Activity based costing (ABC) is an approach to get insight of true costs and to solve accounting problems. It provides more accurate information on product cost than conventional accounting system. The purpose of this study was to identify detailed resource consumption for chest x-ray procedure.
Matched MeSH terms: Health Resources/economics; Health Resources/utilization
Health forecasting forewarns the health community about future health situations and disease episodes so that health systems can better allocate resources and manage demand. The tools used for developing and measuring the accuracy and validity of health forecasts commonly are not defined although they are usually adapted forms of statistical procedures. This review identifies previous typologies used in classifying the forecasting methods commonly used in forecasting health conditions or situations. It then discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these methods and presents the choices available for measuring the accuracy of health-forecasting models, including a note on the discrepancies in the modes of validation.
The emergence of the Internet of Things and the proliferation of mobile wireless devices has brought the area of mobile cognitive radio sensor networks (MCRSN) to the research spot light. Notwithstanding the potentials of CRSNs in terms of opportunistic channel usage for bursty traffic, the effect of the mobility of resource-constrained nodes to route stability, mobility-induced spatio-temporal spectral opportunities and primary user (PU) protection still remain open issues that need to be jointly addressed. To this effect, this paper proposes a mobile reliable geographical forwarding routing (MROR) protocol. MROR provides a robust mobile framework for geographical forwarding that is based on a mobility-induced channel availability model. It presents a comprehensive routing strategy that considers PU activity (to take care of routes that have to be built through PU coverage), PU signal protection (by the introduction of a mobility-induced guard (mguard) distance) and the random mobility-induced spatio-temporal spectrum opportunities (for enhancement of throughput). It also addresses the issue of frequent route maintenance that arises when speeds of the mobile nodes are considered as a routing metric. As a result, simulation has shown the ability of MROR to reduce the route failure rate by about 65% as against other schemes. In addition, further results show that MROR can improve both the throughput and goodput at the sink in an energy-efficient manner that is required in CRSNs as against compared works.
In a time of rising demands on hospital reimbursement levels, focus on efficient operations is becoming more imperative. In health care systems, the measurement of efficiency is usually the first step in auditing individual performance of production units, e.g. hospitals, health centers, etc. It constitutes the rational framework for the distribution of human and other resources between and within health care facilities. The term efficiency is broadly used in economics and refers to the best utilization of resources in production. Typical example of efficiency is technical efficiency, referring to the effective use of resources in producing outputs. In the Farrell framework, a hospital is judged to be technically efficient if it is operating on the best practice production frontier in its hospital industry. In general, there are two main frontier methods in measuring efficiency. The first is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), a linear programming method which enables the measurement of efficiency consistent with the theoretically based concept of production efficiency. DEA typically examines the relationship between inputs to a production process and the outputs of that process. The second technique for assessing efficiency that is employed is Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). This is an econometric technique to estimate a conventional function; with the difference being that efficiency is measured using the residuals from the estimated equation. The error term is therefore divided into a stochastic error term and a systematic inefficiency term.
The rapid development of roads and the increasing number of vehicles have complicated road traffic enforcement in many countries due to limited resources of the traffic police, specifically when traffic infraction registration is done manually. The efficiency of the traffic police can be improved by a computer-based method. This study focused on mobile traffic infraction registration system benchmarking which is used to evaluate the server performance under load. The study attempts to provide a clear guideline for the performance evaluation of mobile road traffic infraction registration system, whereby the traffic police can make decision based on them to migrate from the manual-method toward computer-based method. A closed form of benchmark tool was used for the evaluation of the system performance. The tool was configured to imitate ramp scenarios, and statistics were gathered. The server was monitored at different times and works. Contributing factors include bottleneck, traffic, and response time, which are related with criteria and measurements. The system resource was also monitored for the tests.
Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a widely accepted procedure for the treatment of large, fullthickness chondral defects involving various joints, but its use in developing countries is limited because of high cost and failure rates due to limited resources and support systems. Five patients (age
Urban Transit Network Design Problem (UTNDP) focuses on deriving useful set of
routes, manageable timetabling for each transit route and transit scheduling based on
available resources. UTNDP is commonly subdivided into Urban Transit Routing
Problem (UTRP) and Urban Transit Scheduling Problem (UTSP), respectively. There are
various approaches applied to solve the UTSP. The aim of this paper is to give a
comprehensive list of studies on UTSP that deals with metaheuristic approaches such
as Tabu Search, Simulated Annealing, Genetic Algorithm and their hybrid methods. This
review also addressed possible gaps of the approaches and the limitations of the
overall problem. It can be concluded that only some of the metaheuristic approaches
and sub-problems are highly studied in UTSP. This review will be useful for researchers
who are interested in expanding their knowledge and conduct research in UTSP using
The utilization of the chemical laboratory resources at the Hospital Sains Malaysia was evaluated. More than 100,000 test requests received and performed over a 12-month period, were analyzed retrospectively. The analysis conducted included the abnormal results obtained, the degree of duplication of tests, and the extent of test-panel ordering. It was found that a relatively moderate degree of over-ordering was evident. The findings suggested that the main reasons for over-ordering were the use of panel tests of ordering, in addition to a small, yet significant degree of duplication. Strategies for cutting down the test ordering have been reviewed and discussed.
Providing security and privacy to the Internet of Things (IoT) networks while achieving it with minimum performance requirements is an open research challenge. Blockchain technology, as a distributed and decentralized ledger, is a potential solution to tackle the limitations of the current peer-to-peer IoT networks. This paper presents the development of an integrated IoT system implementing the permissioned blockchain Hyperledger Fabric (HLF) to secure the edge computing devices by employing a local authentication process. In addition, the proposed model provides traceability for the data generated by the IoT devices. The presented solution also addresses the IoT systems' scalability challenges, the processing power and storage issues of the IoT edge devices in the blockchain network. A set of built-in queries is leveraged by smart-contracts technology to define the rules and conditions. The paper validates the performance of the proposed model with practical implementation by measuring performance metrics such as transaction throughput and latency, resource consumption, and network use. The results show that the proposed platform with the HLF implementation is promising for the security of resource-constrained IoT devices and is scalable for deployment in various IoT scenarios.
The Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) is a chartered international organization for the promotion of regional cooperation in education, science, technology and culture. The Regional Tropical Medicine and Public Health Network (TROPMED) operates through four specialized Centers in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand, with a coordinating unit, the TROPMED Central Office in Bangkok, Thailand. In line with the overall mission of SEAMEO, the role of TROPMED is to promote health and to prevent or control disease, thus improving the quality of life of people in the Asia-Pacific Region. Toward this end, SEAMEO TROPMED serves to facilitate the strengthening of national and institutional capabilities in research and training through postgraduate academic programs; short-term training courses; scientific fora; publications and information dissemination and as such, has been in the mainstream of health human resources development since its inception in 1967. To date, a total of 3,353 TROPMED alumni have benefited from training in 26 regular course offerings; of these, 1,596 were females and 1,757, males. From 1991 to 1995, a total of 434 key health personnel have attended short-term training courses, with increasing attendance from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam. TROPMED's effectiveness comes from the collective strength of and the spirit of cooperation among its host institutions and partners. Faced with a health scenario of both developing and developed economies, SEAMEO TROPMED aims to further its role as an international forum for health development thus, addressing the need for effective strategies for health sector reform and advocacy of relevant health, environmental and development policies through its various programs and activities.
Matched MeSH terms: Health Resources/organization & administration*
The first case of COVID-19 in Yemen was confirmed on 10 April 2020. Having faced with a six-year long conflict that has destroyed half of its healthcare facilities and displaced millions, predictions of infections and mortality in Yemen suggested a looming healthcare catastrophe. Difficulty in implementing coordinated lockdowns and preventive measures due to the daily labor working nature of the majority of the population, provided the perfect breeding ground for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, official figures of infections and mortality are very low and there have not been confirmed reports of excess mortality. This could indicate that Yemen is silently marching towards forced herd immunity. Seroprevalence studies will provide useful insight into the COVID-19 transmission trajectory in Yemen, which can serve as a guide in planning vaccine distribution strategies and allocating the limited funds wisely.
Matched MeSH terms: Health Resources/supply & distribution*
Introduction : Economic evaluations can provide “value-for money” information to those making decisions about the allocation of limited health care resources. In particular, economic evaluations can be used to identify interventions that are worth providing and those that are not. Furthermore, evaluations can be used with other approaches to help set priorities, such as program-budgeting marginal-analysis.
Methodology : Compile and systematically describe from the publications, articles and reports on economic evaluation in healthcare decision making.
Result : A high quality economic evaluation should provide decision makers with information that is useful, relevant, and timely. In addition, evaluations should be based on rigorous analytical methods, be balanced and impartial (credible), and be transparent and accessible to the reader. There are many situations where economic evaluations can assist decision makers: decisions by various levels of government or administrative bodies (e.g., regional health authorities, hospitals, drug plans) to fund a program, service or technology, pricing decisions by government regulators and technology manufacturers, clinical practice guidelines, priorities for research funding by governments and researchbased firms, post-marketing surveillance and updates of economic information based on the use of the technology in the “real world” (which can then be used to inform one of the other types of decisions).
Conclusion: This requires that decision makers take a broad view of the impact of a technology, and decision that are more explicit and transparent. The ultimate test of an evaluation is whether it leads to better decision in the presence of uncertainty, and results in the more efficient and effective use of resources.
Occupational Related Chronic Low Back Pain (OCLBP) is a globally recognized illness that causes reduction in productivity and substantial economic burden to the countries. It requires a multidisclipinary approach involving employer, healthcare provider, compensatory and enforcement agencies. However there is no specific guideline or pathway that has integrated the roles of each responsible agency. The objective of this article is to highlight the need and to propose a coordinated approach through the concept of Integrated Care Pathway (ICP). Therefore, we reviewed international and local guidelines as well as published articles on chronic low back pain and care pathway. We believed that development of a pathway will be able to organize the role of management at every level, reducing the variations in the management, addressing issues of communicating the findings between the responsible stakeholders, fulfilling the requirements as the laws, allows effective and feasible approaches to take place in terms of cost and practicality, and increase the awareness on occupational diseases. Expected challenges such as limitation of resources, unawareness and lack of understanding on OCLBP from every level are issue that we agreed can be bridged through ICP.
This study of the implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERP) in a customer driven environment analyzes the critical success factors throughout the initialization phase. The dynamic and stochastic nature of customer driven environments results in a massive workload of product structure configuration tasks related to new arrivals on one hand and a constant updating process on the other. Meanwhile, the development and implementation of an ERP system was studied from the very first step (i.e. the feasibly study for implementing an ERP) to the last step (i.e. testing the outputs of the implemented system) in an office furniture company for three years. The study involved analyzing of the data collected that were from a series of interviews, as well as direct observations and reviewing of the company’s documents. Based on the output of the analysis phase, a top-down hierarchical analysis of goals and CSFs were carried out according to the CSF analysis method. Three top level objectives included reducing project failure risk, project cost, and project time. Analysing the primary results of the study (i.e. activity model, data flow diagram DFD of different levels, system problems and potential solutions descriptions, etc.) revealed that the critical phase of the implementation project would be product structure initialization and this should be taken into consideration as the bottleneck of production planning in customer driven environment, which dramatically reduced the ERP efficiency in this kind of environment. Moreover, initializing issues of the same process is the main obstacle to the success of the ERP implementation, as it considerably raises the project failure risk and cost. Therefore, the simplification, facilitation, and automation of the PSCM process, which lead to acceleration of this process, are the most significant success factors for the ERP implementation projects in customer driven environment.
Recent technological advancement in wireless communication has led to the invention of wireless body area networks (WBANs), a cutting-edge technology in healthcare applications. WBANs interconnect with intelligent and miniaturized biomedical sensor nodes placed on human body to an unattended monitoring of physiological parameters of the patient. These sensors are equipped with limited resources in terms of computation, storage, and battery power. The data communication in WBANs is a resource hungry process, especially in terms of energy. One of the most significant challenges in this network is to design energy efficient next-hop node selection framework. Therefore, this paper presents a green communication framework focusing on an energy aware link efficient routing approach for WBANs (ELR-W). Firstly, a link efficiency-oriented network model is presented considering beaconing information and network initialization process. Secondly, a path cost calculation model is derived focusing on energy aware link efficiency. A complete operational framework ELR-W is developed considering energy aware next-hop link selection by utilizing the network and path cost model. The comparative performance evaluation attests the energy-oriented benefit of the proposed framework as compared to the state-of-the-art techniques. It reveals a significant enhancement in body area networking in terms of various energy-oriented metrics under medical environments.
Mental ill health affects individual well-being and national economic prosperity and makes up a substantial portion of the burden of disease globally, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Integrating mental health into primary care is widely considered a key strategy to improve access to mental health care. Integration, however, is a complex process that needs to be addressed at multiple levels. A collaboration between the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Digital Hub for Mental Health and the World Organization of Family Doctors (WONCA) is described in this paper, which outlines a framework and next steps to improve the mental health of communities in APEC economies. This paper notes gaps related to the integration of mental health into primary care across the region and identifies enablers and current best practices from several APEC economies. The potential of digital technology to benefit primary mental health care for populations in the APEC region, including delivery of training programs for healthcare staff and access to resources for patients, is described. Finally, key next steps are proposed to promote enhanced integration into primary care and improve mental health care throughout the APEC region.
Awareness of haze pollution and management increased in Southeast Asia since 1990. However, the
focus on environmental management is decreasing especially in Malaysia due to the abundant
resources and increased development pressure. The total health damage cost because of haze in the
country became significantly high due to the long duration of haze events year by year. This paper
discusses the health damage caused by bronchitis due to the haze events in Malaysia. The analysis
shows positive coefficient of independent variables which indicates the positive relationship between
dependent variable and independent variables. Multiple linear regression analysis shows that 45.3%
variation in damage cost of bronchitis could be explained by FAI, GDPPC, and CO2.