Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 336 in total

  1. Mohamad Sukri N, Abdul Manas NH, Jaafar NR, A Rahman R, Abdul Murad AM, Md Illias R
    Enzyme Microb Technol, 2024 Jan;172:110350.
    PMID: 37948908 DOI: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2023.110350
    A suitable nanofiber sheet was formulated and developed based on its efficacy in the immobilization of recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) to enhance xylitol production. The effects of different types of nanofibers and solvents on cell immobilization and xylitol production were studied. The most applicable nanofiber membrane was selected via preliminary screening of four types of nanofiber membrane, followed by the selection of six different solvents. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofiber sheet synthesized using dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent was found to be the most suitable carrier for immobilization and xylitol production. The thin, beaded PVDF (DMF) nanofibers were more favourable for microbial adhesion, with the number of immobilized cells as high as 96 × 106 ± 3.0 cfu/ml. The attraction force between positively charged PVDF nanofibers and the negatively charged E. coli indicates that the electrostatic interaction plays a significant role in cell adsorption. The use of DMF has also produced PVDF nanofibers biocatalyst capable of synthesizing the highest xylitol concentration (2.168 g/l) and productivity (0.090 g/l/h) and 55-69% reduction in cell lysis compared with DMSO solvent and free cells. This finding suggests that recombinant E. coli immobilized on nanofibers shows great potential as a whole-cell biocatalyst for xylitol production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  2. Moorthy R, Bhattamisra SK, Pandey M, Mayuren J, Kow CS, Candasamy M
    Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab, 2024 Mar;19(2):141-154.
    PMID: 38347803 DOI: 10.1080/17446651.2024.2307526
    INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) presents significant global health and economic challenges, contributing to complications such as stroke, cardiovascular disease, kidney dysfunction, and cancer. The current review explores the crucial role of mitochondria, essential for fuel metabolism, in diabetes-related processes.

    AREAS COVERED: Mitochondrial deficits impact insulin-resistant skeletal muscles, adipose tissue, liver, and pancreatic β-cells, affecting glucose and lipid balance. Exercise emerges as a key factor in enhancing mitochondrial function, thereby reducing insulin resistance. Additionally, the therapeutic potential of mitochondrial uncoupling, which generates heat instead of ATP, is discussed. We explore the intricate link between mitochondrial function and diabetes, investigating genetic interventions to mitigate diabetes-related complications. We also cover the impact of insulin deficiency on mitochondrial function, the role of exercise in addressing mitochondrial defects in insulin resistance, and the potential of mitochondrial uncoupling. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of Mitochondrial Replacement Therapies (MRT) techniques is presented.

    EXPERT OPINION: MRTs hold promise in preventing the transmission of mitochondrial disease. However, addressing ethical, regulatory, and technical considerations is crucial. Integrating mitochondrial-based treatments requires a careful balance between innovation and safety. Ethical dimensions and regulatory aspects of MRT are examined, emphasizing collaborative efforts for the responsible advancement of human health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  3. Paramaesvaran N
    Med J Malaya, 1965 Mar;19(3):224-8.
    PMID: 4220475
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  4. Lopez-Jaramillo P, Gomez-Arbelaez D, Martinez-Bello D, Abat MEM, Alhabib KF, Avezum Á, et al.
    Lancet Healthy Longev, 2023 Jan;4(1):e23-e33.
    PMID: 36521498 DOI: 10.1016/S2666-7568(22)00247-1
    BACKGROUND: The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index is an easily accessible surrogate marker of insulin resistance, an important pathway in the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, the association of the TyG index with cardiovascular diseases and mortality has mainly been investigated in Asia, with few data available from other regions of the world. We assessed the association of insulin resistance (as determined by the TyG index) with mortality and cardiovascular diseases in individuals from five continents at different levels of economic development, living in urban or rural areas. We also examined whether the associations differed according to the country's economical development.

    METHODS: We used the TyG index as a surrogate measure for insulin resistance. Fasting triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose were measured at the baseline visit in 141 243 individuals aged 35-70 years from 22 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. The TyG index was calculated as Ln (fasting triglycerides [mg/dL] x fasting plasma glucose [mg/dL]/2). We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using a multivariable Cox frailty model with random effects to test the associations between the TyG index and risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality. The primary outcome of this analysis was the composite of mortality or major cardiovascular events (defined as death from cardiovascular causes, and non-fatal myocardial infarction, or stroke). Secondary outcomes were non-cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular mortality, all myocardial infarctions, stroke, and incident diabetes. We also did subgroup analyses to examine the magnitude of associations between insulin resistance (ie, the TyG index) and outcome events according to the income level of the countries.

    FINDINGS: During a median follow-up of 13·2 years (IQR 11·9-14·6), we recorded 6345 composite cardiovascular diseases events, 2030 cardiovascular deaths, 3038 cases of myocardial infarction, 3291 cases of stroke, and 5191 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. After adjusting for all other variables, the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases increased across tertiles of the baseline TyG index. Compared with the lowest tertile of the TyG index, the highest tertile (tertile 3) was associated with a greater incidence of the composite outcome (HR 1·21; 95% CI 1·13-1·30), myocardial infarction (1·24; 1·12-1·38), stroke (1·16; 1·05-1·28), and incident type 2 diabetes (1·99; 1·82-2·16). No significant association of the TyG index was seen with non-cardiovascular mortality. In low-income countries (LICs) and middle-income countries (MICs), the highest tertile of the TyG index was associated with increased hazards for the composite outcome (LICs: HR 1·31; 95% CI 1·12-1·54; MICs: 1·20; 1·11-1·31; pinteraction=0·01), cardiovascular mortality (LICs: 1·44; 1·15-1·80; pinteraction=0·01), myocardial infarction (LICs: 1·29; 1·06-1·56; MICs: 1·26; 1·10-1·45; pinteraction=0·08), stroke (LICs: 1·35; 1·02-1·78; MICs: 1·17; 1·05-1·30; pinteraction=0·19), and incident diabetes (LICs: 1·64; 1·38-1·94; MICs: 2·68; 2·40-2·99; pinteraction <0·0001). In contrast, in high-income countries, higher TyG index tertiles were only associated with an increased hazard of incident diabetes (2·95; 2·25-3·87; pinteraction <0·0001), but not of cardiovascular diseases or mortality.

    INTERPRETATION: The TyG index is significantly associated with future cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and type 2 diabetes, suggesting that insulin resistance plays a promoting role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Potentially, the association between the TyG index and the higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes in LICs and MICs might be explained by an increased vulnerability of these populations to the presence of insulin resistance.

    FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  5. Abulehia H, Mohd Nor NS, Sheikh Abdul Kadir SH, Abdul Aziz M, Zulkifli S
    Sci Rep, 2023 Jun 08;13(1):9322.
    PMID: 37291156 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-36043-1
    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plasticiser used in the manufacturing of many products and its effects on human health remain controversial. Up till now, BPA involvement in metabolic syndrome risk and development is still not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of prenatal BPA exposure with postnatal trans-fat diet intake on metabolic parameters and pancreatic tissue histology. Eighteen pregnant rats were divided into control (CTL), vehicle tween 80 (VHC), and BPA (5 mg/kg/day) from gestational day (GD) 2 until GD 21, then their weaning rat's offspring were fed with normal diet (ND) or trans-fat diet (TFD) from postnatal week (PNW) 3 until PNW 14. The rats were then sacrificed and the blood (biochemical analysis) and pancreatic tissues (histological analysis) were collected. Glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were measured. The study has shown that there was no significant difference between groups with regard to glucose, insulin, and lipid profiles (p > 0.05). All pancreatic tissues showed normal architecture with irregular islets of Langerhans in TFD intake groups compared to offspring that consumed ND. Furthermore, the pancreatic histomorphometry was also affected whereby the study findings revealed that there was a significant increase in the mean number of pancreatic islets in rats from BPA-TFD group (5.987 ± 0.3159 islets/field, p = 0.0022) compared to those fed with ND and BPA non-exposed. In addition, the results have found that prenatal BPA exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the pancreatic islets diameter of the BPA-ND group (183.3 ± 23.28 µm, p = 0.0022) compared to all other groups. In conclusion, prenatal BPA exposure with postnatal TFD in the offspring may affect glucose homeostasis and pancreatic islets in adulthood, and the effect may be more aggravated in late adulthood.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  6. Sharma M, Chan HK, Lavilla CA, Uy MM, Froemming GRA, Okechukwu PN
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol, 2023 Aug;37(4):769-778.
    PMID: 36905079 DOI: 10.1111/fcp.12892
    Streptozotocin (STZ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is toxic to the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreatic islets. STZ is currently used clinically for the treatment of metastatic islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas and the induction of diabetes mellitus (DM) in rodents. So far, there has been no previous research to show that STZ injection in rodents causes insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this study was to determine if rats (Sprague-Dawley) developed type 2 diabetes mellitus (insulin resistance) after 72 h of intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg/kg STZ. Rats with fasting blood glucose levels above 11.0 mM, 72 h post-STZ induction, were used. The body weight and plasma glucose levels were measured every week throughout the 60-day treatment period. The plasma, liver, kidney, pancreas, and smooth muscle cells were harvested for antioxidant, biochemical analysis, histology, and gene expression studies. The results revealed that STZ was able to destroy the pancreatic insulin-producing beta cell, as evidenced by an increase in plasma glucose level, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. Biochemical investigation indicates that STZ can generate diabetes complications through hepatocellular damage, elevated HbA1c, kidney damage, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular damage, and impairment of the insulin-signaling pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  7. Alshiyab H, Kalil MS, Hamid AA, Yusoff WM
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Sep 01;11(17):2073-82.
    PMID: 19266920
    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of some environmental factors on bacterial metabolism. Fermentative hydrogen production by C. acetobutylicum, using glucose as the substrate. The effect of initial pH (4-8), inoculum size (1-20% (v/v)) and glucose concentration (1-30 g L(-1)) on hydrogen production were studied. The optimum cultivation temperature for hydrogen production was at 30 degrees C. The results show that substrate concentration and inoculum size resulted in hydrogen yield (Y(P/S)) of 391 mL g(-1) glucose utilized with maximum hydrogen productivity of 77.5 mL/L/h. Higher substrate concentration or inoculum size adversely affects hydrogen production, which decreases hydrogen yield by 15% to 334 mL g(-1) glucose utilized when 30% (v/v) inoculum size was used. The use of 30 g L(-1) substrate concentration resulted in a 75% decrease to 97 mL g(-1) glucose supplied. Concluded that proper Xo/So enhanced the hydrogen production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  8. Abdulazeez I, Ismail IS, Mohd Faudzi SM, Christianus A, Chong SG
    Drug Chem Toxicol, 2024 Jan;47(1):115-130.
    PMID: 37548163 DOI: 10.1080/01480545.2023.2242005
    Sodium taurocholate (NaT) is a hydrophobic bile salt that exhibits varying toxicity and antimicrobial activity. The accumulation of BSs during their entero-hepatic cycle causes cytotoxicity in the liver and intestine and could also alter the intestinal microbiome leading to various diseases. In this research, the acute toxicity of sodium taurocholate in different concentrations (3000 mg/L, 1500 mg/L, 750 mg/L, 375 mg/L, and 0 mg/L) was investigated on four months old zebrafish by immersion in water for 96 h. The results were determined based on the fish mortality, behavioral response, and NMR metabolomics analysis which revealed LC50 of 1760.32 mg/L and 1050.42 mg/L after 72 and 96 h treatment, respectively. However, the non-lethal NaT concentrations of 750 mg/L and 375 mg/L at 96 h exposure significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased the total distance traveled and the activity duration, also caused surface respiration on the zebrafish. Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed that the metabolome of the fish treated with 750 mg/L was discriminated from that of the control by PC1. Major significantly downregulated metabolites by NaT-induction include valine, isoleucine, 2-hydroxyvalerate, glycine, glycerol, choline, glucose, pyruvate, anserine, threonine, carnitine and homoserine. On the contrary, taurine, creatine, lactate, acetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate were upregulated suggesting cellular consumption of lipids, glucose and amino acids for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation during immune and inflammatory response. whereby these metabolites were released in the process. In conclusion, the research revealed the toxic effect of NaT and its potential to trigger changes in zebrafish metabolism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  9. Wee AS, Nhu TD, Khaw KY, Tang KS, Yeong KY
    Curr Neuropharmacol, 2023;21(10):2036-2048.
    PMID: 36372924 DOI: 10.2174/1570159X21999221111102343
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are more prevalent with ageing and cause a substantial global socio-economic burden. The biology of these two conditions is well elaborated, but whether AD and type 2 DM arise from coincidental roots in ageing or are linked by pathophysiological mechanisms remains unclear. Research findings involving animal models have identified mechanisms shared by both AD and type 2 DM. Deposition of β-amyloid peptides and formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles are pathological hallmarks of AD. Type 2 DM, on the other hand, is a metabolic disorder characterised by hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. Several studies show that improving type 2 DM can delay or prevent the development of AD, and hence, prevention and control of type 2 DM may reduce the risk of AD later in life. Alpha-glucosidase is an enzyme that is commonly associated with hyperglycaemia in type 2 DM. However, it is uncertain if this enzyme may play a role in the progression of AD. This review explores the experimental evidence that depicts the relationship between dysregulation of glucose metabolism and AD. We also delineate the links between alpha-glucosidase and AD and the potential role of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors in treating AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  10. Lai P, Zhang L, Qiu Y, Ren J, Sun X, Zhang T, et al.
    J Therm Biol, 2024 Jan;119:103799.
    PMID: 38342042 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2024.103799
    Epidemiological evidence shows that diabetic patients are susceptible to high temperature weather, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is closely related to type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Activation of BAT under cold stress helps improve T2DM. However, the impact of high temperature on the activity of BAT is still unclear. The study aimed to investigate the impact of heat stress on glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM mice by influencing BAT activity. High-fat feeding and injecting streptozotocin (STZ) induced model of T2DM mice. All mice were randomly divided into three groups: a normal(N) group, a diabetes (DM) group and a heat stress diabetes (DMHS) group. The DMHS group received heat stress intervention for 3 days. Fasting blood glucose, fasting serum insulin and blood lipids were measured in all three groups. The activity of BAT was assessed by using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), electron microscopy, and PET CT. Furthermore, the UHPLC-Q-TOF MS technique was employed to perform metabolomics analysis of BAT on both DM group and DMHS group. The results of this study indicated that heat stress aggravated the dysregulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction in BAT and reduced the activity of BAT in T2DM mice. This may be related to the abnormal accumulation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in the mitochondria of BAT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  11. Hong YH, Yang C, Betik AC, Lee-Young RS, McConell GK
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2016 05 15;310(10):E838-45.
    PMID: 27006199 DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00513.2015
    Nitric oxide influences intramuscular signaling that affects skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise. The role of the main NO-producing enzyme isoform activated during skeletal muscle contraction, neuronal nitric oxide synthase-μ (nNOSμ), in modulating glucose uptake has not been investigated in a physiological exercise model. In this study, conscious and unrestrained chronically catheterized nNOSμ(+/+) and nNOSμ(-/-) mice either remained at rest or ran on a treadmill at 17 m/min for 30 min. Both groups of mice demonstrated similar exercise capacity during a maximal exercise test to exhaustion (17.7 ± 0.6 vs. 15.9 ± 0.9 min for nNOSμ(+/+) and nNOSμ(-/-), respectively, P > 0.05). Resting and exercise blood glucose levels were comparable between the genotypes. Very low levels of NOS activity were detected in skeletal muscle from nNOSμ(-/-) mice, and exercise increased NOS activity only in nNOSμ(+/+) mice (4.4 ± 0.3 to 5.2 ± 0.4 pmol·mg(-1)·min(-1), P < 0.05). Exercise significantly increased glucose uptake in gastrocnemius muscle (5- to 7-fold) and, surprisingly, more so in nNOSμ(-/-) than in nNOSμ(+/+) mice (P < 0.05). This is in parallel with a greater increase in AMPK phosphorylation during exercise in nNOSμ(-/-) mice. In conclusion, nNOSμ is not essential for skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise, and the higher skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise in nNOSμ(-/-) mice may be due to compensatory increases in AMPK activation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism*; Glucose/metabolism
  12. Liyana AZ, Appannah G, Sham SYZ, Fazliana M, Nor NSM, Ambak R, et al.
    BMC Womens Health, 2018 07 19;18(Suppl 1):126.
    PMID: 30066628 DOI: 10.1186/s12905-018-0593-1
    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of lifestyle intervention for weight loss on cardiometabolic risk factors among overweight and obese individuals in the community setting remains inconclusive. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a 6-month weight loss lifestyle intervention on cardiometabolic risk factors among overweight and obese women and the sustainability of the changes in those markers at 12-month follow-up, comparing an intervention group with a control group.

    METHODS: A total of 243 participants from MyBFF@home were included in this study. Fasting blood samples at baseline, 6- and 12-month were assessed for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides. The effect of the intervention on cardiometabolic risk markers were investigated within and between study groups using t-test and general linear model (GLM) repeated measure ANOVA.

    RESULTS: Results from repeated measures ANOVA showed intervention effect only in TC where significant reduction was found in the intervention group (- 0.26 mmol/L [95% CI: - 0.47 to - 0.06], p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose Metabolism Disorders/prevention & control*
  13. Umar U, Ahmed S, Iftikhar A, Iftikhar M, Majeed W, Liaqat A, et al.
    Molecules, 2023 Jul 17;28(14).
    PMID: 37513325 DOI: 10.3390/molecules28145453
    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder defined as hyperglycemia and pancreatic β-cell deterioration, leading to other complications such as cardiomyopathy. The current study assessed the therapeutic effects of phenolic acids extracted from Jasminum sambac phenols of leaves (JSP) against diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. The rats were divided into four groups, with each group consisting of 20 rats. The rats were given intraperitoneal injections of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg) to induce diabetes. The diabetes-induced groups (III and IV) received treatment for six weeks that included 250 and 500 mg/kg of JSP extract, respectively. In the treated rats, the results demonstrated that JSP extract restored fasting glucose, serum glucose, and hyperlipidemia. Alloxan induced cardiomyopathy, promoted oxidative stress, and altered cardiac function biomarkers, including cardiac troponin I, proBNP, CK-MB, LDH, and IMA. The JSP extract-treated rats showed improved cardiac function indicators, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. In diabetic rats, the mRNA expression of caspase-3, BAX, and Bcl-2 was significantly higher, while Bcl-2, Nrf-2, and HO-,1 was significantly lower. In the treated groups, the expression levels of the BAX, Nrf-2, HO-1, Caspase-3, and Bcl-2 genes were dramatically returned to normal level. According to our findings, the JSP extract prevented cardiomyopathy and heart failure in the hyperglycemic rats by improving cardiac biomarkers and lowering the levels of hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, apoptosis, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism; Glucose/metabolism
  14. Tiong XT, Nursara Shahirah A, Pun VC, Wong KY, Fong AYY, Sy RG, et al.
    Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 2018 08;28(8):856-863.
    PMID: 29853430 DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2018.04.014
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Despite a growing body of evidence from Western populations on the health benefits of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets, their applicability in South East Asian settings is not clear. We examined cross-sectional associations between DASH diet and cardio-metabolic risk factors among 1837 Malaysian and 2898 Philippines participants in a multi-national cohort.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood pressures, fasting lipid profile and fasting glucose were measured, and DASH score was computed based on a 22-item food frequency questionnaire. Older individuals, women, those not consuming alcohol and those undertaking regular physical activity were more likely to have higher DASH scores. In the Malaysian cohort, while total DASH score was not significantly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors after adjusting for confounders, significant associations were observed for intake of green vegetable [0.011, standard error (SE): 0.004], and red and processed meat (-0.009, SE: 0.004) with total cholesterol. In the Philippines cohort, a 5-unit increase in total DASH score was significantly and inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (-1.41, SE: 0.40), diastolic blood pressure (-1.09, SE: 0.28), total cholesterol (-0.015, SE: 0.005), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.025, SE: 0.008), and triglyceride (-0.034, SE: 0.012) after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle groups. Intake of milk and dairy products, red and processed meat, and sugared drinks were found to significantly associated with most risk factors.

    CONCLUSIONS: Differential associations of DASH diet and dietary components with cardio-metabolic risk factors by country suggest the need for country-specific tailoring of dietary interventions to improve cardio-metabolic risk profiles.

    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism*; Glucose Metabolism Disorders/blood; Glucose Metabolism Disorders/diet therapy*; Glucose Metabolism Disorders/epidemiology
  15. Thent ZC, Das S, Henry LJ
    PLoS One, 2013;8(11):e80436.
    PMID: 24236181 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080436
    Background: Exercise training programs have emerged as a useful therapeutic regimen for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Majority of the Western studies highlighted the effective role of exercise in T2DM. Therefore, the main aim was to focus on the extent, type of exercise and its clinical significance in T2DM in order to educate the clinicians from developing countries, especially in Asians.

    Methods: Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google scholar were searched using the terms "type 2 diabetes mellitus," "type 2 DM," "exercise," and/or "physical activity," and "type 2 diabetes mellitus with exercise." Only clinical or human studies published in English language between 2000 and 2012 were included. Certain criteria were assigned to achieve appropriate results.

    Results: Twenty five studies met the selected criteria. The majority of the studies were randomized controlled trial study design (65%). Most of the aerobic exercise based studies showed a beneficial effect in T2DM. Resistance exercise also proved to have positive effect on T2DM patients. Minimal studies related to other types of exercises such as yoga classes, joba riding and endurance-type exercise were found. On the other hand, United States of America (USA) showed strong interest of exercise management towards T2DM.

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise is more common in clinical practice compared to resistance exercise in managing T2DM. Treatment of T2DM with exercise training showed promising role in USA. A large number of researches are mandatory in the developing countries for incorporating exercise in the effective management of T2DM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  16. Lee WS, Tay CG, Nazrul N, Paed M, Chai PF
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Mar;64(1):83-5.
    PMID: 19852331 MyJurnal
    A five-month-old Indian girl, product of consanguineous marriage, presented with diarrhoea with an onset within two days after birth, severe malnutrition and metabolic acidosis. The diarrhoea persisted even with lactose-free formula, amino acid-based formula and glucose-containing oral rehydration solution, but stopped when fasted. She required prolonged parenteral nutrition. Fructose and glucose tolerance tests were performed, confirming the child was able to absorb and metabolize fructose but not glucose, indicating a diagnosis of glucose-galactose malabsorption. This case illustrate how simple and pertinent clinical observations and laboratory investigations is sufficient to allow a firm diagnosis to be made.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  17. Wang M, Han L, Liu S, Zhao X, Yang J, Loh SK, et al.
    Biotechnol J, 2015 Sep;10(9):1424-33.
    PMID: 26121186 DOI: 10.1002/biot.201400723
    Renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass has been deemed an alternative to depleting fossil fuels. In order to improve this technology, we aim to develop robust mathematical models for the enzymatic lignocellulose degradation process. By analyzing 96 groups of previously published and newly obtained lignocellulose saccharification results and fitting them to Weibull distribution, we discovered Weibull statistics can accurately predict lignocellulose saccharification data, regardless of the type of substrates, enzymes and saccharification conditions. A mathematical model for enzymatic lignocellulose degradation was subsequently constructed based on Weibull statistics. Further analysis of the mathematical structure of the model and experimental saccharification data showed the significance of the two parameters in this model. In particular, the λ value, defined the characteristic time, represents the overall performance of the saccharification system. This suggestion was further supported by statistical analysis of experimental saccharification data and analysis of the glucose production levels when λ and n values change. In conclusion, the constructed Weibull statistics-based model can accurately predict lignocellulose hydrolysis behavior and we can use the λ parameter to assess the overall performance of enzymatic lignocellulose degradation. Advantages and potential applications of the model and the λ value in saccharification performance assessment were discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  18. Najafpour G, Younesi H, Syahidah Ku Ismail K
    Bioresour Technol, 2004 May;92(3):251-60.
    PMID: 14766158
    Fermentation of sugar by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for production of ethanol in an immobilized cell reactor (ICR) was successfully carried out to improve the performance of the fermentation process. The fermentation set-up was comprised of a column packed with beads of immobilized cells. The immobilization of S. cerevisiae was simply performed by the enriched cells cultured media harvested at exponential growth phase. The fixed cell loaded ICR was carried out at initial stage of operation and the cell was entrapped by calcium alginate. The production of ethanol was steady after 24 h of operation. The concentration of ethanol was affected by the media flow rates and residence time distribution from 2 to 7 h. In addition, batch fermentation was carried out with 50 g/l glucose concentration. Subsequently, the ethanol productions and the reactor productivities of batch fermentation and immobilized cells were compared. In batch fermentation, sugar consumption and ethanol production obtained were 99.6% and 12.5% v/v after 27 h while in the ICR, 88.2% and 16.7% v/v were obtained with 6 h retention time. Nearly 5% ethanol production was achieved with high glucose concentration (150 g/l) at 6 h retention time. A yield of 38% was obtained with 150 g/l glucose. The yield was improved approximately 27% on ICR and a 24 h fermentation time was reduced to 7 h. The cell growth rate was based on the Monod rate equation. The kinetic constants (K(s) and mu(m)) of batch fermentation were 2.3 g/l and 0.35 g/lh, respectively. The maximum yield of biomass on substrate (Y(X-S)) and the maximum yield of product on substrate (Y(P-S)) in batch fermentations were 50.8% and 31.2% respectively. Productivity of the ICR were 1.3, 2.3, and 2.8 g/lh for 25, 35, 50 g/l of glucose concentration, respectively. The productivity of ethanol in batch fermentation with 50 g/l glucose was calculated as 0.29 g/lh. Maximum production of ethanol in ICR when compared to batch reactor has shown to increase approximately 10-fold. The performance of the two reactors was compared and a respective rate model was proposed. The present research has shown that high sugar concentration (150 g/l) in the ICR column was successfully converted to ethanol. The achieved results in ICR with high substrate concentration are promising for scale up operation. The proposed model can be used to design a lager scale ICR column for production of high ethanol concentration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  19. Azaman SNA, Wong DCJ, Tan SW, Yusoff FM, Nagao N, Yeap SK
    Sci Rep, 2020 10 15;10(1):17331.
    PMID: 33060668 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-74410-4
    Chlorella can produce an unusually wide range of metabolites under various nutrient availability, carbon source, and light availability. Glucose, an essential molecule for the growth of microorganisms, also contributes significantly to the metabolism of various metabolic compounds produced by Chlorella. In addition, manipulation of light intensity also induces the formation of secondary metabolites such as pigments, and carotenoids in Chlorella. This study will focus on the effect of glucose addition, and moderate light on the regulation of carotenoid, lipid, starch, and other key metabolic pathways in Chlorella sorokiniana. To gain knowledge about this, we performed transcriptome profiling on C. sorokiniana strain NIES-2168 in response to moderate light stress supplemented with glucose under mixotrophic conditions. A total of 60,982,352 raw paired-end (PE) reads 100 bp in length was obtained from both normal, and mixotrophic samples of C. sorokiniana. After pre-processing, 93.63% high-quality PE reads were obtained, and 18,310 predicted full-length transcripts were assembled. Differential gene expression showed that a total of 937, and 1124 genes were upregulated, and downregulated in mixotrophic samples, respectively. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the mixotrophic condition caused upregulation of genes involved in carotenoids production (specifically lutein biosynthesis), fatty acid biosynthesis, TAG accumulation, and the majority of the carbon fixation pathways. Conversely, starch biosynthesis, sucrose biosynthesis, and isoprenoid biosynthesis were downregulated. Novel insights into the pathways that link the enhanced production of valuable metabolites (such as carotenoids in C. sorokiniana) grown under mixotrophic conditions is presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  20. Chew YH, Shia YL, Lee CT, Majid FA, Chua LS, Sarmidi MR, et al.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2009 May 6;303(1-2):13-24.
    PMID: 19428987 DOI: 10.1016/j.mce.2009.01.018
    A model of glucose regulation system was combined with a model of insulin-signaling pathways in this study. A feedback loop was added to link the transportation of glucose into cells (by GLUT4 in the insulin-signaling pathways) and the insulin-dependent glucose uptake in the glucose regulation model using the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model. A value of K(m) for GLUT4 was estimated using Genetic Algorithm. The estimated value was found to be 25.3 mM, which was in the range of K(m) values found experimentally from in vivo and in vitro human studies. Based on the results of this study, the combined model enables us to understand the overall dynamics of glucose at the systemic level, monitor the time profile of components in the insulin-signaling pathways at the cellular level and gives a good estimate of the K(m) value of glucose transportation by GLUT4. In conclusion, metabolic modeling such as displayed in this study provides a good predictive method to study the step-by-step reactions in an organism at different levels and should be used in combination with experimental approach to increase our understanding of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
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