seven metabolites undergoing significant changes between MSM-P and MSM-G cultures.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study has provided insights on the understanding on the effect of triglycerides and sugar as carbon source in fungi global metabolic pathway, which might become important for future optimization of carbon flux engineering in fungi to improve organic acids production when vegetable oil is applied as the sole carbon source.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  13. Yusof BN, Abd Talib R, Karim NA, Kamarudin NA, Arshad F
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2009 Sep;60(6):487-96.
    PMID: 18785052 DOI: 10.1080/09637480701804268
    This study was carried out to determine the blood glucose response and glycaemic index (GI) values of four types of commercially available breads in Malaysia. Twelve healthy volunteers (six men, six women; body mass index, 21.9±1.6 kg/m(2); age, 22.9±1.7 years) participated in this study. The breads tested were multi-grains bread (M-Grains), wholemeal bread (WM), wholemeal bread with oatmeal (WM-Oat) and white bread (WB). The subjects were studied on seven different occasions (four tests for the tested breads and three repeated tests of the reference food) after an overnight fast. Capillary blood samples were taken immediately before (0 min) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after consumption of the test foods. The blood glucose response was obtained by calculating the incremental area under the curve. The GI values were determined according to the standardized methodology. Our results showed that the M-Grains and WM-Oat could be categorized as intermediate GI while the WM and WB breads were high GI foods, respectively. The GI of M-Grains (56±6.2) and WM-Oat (67±6.9) were significantly lower than the reference food (glucose; GI = 100) (P < 0.05). No significant difference in GI value was seen between the reference food and the GI of WM (85±5.9) and WB (82±6.5) (P > 0.05). Among the tested breads, the GI values of M-Grains and WM-Oat were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of WM and WB. There was no relationship between the dietary fibre content of the bread with the incremental area under the curve (r = 0.15, P = 0.15) or their GI values (r = 0.17, P = 0.12), indicating that the GI value of the test breads were unaffected by the fibre content of the breads. The result of this study will provide useful nutritional information for dieticians and the public alike who may prefer low-GI over high-GI foods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism*; Glucose/metabolism
  14. Rampal S, Yang MH, Sung J, Son HJ, Choi YH, Lee JH, et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2014 Jul;147(1):78-87.e3.
    PMID: 24632359 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.03.006
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diabetes is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. We studied the association between markers of glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome and the presence of colorectal adenomas in a large number of asymptomatic men and women attending a health screening program in South Korea. We also investigated whether these associations depend on adenoma location.
    METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we measured fasting levels of glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, and C-peptide and calculated homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) values (used to quantify insulin resistance) for 19,361 asymptomatic South Korean subjects who underwent colonoscopy examinations from January 2006 to June 2009. Participants completed a standardized self-administered health questionnaire and a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Blood samples were collected on the day of the colonoscopy; fasting blood samples were also collected. Robust Poisson regression was used to model the associations of glucose markers with the prevalence of any adenoma.
    RESULTS: Using detailed multivariable-adjusted dose-response models, the prevalence ratios (aPR, 95% confidence interval [CI]) for any adenoma, comparing the 90th with the 10th percentile, were 1.08 (1.00-1.16; P = .04) for fasting glucose, 1.07 (0.99-1.15; P = .10) for insulin, 1.09 (1.02-1.18, P = .02) for HOMA, 1.09 (1.01-1.17; P = .02) for hemoglobin A1c, and 1.14 (1.05-1.24; P = .002) for C-peptide. The corresponding ratios for nonadvanced adenomas were 1.11 (0.99-1.25; P = .08), 1.10 (0.98-1.24; P = .12), 1.15 (1.02-1.29; P = .02), 1.14 (1.01-1.28; P = .03), and 1.20 (1.05-1.37; P = .007), respectively. The corresponding ratios for advanced adenomas were 1.32 (0.94-1.84; P = .11), 1.23 (0.87-1.75; P = .24), 1.30 (0.92-1.85; P = .14), 1.13 (0.79-1.61; P = .50), and 1.67 (1.15-2.42; P = .007), respectively. Metabolic syndrome was associated with the prevalence of any adenoma (aPR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.24; P < .001), nonadvanced adenoma (aPR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20-1.40; P < .001), and advanced adenoma (aPR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.14-1.78; P = .002). Associations were similar for adenomas located in the distal versus proximal colon.
    CONCLUSIONS: Increasing levels of glucose, HOMA values, levels of hemoglobin A1c and C-peptide, and metabolic syndrome are significantly associated with the prevalence of adenomas. Adenomas should be added to the list of consequences of altered glucose metabolism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism*; Glucose/metabolism*
  15. Muda NA, Ramlan H, Damanhuri HA
    Neuro Endocrinol. Lett., 2017 Jul;38(3):224-235.
    PMID: 28759191
    OBJECTIVES: Impairment in glucose homeostasis is one of the factors that may alter the feeding drive, hunger and satiety signals, which essential to maintain a sufficient level of energy for daily activities especially among the elderly. Adrenal medulla is one of the important organs that involves in glucose homeostasis through secretion of catecholamines. The catecholamines biosynthesis pathway utilizes various enzymes and protein kinases. The aims of this study are to investigate the effects of age on the biosynthetic pathway of catecholamines in adrenal medulla by determining the level of blood glucose and blood catecholamines, the gene and protein expression of biosynthetic catecholamine enzymes (TH, DBH and PNMT) as well as protein kinase substrates that involved in the phosphorylation of TH in 2DG-induced rats.

    METHODS: Adrenal medulla from male Sprague Dawley rats at the age of 3-months (n=12) and 24-months (n=12) were further divided into two groups: 1) treatment group with 2DG to create glucoprivation condition and 2) the vehicle group which received normal saline as control.

    RESULTS: The results showed that the level of glucose, adrenaline and noradrenaline were increased in response to acute glucoprivation conditions in both young and old rats. No age-related differences were found in the basal gene expression of the enzymes that involved in the catecholamines biosynthesis pathway. Interestingly the expressions of TH and DBH protein as well as the level of TH phosphorylation at Ser40, PKA, PKC and ERK1/2 substrates were higher in basal condition of the aged rats. However, contradicted findings were obtained in glucoprivic condition, which the protein expressions of DBH, pERK1/2 and substrates for pPKC were increased in young rats. Only substrate for pCDK was highly expressed in the old rats in the glucoprivic condition, while pPKC and pERK1/2 were decreased significantly. The results demonstrate that adrenal medulla of young and old rats are responsive to glucose deficit and capable to restore the blood glucose level by increasing the levels of blood catecholamines.

    CONCLUSION: The present findings also suggest that, at least in rats, aging alters the protein expression of the biosynthetic catecholamine enzymes as well as protein kinase substrates that may attenuate the response to glucoprivation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism; Glucose/metabolism*
  16. Noor H, Hammonds P, Sutton R, Ashcroft SJ
    Diabetologia, 1989 Jun;32(6):354-9.
    PMID: 2668082
    In Malaysia, Tinospora crispa extract is taken orally by Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients to treat hyperglycaemia. We have evaluated the claimed hypoglycaemic property by adding aqueous extract to the drinking water of normal and alloxan-diabetic rats. After one week, fasting blood glucose levels were significantly (p less than 0.01) lower and serum insulin levels were significantly (p less than 0.01) higher in treated diabetic animals (10.4 +/- 1.0 mmol/l and 12.8 +/- 1.1 muU/ml respectively) compared to untreated diabetic controls (17.4 +/- 1.7 mmol/l and 8.0 +/- 0.7 muU/ml respectively). The insulinotropic action of T. crispa was further investigated in vitro using isolated human or rat islets of Langerhans and HIT-T15 cells. In static incubations with rat islets and HIT-T15 B cells, the extract induced a dosage dependent stimulation and potentiation of basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion respectively. This insulinotropic effect was also evident in perifused human and rat islets and HIT-T5 B-cells. The observations that (i) in all three models insulin secretory rates rapidly returned to basal levels on removal of the extract and (ii) in rat islets, a second challenge with T. crispa induced an additional, stimulated response, are all consistent with physiological release of insulin by B cells. Moreover, the rate of HIT-T15 glucose utilisation was not affected by incubation with T. crispa, suggesting that the cells were viable throughout. These are the first studies to provide biochemical evidence which substantiates the traditional claims for an oral hypoglycaemic effect of Tinospora crispa, and which also show that the hypoglycaemic effect is associated with increased insulin secretion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism; Glucose/metabolism*
  17. Samsudin MD, Mat Don M
    Bioresour Technol, 2015 Jan;175:417-23.
    PMID: 25459850 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.10.116
    Oil palm trunk (OPT) sap was utilized for growth and bioethanol production by Saccharomycescerevisiae with addition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as nutrients supplier. Maximum yield (YP/S) was attained at 0.464g bioethanol/g glucose presence in the OPT sap-POME-based media. However, OPT sap and POME are heterogeneous in properties and fermentation performance might change if it is repeated. Contribution of parametric uncertainty analysis on bioethanol fermentation performance was then assessed using Monte Carlo simulation (stochastic variable) to determine probability distributions due to fluctuation and variation of kinetic model parameters. Results showed that based on 100,000 samples tested, the yield (YP/S) ranged 0.423-0.501g/g. Sensitivity analysis was also done to evaluate the impact of each kinetic parameter on the fermentation performance. It is found that bioethanol fermentation highly depend on growth of the tested yeast.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  18. Hong YH, Betik AC, McConell GK
    Exp Physiol, 2014 Dec 1;99(12):1569-73.
    PMID: 25192731 DOI: 10.1113/expphysiol.2014.079202
    Nitric oxide is produced within skeletal muscle fibres and has various functions in skeletal muscle. There is evidence that NO may be essential for normal increases in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction/exercise. Although there have been some discrepant results, it has been consistently demonstrated that inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) attenuates the increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction in mouse and rat muscle ex vivo, during in situ contraction in rats and during exercise in humans. The NO-mediated increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction/exercise is probably due to the modulation of intramuscular signalling that ultimately increases glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and is, surprisingly, independent of blood flow. In this review, we discuss the evidence for and against a role of NO in regulating skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction/exercise and outline the possible mechanism(s) involved. Emerging findings regarding the role of neuronal NOS mu (nNOSμ) in this process are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  19. Ganjali Dashti M, Abdeshahian P, Wan Yusoff WM, Kalil MS, Abdul Hamid A
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:831783.
    PMID: 25147817 DOI: 10.1155/2014/831783
    The biosynthesis of biomedical products including lipid and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) by Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 was studied in repeated batch fermentation. Three key process variables, namely, glucose concentration, ammonium tartrate concentration, and harvesting time, were optimized using response surface methodology. Repeated batch fermentation was carried out by the cultivation of Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 in nitrogen-limited medium with various nitrogen concentration (1-4 g/L) and glucose concentration (20-40 g/L) at three time intervals (12 h, 24 h, and 48 h). Experimental results showed that the highest lipid concentration of 6.2 g/L and the highest GLA concentration of 0.4 g/L were obtained in optimum conditions, where 20.2 g/L glucose, 2.12 g/L ammonium tartrate, and 48 h harvesting time were utilized. Statistical results showed that the interaction between glucose and ammonium tartrate concentration had highly significant effects on lipid and GLA biosynthesis (P < 0.01). Moreover, harvesting time had a significant interaction effect with glucose and ammonium tartrate concentration on lipid production (P < 0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  20. Harun R, Danquah MK, Thiruvenkadam S
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:435631.
    PMID: 24971327 DOI: 10.1155/2014/435631
    Effective optimization of microalgae-to-bioethanol process systems hinges on an in-depth characterization of key process parameters relevant to the overall bioprocess engineering. One of the such important variables is the biomass particle size distribution and the effects on saccharification levels and bioethanol titres. This study examined the effects of three different microalgal biomass particle size ranges, 35 μm ≤ x ≤ 90 μm, 125 μm ≤ x ≤ 180 μm, and 295 μm ≤ x ≤ 425 μm, on the degree of enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production. Two scenarios were investigated: single enzyme hydrolysis (cellulase) and double enzyme hydrolysis (cellulase and cellobiase). The glucose yield from biomass in the smallest particle size range (35 μm ≤ x ≤ 90 μm) was the highest, 134.73 mg glucose/g algae, while the yield from biomass in the larger particle size range (295 μm ≤ x ≤ 425 μm) was 75.45 mg glucose/g algae. A similar trend was observed for bioethanol yield, with the highest yield of 0.47 g EtOH/g glucose obtained from biomass in the smallest particle size range. The results have shown that the microalgal biomass particle size has a significant effect on enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol yield.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
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