Managing the difficult airway presents a great challenge to anaesthesiologists and emergency physicians. Although there are many methods and scoring systems available to predict and anticipate difficult airway, the dictum in emergency airway is to always expect the unexpected. We have encountered a novel simple method of improving laryngoscopic view in difficult airway. We report four cases of difficult airway encountered in our district hospital from November 2017 to December 2018, in which intubation was performed using a simple manoeuvre called supine left head rotation (LeHeR). In all these cases, LeHeR manoeuvre has proven to be successful after more than a single attempt at intubation using various methods. The manoeuvre improves drastically the laryngoscopic view of Cormack-Lehane from 3B and 4 to 1 and 2.
INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis is a common, chronic, relapsing, immune-mediated inflammatory disease. Our objective is to review the clinical profile, co-morbidities, and outcome of patients with psoriasis.
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of outpatient psoriasis patients attending the dermatology clinic, Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (HSAH) between January 2012 and June 2014. Data collection was based on Malaysian Psoriasis Registry.
RESULTS: Among 296 patients with psoriasis, Malays were the most common 175 (59.1%), followed by Indians 82 (27.7%), Chinese 37 (12.5%) and others 2 (0.6%). Male to female ratio was 1.2:1. More than half (54.7%) of the patients had early onset disease (age 40 or less). Only 26 patients (8.8%) have positive family history. The most common clinical presentation was chronic plaque psoriasis (89.9%), followed by erythrodermic psoriasis (4.7%), guttate psoriasis (3.0%) and pustular psoriasis (1.7%). Twenty eight percent had nail involvement while arthropathy was seen only in 14.7%. Common triggers were sunlight (46.0%), stress (31.1%), trauma (5.4%), food (4.0%), pregnancy (4.0%), and upper respiratory tract infections (2.7%). Co-morbidities observed include ischaemic heart disease (7.1%), hypertension (26.7%), dyslipidemia (17.6%), and diabetes mellitus (22.0%). All patients were on topical medications. About 6.8% of the patients were treated with phototherapy. One third of patients (35.5%) were given systemic therapy. Out of these, 84 patients (80.0%) were on methotrexate while only 16 (15.2%) on acitretin. None was on cyclosporine or biologic. In term of disease severity, 41.7% of patients had BSA >10% and 31.4% patients had DLQI > 10.
CONCLUSION: Our patients show a similar clinical profile and outcome as our Malaysian psoriasis population. However they tend to have a more severe disease. There is a need for a more effective targeted therapy for a better outcome.
Study site: Dermatology clinic, Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (HSAH), Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia
A' brief' of an attempt in integration of health education of patients as a part and parcel of treatment and management in hospitals in Kelantan is outlined. The methodology used in the context of local situation is described, problems and short-comings highlighted, and a few suggestions made including recommendations for further such trial efforts in other hospitals in the country.
Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (UGIH) in severe dengue represents a clinical dilemma in term of management. The recommended treatment in dengue with UGIH involves blood product transfusion support and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) infusion. Despite being the mainstay of treatment in non-dengue UGIH, the role of endoscopic haemostatic intervention in severe dengue remains controversial. In the present report, we present a case of severe dengue complicated with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage successfully underwent early therapeutic endoscopic intervention in a district hospital.
Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease with worldwide distribution. Its symptoms may mimic a number of other infections such as dengue, malaria, hepatitis and typhoid fever, particularly in tropical countries where these diseases are endemic. Similarly, dengue is an important infectious disease that poses as a public health emergency due to its rapid epidemic spread across the world. Here, we report a fatal case of dengue fever in a patient who was also serologically positive for leptospirosis. Co-infection of both dengue and leptospirosis can lead to an illness with overlapping symptoms and therefore present a clinical diagnostic dilemma to the treating physician. Hence, a high index of suspicion among clinicians is required, especially in high endemic areas. The optimal usage of antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests is essential to aid the clinicians to make timely and accurate diagnosis as well as to start appropriate treatment regimes.
Keywords: co-infection, communicable diseases, dengue, leptospirosis
Two cases of invasive early-onset neonatal pneumococcal sepsis are reported. One neonate was born at term with no risk factors and the other preterm at 35 weeks. Sepsis was not detected at birth for either of these babies and diagnosis was made at the stage of severe sepsis. A fatal outcome resulted despite treatment. Pneumococcal sepsis was confirmed after death in both these cases. Although maternal carriage was not documented in either case, the ages at presentation and progression suggested perinatal acquisition of infection. Early onset neonatal pneumococcal sepsis presents similarly as early onset neonatal Group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis. Vaginal carriage of pneumococcus is rare but the micro-organism may have a higher invasion to colonisation ratio (attack rate) than GBS. Risk factors for invasive disease are similar to GBS.
The paper discusses the results of 24 cases of Millin's prostatectomy in a District Hospital carried out between April and December 1983. The results show that the blood loss in the operation is usually not more than 600ml and therefore would not pose a strain on the blood bank. Postoperative bleeding is very minimal and again does not tax the nursing staff of an overcrowded, large ward in the District Hospital. The results for the patients are excellent.
A cross sectional study to measure the prevalence of domestic violence and the factors associated with it among women who seek treatment at Hospital Pontian Out Patient Department was carried out in September 1998 until April 1999. The study sample was chosen through systematic random sampling. A total of 370 women between 15 to 49 years were selected and the response rate was 100%. The Results show the one year prevalence rate of domestic violence was 16.8% and life- long prevalence of domestic violence was 35.1%. Studies shows significant difference between the prevalence of domestic violence by age, marital and working status, age at marriage, knowledge, attitude and action to be taken toward domestic violence. Percent of victim is higher among women less than 20 year old, single, still schooling, negative attitude and action towards abuse and less knowledge of place for seeking help. Factor that contribute significantly toward domestic violence among single women is the lack of positive action in dealing with violence and among married women are early marriage(<25 year), lack of positive action in dealing with violence and lack of moral support from husband and family.
Key words: prevalence of domestic violence, mangsa keganasan, associated factors, contributing factors
Study site: Outpatient clinic, Hospital Pontian, Johor, Malaysia
Introduction : Nursing is an occupation associated with high risk of developing back pain due to their nature of work practices. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of back pain among nurses working in government health clinics and hospitals in Port Dickson and the factors associated with it.
Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted involving 126 nurses working in government health clinics and district hospital in Port Dickson. They were universally sampled. A selfadministered questionnaire, assessing personal and socio-demographic characteristics, back pain, work factors and psychosocial factors.
Results :The prevalence of back pain among nurses was 79.4% and factors that showed significant association were workplace (p=0.026) and carried heavy load (p=0.043).
Conclusion : Where one work and nature of work one does has been shown in this study to be important issues to be considered in helping to manage back pain related to work. It is also recommended that staff need to be encouraged to do exercise to strengthen the back muscles, increase spinal flexibility and blood circulation to the spine as well as need to be reminded regarding ergonomic adjustment at work.
Background: Patients' satisfaction is the key parameter to measure the quality of healthcare services. Value added-services (VAS) were introduced to improve the quality of medication deliveries and to reduce the waiting time at outpatient pharmacy.
Objective: This study aimed to compare the satisfaction levels of patients receiving VAS and traditional counter service (TCS) for prescription refills in Port Dickson Hospital.
Methods: A single-center, cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient pharmacy department of Port Dickson Hospital from 1 March to 30 June 2017. Systematic sampling method was utilized to recruit subjects into the study, except mail pharmacy in which universal sampling method was used. Data collection was done via telephone interviews for both groups.
Results: There was 104 and 105 in TCS and VAS group respectively. The response rate was 99.5%. Overall, a significant higher total mean satisfaction score in VAS group was observed as compared to TCS group (43.39 versus 40.49, p=0.002). The same finding was observed after confounding factors were controlled (VAS=44.66, 95% CI 43.07:46.24 versus TCS=39.88, 95% CI 38.29:41.46; p<0.001). VAS respondents reported more satisfaction than TCS respondents for both general and technical aspects. Among the VAS offered, mail pharmacy service respondents showed highest total mean satisfaction score, but no significant different was seen between groups (p=0.064).
Conclusion: VAS respondents were generally more satisfied than TCS respondents for prescription refills. A longitudinal study is necessary to examine the impact of other dimensions and other types of VAS on patients' satisfaction levels.
Study site: outpatient clinic, Hospital Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
The Emergency Department (ED) provides treatment for acutely ill patients in need of urgent medical attention. Despite the availability of the primary care unit ‘Klinik Kesihatan’, where non urgent patients should be treated, Malaysia’s public hospitals still need to deal with overcrowding of non-urgent patients in ED. The main aim of the study was to assess the willingness of non-urgent patients to be redirected to Klinik Kesihatan. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Hospital Tuaran Emergency Department, Sabah. Non-urgent patients were interviewed using a questionnaire, to find out the purpose of their visit to Emergency Department. A total of 318 non-urgent patients out of 457 patients were interviewed during the study duration. 41 respondents (12.9%) were willing to be redirected towards a Klinik Kesihatan. No associated factors were found when compared with the unwilling to be redirected group. Among 277 respondents who rejected redirection to Klinik Kesihatan, 70.4% agreed to pay a surcharge to be treated in the Emergency Department and there was no association found with the employment status (p= 0.391). Most patients were not willing to accept redirection to a Klinik Kesihatan and would prefer to visit the Emergency Department despite knowing that their condition or illness is one that does not require emergency treatment. Social media, advertisements and pamphlets must be made available to educate patients on the proper use of the Emergency Department.
This study is to determine the prevalence and the associated factors of low-back pain (LBP), which has multifactorial causes, among ambulance workers in Kelantan, Malaysia. The cross-sectional study involved ambulance workers in the emergency department in all government hospitals in Kelantan. Those who did not consent, complete or return the questionnaire as well as having rheumatic diseases were excluded from the study. The participants were asked to answer a self-administered questionnaire in English. Descriptive analyses and Chi-square test were used. A total of 168 respondents had completed the questionnaires with a response rate of 85.0%. Questionnaires with more than 95.0% items completed were included in the analysis (n=143). The respondents had a higher proportion of male than female (63.6% versus 36.4%). Assistant Medical Officer comprised of 60.0% of all respondents and the rest were nurses. The respondents’ age ranged between 23 to 58 years old with a mean age of 38.27 and standard deviation (SD) of 7.27. The mean duration of involvement in ambulance service was 9.68 years (SD 6.97). The majority (98.5%) of the respondents were Malay. Gender, smoking status and hobbies were the associated factors of LBP among ambulance workers. The modifiable risk factors should be emphasized to the ambulance workers as a measure to prevent the development of LBP.
Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is mostly viral in aetiology, but patients presenting with such complaints are frequently prescribed antibiotics. This may result in increased development of antimicrobial resistance. The objectives of this study are to determine the choice and proportion of oral antibiotics prescribed in patients with URTI, in a Sarawak district hospital setting. All outpatient prescriptions received in July 2011 in 10 hospitals with relevant diagnoses were analysed. A total of 6747 URTI prescriptions met the inclusion criteria, and 64.8% (95% CI 63.7%, 65.9%) had antibiotic prescribed. Medical Assistants (MAs) were significantly more likely to prescribe antibiotics compared to Medical Officers (MOs) (p < 0.001). Prescribers were significantly influenced by the patient's age and specific diagnosis when prescribing antibiotics for URTI (p < 0.001). Antibiotic choices differed between MOs and MAs, where some of the antibiotic choices were inappropriate. There is a need for multi-faceted interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing rate and choice.
Study site: 10 district hospitals, Sarawak, Malaysia