Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

  1. Ai H, Lee YY, Xie X, Tan CP, Ming Lai O, Li A, et al.
    Food Chem, 2023 Jun 30;412:135558.
    PMID: 36716631 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2023.135558
    Palm olein (POL) was modified by enzymatic interesterification with different degrees of acyl migration in a solvent-free packed bed reactor. The fatty acid and acylglycerol composition, isomer content, thermodynamic behavior, and relationship between crystal polymorphism, solid fat content (SFC), crystal microstructure, and texture before and after modification were studied. We found that the increase in sn-2 saturation interesterification was not only due to the generated tripalmitin (PPP) but also caused by acyl migration, and the SFC profiles were changed accordingly. The emergence of high melting point acylglycerols was an important factor accelerating the crystallization rate, further shortening the crystallization induction time, leading to the formation of large crystal spherulites, thereby reducing the hardness. The transformation from the β' to the β form occurred during post-hardening during storage. The isomer content also affected the physicochemical properties of the modified POL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycerides/chemistry; Triglycerides/chemistry
  2. Peh KK, Wong CF, Yuen KH
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2000 Apr;26(4):447-50.
    PMID: 10769787
    Lipophilicity was evaluated as a possible mechanism for drug retardation from a glyceryl monostearate matrix system. Lipophilicity of the glyceryl monostearate matrix system was studied using contact angle measurement of water droplets on the surface of compressed disks, extrudate ascension of water, and movement of water through a powder mixture packed in a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) column. Increase in glyceryl monostearate content resulted in an increase in water droplet contact angle, decrease in the rate of water ascending the extrudate, and increase in the pressure values as a function of flow rate of water moving through the powder mixture. These could be due to the increase in lipophilicity of the matrix, rendering the matrix less wettable. As a result, the rate of water penetration into the matrix decreased, and the drug release could be sustained.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycerides/pharmacokinetics*; Glycerides/chemistry
  3. Adnan SM, Uddin MM, Alam MJ, Islam MS, Kashem MA, Rafii MY, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:709614.
    PMID: 25140344 DOI: 10.1155/2014/709614
    An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in percentage of reduction of hopper population (92.50 ± 9.02) at 72 hours after treatment in case of 2nd spray. It also showed the highest overall percentage of reduction (88.59 ± 8.64) of hopper population and less toxicity to natural enemies including green ant, spider, and lacewing of mango hopper. In case of biopesticide, azadirachtin based Neem oil was found effective against mango hopper as 48.35, 60.15, and 56.54% reduction after 24, 72, and 168 hours of spraying, respectively, which was comparable with Cypermethrin as there was no statistically significant difference after 168 hours of spray. Natural enemies were also higher after 1st and 2nd spray in case of Neem oil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycerides*
  4. Ab Latip R, Lee YY, Tang TK, Phuah ET, Lee CM, Tan CP, et al.
    PeerJ, 2013;1:e72.
    PMID: 23682348 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.72
    Fractionation which separates the olein (liquid) and stearin (solid) fractions of oil is used to modify the physicochemical properties of fats in order to extend its applications. Studies showed that the properties of fractionated end products can be affected by fractionation processing conditions. In the present study, dry fractionation of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAG) was performed at different: cooling rates (0.05, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0°C/min), end-crystallisation temperatures (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50°C) and agitation speeds (30, 50, 70, 90 and 110 rpm) to determine the effect of these parameters on the properties and yield of the solid and liquid portions. To determine the physicochemical properties of olein and stearin fraction: Iodine value (IV), fatty acid composition (FAC), acylglycerol composition, slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), thermal behaviour tests were carried out. Fractionation of PDAG fat changes the chemical composition of liquid and solid fractions. In terms of FAC, the major fatty acid in olein and stearin fractions were oleic (C18:1) and palmitic (C16:0) respectively. Acylglycerol composition showed that olein and stearin fractions is concentrated with TAG and DAG respectively. Crystallization temperature, cooling rate and agitation speed does not affect the IV, SFC, melting and cooling properties of the stearin fraction. The stearin fraction was only affected by cooling rate which changes its SMP. On the other hand, olein fraction was affected by crystallization temperature and cooling rate but not agitation speed which caused changes in IV, SMP, SFC, melting and crystallization behavior. Increase in both the crystallization temperature and cooling rate caused a reduction of IV, increment of the SFC, SMP, melting and crystallization behaviour of olein fraction and vice versa. The fractionated stearin part melted above 65°C while the olein melted at 40°C. SMP in olein fraction also reduced to a range of 26 to 44°C while SMP of stearin fractions increased to (60-62°C) compared to PDAG.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diglycerides; Glycerides; Triglycerides
  5. Karim NA, Noor AM, Lee YY, Lai OM
    J Food Sci, 2015 Dec;80(12):C2678-85.
    PMID: 26523850 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13119
    The oxidative and thermal stability of low diglycerides palm oil produced via silica treatment (sPO) and enzymatic treatment (ePO) compared with standard quality palm oil (SQ) and premium quality palm oil (PQ) was investigated. Both of the oils displayed better oxidative stability compared with SQ as well as significantly higher (P < 0.05) thermal resistance and oxidative strength than SQ and PQ due to lower amounts of partial glycerides. Although the initial induction periods (IPs) of sPO and ePO were significantly lower compared with SQ and PQ, both the oils showed slower drops in their IP values. The darkening effect after frying was significantly (P < 0.05) slower in sPO compared with SQ, PQ, and ePO. Besides, there is no difference p > 0.05 in the rate of FFA formation between sPO and PQ. The anisidine value and peroxide values were lowest in sPO, followed by ePO, PQ, and SQ.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diglycerides; Glycerides
  6. Lee YY, Tang TK, Phuah ET, Karim NA, Alwi SM, Lai OM
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Feb;52(2):685-96.
    PMID: 25694677 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-013-1065-0
    Structured lipid such as medium-and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT) is claimed to be able to suppress body fat accumulation and be used to manage obesity. Response surface methodology (RSM) with four factors and three levels (+1,0,-1) faced centered composite design (FCCD) was employed for optimization of the enzymatic interesterification conditions of palm-based MLCT (P-MLCT) production. The effect of the four variables namely: substrate ratio palm kernel oil: palm oil, PKO:PO (40:60-100:0 w/w), temperature (50-70 °C), reaction time (0.5-7.5 h) and enzyme load (5-15 % w/w) on the P-MLCT yield (%) and by products (%) produced were investigated. The responses were determined via acylglycerol composition obtained from high performance liquid chromatography. Well-fitted models were successfully established for both responses: P-MLCT yield (R (2) = 0.9979) and by-products (R (2) = 0.9892). The P-MLCT yield was significantly (P  0.05). Substrate ratio PKO: PO (100:0 w/w) gave the highest yield of P-MLCT (61 %). Nonetheless, substrate ratio of PKO: PO (90:10w/w) was chosen to improve the fatty acid composition of the P-MLCT. The optimized conditions for substrate ratio PKO: PO (90:10 w/w) was 7.26 h, 50 °C and 5 % (w/w) Lipozyme TLIM lipase, which managed to give 60 % yields of P-MLCT. Up scaled results in stirred tank batch reactor gave similar yields as lab scale. A 20 % increase in P-MLCT yield was obtained via RSM. The effect of enzymatic interesterification on the physicochemical properties of PKO:PO (90:10 w/w) were also studied. Thermoprofile showed that the P-MLCT oil melted below body temperature of 37 °C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycerides; Triglycerides
  7. Nda-Umar UI, Ramli I, Muhamad EN, Azri N, Taufiq-Yap YH
    Molecules, 2020 Nov 10;25(22).
    PMID: 33182532 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25225221
    In this study, an optimized mesoporous sulfonated carbon (OMSC) catalyst derived from palm kernel shell biomass was developed using template carbonization and subsequent sulfonation under different temperatures and time conditions. The OMSC catalyst was characterized using acid-base titration, elemental analysis, XRD, Raman, FTIR, XPS, TPD-NH3, TGA-DTA, SEM, and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis to reveal its properties. Results proved that the OMSC catalyst is mesoporous and amorphous in structure with improved textural, acidic, and thermal properties. Both FTIR and XPS confirmed the presence of -SO3H, -OH, and -COOH functional groups on the surface of the catalyst. The OMSC catalyst was found to be efficient in catalyzing glycerol conversion to acetin via an acetylation reaction with acetic acid within a short period of 3 h. Response surface methodology (RSM), based on a two-level, three-factor, face-centered central composite design, was used to optimize the reaction conditions. The results showed that the optimized temperature, glycerol-to-acetic acid mole ratio, and catalyst load were 126 °C, 1:10.4, and 0.45 g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, 97% glycerol conversion (GC) and selectivities of 4.9, 27.8, and 66.5% monoacetin (MA), diacetin (DA), and triacetin (TA), respectively, were achieved and found to be close to the predicted values. Statistical analysis showed that the regression model, as well as the model terms, were significant with the predicted R2 in reasonable agreement with the adjusted R2 (<0.2). The OMSC catalyst maintained excellent performance in GC for the five reaction cycles. The selectivity to TA, the most valuable product, was not stable until the fourth cycle, attributable to the leaching of the acid sites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycerides
  8. Noordin, M.I., Chung, L.Y.
    JUMMEC, 2007;10(2):43-50.
    Rectal delivery of drugs has been proven to be effective in terms of drug absorption and distribution comparable with other routes such as oral, buccal, sublingual or even nasal. In this study, two new suppository bases were developed using combinations of locally sourced hydrogenated palm kernel oil, hydrogenated palm kernel stearin and hydrogenated palm kernel olein with mixtures of stearic acid and glyceryl monostearate. When formulated with aspirin, these bases produced suppositories with acceptable characteristics. These aspirin suppositories were tested on twelve healthy subjects after an approval from the Medical Ethics Committee, University of Malaya had been procured. We quantified aspirin from the urine samples of the subjects to determine the relative availability of the different suppository preparations relative to an oral dose. The excretion of salicylic acid, one of the metabolite of aspirin in human urine taking aspirin was quantified. The F value was found to range from 1.16 to 1.38. Hence, the excretion results showed that these palm kernel oil blends are suitable suppository bases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycerides; Triglycerides
  9. Lau HL, Puah CW, Choo YM, Ma AN, Chuah CH
    Lipids, 2005 May;40(5):523-8.
    PMID: 16094863
    This paper discusses a rapid GC-FID technique for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of FFA, MAG, DAG, TAG, sterols, and squalene in vegetable oils, with special reference to palm oil. The FFA content determined had a lower SE compared with a conventional titrimetric method. Squalene and individual sterols, consisting of beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, and cholesterol, were accurately quantified without any losses. This was achieved through elimination of tedious conventional sample pretreatments, such as saponification and preparative TLC. With this technique, the separation of individual MAG, consisting of 16:0, 18:0, and 18:1 FA, and the DAG species, consisting of the 1,2(2,3)- and 1,3-positions, was sufficient to enable their quantification. This technique enabled the TAG to be determined according to their carbon numbers in the range of C44 to C56. Comparisons were made with conventional methods, and the results were in good agreement with those reported in the literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diglycerides/analysis; Glycerides/analysis*
  10. Sinniah R, Sinniah D, Chia LS, Baskaran G
    J Pathol, 1989 Nov;159(3):255-64.
    PMID: 2593049
    The aetiology and pathogenesis of Reye's syndrome (RS) are incompletely understood. A number of environmental toxins and biological agents, including viruses, have been postulated to cause RS, either acting alone or synergistically. Most investigations have suggested that the primary insult is in the liver mitochondria, leading to a complex biochemical catastrophe, with death from encephalopathy. Margosa oil (MO), a long-chain fatty acid compound, has been shown to cause a Reye-like syndrome with death from hepatoencephalopathy, in children in Malaysia and India. The present time-course study performed in MO-administered mice showed the development of hepatic lesions with many features of RS. MO acts rapidly, within 30 min, on the nuclei of hepatocytes inducing mitoses and binucleated cells. This is followed by mitochondrial injury, with swelling, rarefaction of matrix, loss of dense bodies, pleomorphism, and loss of ribosomes starting at 60 min. There is loss of liver glycogen, and proliferation and hypertrophy of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), followed by the presence of lipid droplets in the hyaloplasm, and globules within dilated cisterns of the ER. Additional fatty acids from lipolysis of body adipocytes, and fat globules from intestinal MO ingestion further aggravate the liver fatty change. There is evidence of fat globule ingestion by endocytosis into hepatocytes at the level of the sinusoids. The development of microvesicular liver steatosis and glycogen depletion due to involvement of liver cell organelles occur rapidly as in RS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycerides/toxicity*
  11. Peh KK, Lim CP, Quek SS, Khoh KH
    Pharm Res, 2000 Nov;17(11):1384-8.
    PMID: 11205731
    PURPOSE: To use artificial neural networks for predicting dissolution profiles of matrix-controlled release theophylline pellet preparation, and to evaluate the network performance by comparing the predicted dissolution profiles with those obtained from physical experiments using similarity factor.

    METHODS: The Multi-Layered Perceptron (MLP) neural network was used to predict the dissolution profiles of theophylline pellets containing different ratios of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and glyceryl monostearate (GMS). The concepts of leave-one-out as well as a time-point by time-point estimation basis were used to predict the rate of drug release for each matrix ratio. All the data were used for training, except for one set which was selected to compare with the predicted output. The closeness between the predicted and the reference dissolution profiles was investigated using similarity factor (f2).

    RESULTS: The f2 values were all above 60, indicating that the predicted dissolution profiles were closely similar to the dissolution profiles obtained from physical experiments.

    CONCLUSION: The MLP network could be used as a model for predicting the dissolution profiles of matrix-controlled release theophylline pellet preparation in product development.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glycerides/chemistry
  12. Lai SM, Lim KW, Cheng HK
    Singapore Med J, 1990 Oct;31(5):463-5.
    PMID: 2259944
    Margosa Oil is an extract of the seed of the Neem tree and is widely used as a traditional medicine by Indians in India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Used mainly for external applications, it is often administered orally to neonates and infants regularly in small amounts. Margosa Oil causes toxic encephalopathy particularly in infants and young children. The usual features are vomiting, drowsiness, tachypnea and recurrent generalised seizures. Leucocytosis and metabolic acidosis are significant laboratory findings. Management is aimed primarily towards the control of convulsions although supportive management is equally important. Prognosis is usually good but fatalities and neurological deficits have been reported. We report here two infants with Margosa Oil poisoning presenting with encephalopathy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycerides/poisoning*
  13. Azeem E, Gillani SW, Siddiqui A, Mian RI, Poh V, Sulaiman SA, et al.
    Curr Diabetes Rev, 2016;12(3):279-84.
    PMID: 25989845 DOI: 10.2174/1573399811666150520094631
    Background/aim: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a considerable systemic metabolic disorder to exhibit various metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, mainly hyperglycemia. Our study aims to evaluate oxidative stress markers in DM patients and to determine the clinical correlates affecting the investigational parameters.

    Methodology: To evaluate oxidative stress, the following parameters were included: tri-glycerides(TG), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL), oxidized LDL cholesterol(Ox LDL), superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) and plasminogen activator inhibitor(PAI) which were measured at single observation point. Patient clinical and demographic data were taken from registered medication profiles from the Outpatient Department.

    Results: The diabetic subjects have significantly high measured values of endocrine(p<0.01), metabolic(p<0.01) and antioxidant parameters(p<0.05), and have significant higher values of TG(3.69±1.27 vs 1.79±0.84 mmol/L, p< 0.01), Ox LDL(85.37±19.1 vs 77.11±26.64 mmol/L, p<0.05) and SOD enzyme activity(918.78 ± 145.39 vs 880.08±149.52 U/g Hb, p<0.05) compared to the controls. A significant negative correlation was found between Ox LDL and HbA1c(r = -0.6782, p < 0.001) among diabetic subjects.

    Conclusion: Elevated Ox-LDL, SOD and GSH-Px are associated with the diabetic patients. However, oxidative stress threshold values also showed high oxidative activity markers among controls. Clinical variables showed predictive information on oxidative activity among diabetes patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycerides
  14. Neoh, B.K., Thang, Y.M., Zain, M.Z.M., Junaidi, A.
    Palm pressed fiber (PPF) is a by-product from oil extraction of oil palm fruits. It has unique characteristics resulting from the combination of palm mesocarp fiber, kernel shell and crushed kernel. The present study on different extraction methods for PPF indicated that conventional hexane cold extraction would be the more preferable method compared to soxhlet and reflux method due to the yield recovered (4.35%) and diacylglycerol (19.93% ± 0.07) obtained. Acylglycerol composition using cold extraction gave high Diaclyglycerol and Triacylglycerol (67.04% ± 0.05) with reasonable amount of Monoaclyglycerol / Free Fatty Acid (13.02% ± 0.02). Lauric acid which was not present in crude palm oil were found to be significant in PPF (5.89 to 9.09%), thus making this oil suitable for application in the food industry in products such as shortening and margarine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diglycerides; Glycerides; Triglycerides
  15. Li G, Li P, Chen Q, Mani MP, Jaganathan SK
    PeerJ, 2019;7:e6986.
    PMID: 31179183 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.6986
    Traditionally, in the Asian continent, oils are a widely accepted choice for alleviating bone-related disorders. The design of scaffolds resembling the extracellular matrix (ECM) is of great significance in bone tissue engineering. In this study, a multicomponent polyurethane (PU), canola oil (CO) and neem oil (NO) scaffold was developed using the electrospinning technique. The fabricated nanofibers were subjected to various physicochemical and biological testing to validate its suitability for bone tissue engineering. Morphological analysis of the multicomponent scaffold showed a reduction in fiber diameter (PU/CO-853 ± 141.27 nm and PU/CO/NO-633 ± 137.54 nm) compared to PU (890 ± 116.911 nm). The existence of CO and NO in PU matrix was confirmed by an infrared spectrum (IR) with the formation of hydrogen bond. PU/CO displayed a mean contact angle of 108.7° ± 0.58 while the PU/CO/NO exhibited hydrophilic nature with an angle of 62.33° ± 2.52. The developed multicomponent also exhibited higher thermal stability and increased mechanical strength compared to the pristine PU. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis depicted lower surface roughness for the nanocomposites (PU/CO-389 nm and PU/CO/NO-323 nm) than the pristine PU (576 nm). Blood compatibility investigation displayed the anticoagulant nature of the composites. Cytocompatibility studies revealed the non-toxic nature of the developed composites with human fibroblast cells (HDF) cells. The newly developed porous PU nanocomposite scaffold comprising CO and NO may serve as a potential candidate for bone tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycerides
  16. Eid AM, El-Enshasy HA, Aziz R, Elmarzugi NA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2014;9:4685-95.
    PMID: 25336948 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S66180
    There is an increasing trend among pharmaceutical industries to use natural bioactive materials as medicinal agents and to use new technologies such as self-nanoemulsifying systems. The solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs can be enhanced by self-nanoemulsifying systems. Swietenia oil is frequently used because of its antimicrobial, antimutagenic, and anticancer bioactive medical properties. This study was conducted to develop self-nanoemulsifying systems for Swietenia oil that will enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of the oil. The self-emulsifying systems developed for Swietenia oil in this study were constructed using ternary phase diagrams and contained the nonionic surfactants Labrasol(®), Tween 20, Capmul(®), and Labrafil(®). The effect of these surfactants on the formulation was examined. The mean droplet size of Swietenia oil as well as their distribution, appearance, viscosity, and spreading times were studied to find the optimum formula, which contained droplets that were less than 200 nm. The next step was to test the anti-inflammatory properties of the optimum formula using a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test. The results from this test were compared to the oil solution. Different oil/surfactants mixtures had various emulsification properties that were related to the size of their droplets. Tween 20 is a good surfactant to use in self-emulsifying systems because it produces droplets of nano-size. Mixtures of Capmul/Labrasol at a ratio of 2:1 and Labrafil/Tween 20 at a ratio of 1:2 were able to produce self-nanoemulsifying formulations containing Swietenia oil concentrations that ranged from 20%-50%. Nanoemulsion occurred when the size of the droplets fell below 200 nm with low size distribution (<0.3) after being gently mixed with water. It was found that the hydrophilic/lipophilic balance value affected the ternary phase diagram behavior of Swietenia oil and surfactants. In addition, the anti-inflammatory properties of Swietenia oil were greater in the self-nanoemulsifying systems than in the oil solution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycerides/chemistry
  17. Koga Y, Yoshida I, Kimura A, Yoshino M, Yamashita F, Sinniah D
    Pediatr Res, 1987 Aug;22(2):184-7.
    PMID: 3658544
    Margosa oil (MO), a fatty acid-rich extract of the seeds of the neem tree and a reported cause of Reye's syndrome, has been used in the induction of an experimental model of Reye's syndrome in rats. It has been reported that MO causes a decrease in in vivo mitochondrial enzyme activity similar to that seen in Reye's syndrome. We have attempted to uncover some of the biochemical mechanisms of MO's toxicity by examining its effect in vitro on isolated rat liver mitochondria. Male rat liver mitochondria were isolated by centrifugation; oxygen uptake, reduced forms of cytochrome b, c + c1, a + a3, and flavoprotein, intramitochondrial concentrations of acetyl coA, acid-soluble coA, acid-insoluble coA, and ATP content were measured after incubation with and without MO. Our results reveal that MO is a mitochondrial uncoupler. State 4 respiration was increased while the respiratory control ratio was decreased. The intramitochondrial content of ATP was also decreased. There were substantial changes in the reduction of the respiratory chain components after incubation of mitochondria with MO. This decelerative effect on mitochondrial electron transport was alleviated by the addition of coenzyme Q and/or carnitine. These effects of MO on mitochondrial respiration may be due to changes in fatty acid metabolism caused by MO as MO caused a shift in the proportion of acid-soluble or acid-insoluble coA esters. Supplementary therapy with L-carnitine and coenzyme Q may be useful in the management of MO-induced Reye's syndrome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycerides/toxicity*
  18. Khurana RK, Beg S, Burrow AJ, Vashishta RK, Katare OP, Kaur S, et al.
    Eur J Pharm Biopharm, 2017 Dec;121:42-60.
    PMID: 28887099 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2017.09.001
    The aim of this study was to develop polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) long chain glyceride (LCG) enriched self-nanoemulsifying lipidic nanomicelles systems (SNELS) for augmenting lymphatic uptake and enhancing oral bioavailability of docetaxel and compare its biopharmaceutical performance with a medium-chain fatty acid glyceride (MCG) SNELS. Equilibrium solubility and pseudo ternary phase studies facilitated the selection of suitable LCG and MCG. The critical material attributes (CMAs) and critical process parameters (CPPs) were earmarked using Placket-Burman Design (PBD) and Fractional Factorial Design (FFD) for LCG- and MCG-SNELS respectively, and nano micelles were subsequently optimized using I- and D-optimal designs. Desirability function unearthed the optimized SNELS with Temul <5min, Dnm <100nm, Rel15min >85% and Perm45min >75%. The SNELS demonstrated efficient biocompatibility and energy dependent cellular uptake, reduced P-gp efflux and increased permeability using bi-directional Caco-2 model. Optimal PUFA enriched LCG-SNELS exhibited distinctly superior permeability and absorption parameters during ex vivo permeation, in situ single pass intestinal perfusion, lymphatic uptake and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies over MCG-SNELS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycerides/chemistry
  19. See GL, Arce F, Dahlizar S, Okada A, Fadli MFBM, Hijikuro I, et al.
    J Control Release, 2020 Sep 10;325:1-9.
    PMID: 32598958 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.06.028
    Intranasal administration is poised as a competent method in delivering drugs to the brain, because the nasal route has a direct link with the central nervous system bypassing the formidable blood-brain barrier. C17-monoglycerol ester (MGE) and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) as liquid crystal (LC)-forming lipids possess desirable formulation characteristics as drug carriers for intranasally administered drugs. This study investigated the effect of LC formulations on the pharmacokinetics of tranilast (TL), a lipophilic model drug, and its distribution in the therapeutic target regions of the brain in rats. The anatomical biodistribution of LC formulations was monitored using micro-computed tomography tandem in vivo imaging systems. MGE and GMO effectively formed LC with suitable particle size, zeta potential, and viscosity supporting the delivery of TL to the brain. MGE and GMO LC formulations enhanced brain uptake by 10- to 12-fold and 2- to 2.4- fold, respectively, compared with TL solution. The olfactory bulb had the highest TL concentration and fluorescent signals among all the brain regions, indicating a direct nose-to-brain delivery pathway of LC formulations. LC-forming lipids, MGE and GMO, are potential biomaterials in formulations intended for intranasal administration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycerides
  20. Nasyrah, A.R., Marikkar, J.M.N., Dzulkifly, M.H.
    A study was carried out to distinguish mono- (MAG) and di-acylglycerol (DAG) from plant lipids such as sunflower, rapeseed and soybean oil, from those derived from animal fats such as lard, goat fat and beef fat using fatty acid and thermal profile data. MAG and DAG of both plant and animal lipids were synthesized according to a chemical glycerolysis method catalyzed by sodium hydroxide. MAG and DAG of individual lipid were isolated and purified using the standard column chromatography method and subjected to fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography (GC) and thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The application of principal component analysis (PCA) to the data collected from the individual instrumental technique showed that it was possible to distinctly classify MAG and DAG of plant lipids from those derived from animal fats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycerides
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