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  1. Bonsu KO, Kadirvelu A, Reidpath DD
    Vasc Health Risk Manag, 2013;9:303-19.
    PMID: 23807852 DOI: 10.2147/VHRM.S44499
    Statins lower serum cholesterol and are employed for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Clinical evidence from observational studies, retrospective data, and post hoc analyses of data from large statin trials in various cardiovascular conditions, as well as small scale randomized trials, suggest survival and other outcome benefits for heart failure. Two recent large randomized controlled trials, however, appear to suggest statins do not have beneficial effects in heart failure. In addition to lowering cholesterol, statins are believed to have many pleotropic effects which could possibly influence the pathophysiology of heart failure. Following the two large trials, evidence from recent studies appears to support the use of statins in heart failure. This review discusses the role of statins in the pathophysiology of heart failure, current evidence for statin use in heart failure, and suggests directions for future research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  2. Bonsu KO, Reidpath DD, Kadirvelu A
    Cardiovasc Drugs Ther, 2016 Apr;30(2):177-88.
    PMID: 26780905 DOI: 10.1007/s10557-015-6636-z
    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare lipophilic and hydrophilic statin therapy on clinical outcomes of heart failure (HF) using a systematic review and an adjusted indirect comparison meta-analysis. Outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular hospitalization and hospitalization for worsening HF.

    METHODS: We conducted a search of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until 31st December 2014 for randomized control trials (RCTs) in HF evaluating statins versus placebo. Identified RCTs and their respective abstracted information were grouped according to statin type evaluated and analyzed separately. Outcomes were initially pooled with the Peto's one-step method, producing odd ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for each statin type. Using these pooled estimates, we performed adjusted indirect comparisons of lipophilic versus hydrophilic statin for each outcome.

    RESULTS: Thirteen studies involving 10,966 patients were identified and analyzed. Lipophilic statins were superior to hydrophilic rosuvastatin regarding all-cause mortality (OR 0 · 50; 95 % CI, 0 · 11-0 · 89; p = 0 · 01), cardiovascular mortality (OR 0 · 61; 0 · 25-0 · 97; p = 0 · 009), and hospitalization for worsening HF (OR 0 · 52; 0 · 21-0 · 83; p = 0 · 0005). However, both statins were comparable with regards to cardiovascular hospitalization [OR 0 · 80 (0 · 31, 1 · 28); p = 0 · 36].

    CONCLUSIONS: Lipophilic statin treatment shows significant decreases in all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization for worsening HF compared with rosuvastatin treatment. This meta-analysis provides preliminary evidence that lipophilic statins offer better clinical outcomes in HF till data from head to head comparisons are available.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  3. Kow CS, Hasan SS
    Am J Cardiol, 2020 11 01;134:153-155.
    PMID: 32891399 DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.08.004
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  4. Hafizz AMHA, Zin RRM, Aziz NHA, Kampan NC, Shafiee MN
    Mol Biol Rep, 2020 Oct;47(10):8199-8207.
    PMID: 32897522 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-020-05760-5
    As the obesity rates dramatically increased across the globe, the risk of endometrial cancer (EC) has substantially increased. Measures to improve the EC outcome is utmost important, especially data have shown that women at their reproductive age are commonly affected. No doubt, surgical intervention is a standard treatment for EC. However, the fact that this cancer could arise from metabolic diseases, additional therapy by lipid-lowering agent could be utilized to change the tumour environment. We review available evidence to support the use of this agent in the clinical setting. We search available evidence on the use of statin in EC, in various settings including cell lines, animal and human study. The possible actions at different molecular pathways leading to cellular changes and proliferation of cell were evaluated. The venture in drug repositioning of statins as a chemo-preventive potential agent in EC has gained attention in gynaecological oncology practice worldwide. Lipid-lowering effect by statins may exerted a chemoprotective effect in EC, but there is still lack of evidence on statins use to improve prognosis and survival in EC. Through the cholesterol-lowering effect of statins; theoretically, it could inhibit cell growth, proliferation, migration, and lead to apoptosis. Epidemiological studies suggested that statins may improve survival rate among EC patients. However, some evidence revealed the effects were only more prominent in type II EC. Notwithstanding that several studies also showed no benefit of statins in EC. Hence we highlight the limitations of these studies in this review. In line with recent literature on the topic, statins may play a role in EC management. Future studies for a proper systematic review and randomized controlled study are needed to answer some uncertainties of statins effect in EC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  5. Ong HT, Cheah JS
    Chin Med J (Engl), 2008 Aug 20;121(16):1588-94.
    PMID: 18982874
    The aim of this review is to objectively access the trial evidence on the role of omega-3, red yeast rice and garlic in preventing clinical cardiovascular events. Given the large number of clinical trials favoring statin use in cardiovascular disease, it is important to see if evidence is available for these supplements and whether they could replace statin therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  6. Naing C, Ni H
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2020 07 15;7:CD013268.
    PMID: 32668027 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013268.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease. People with asthma have inflammation of their airways that causes recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness and chest tightness, with or without a cough. Statins possess multiple therapeutic effects, including lowering lipid levels in the blood. Statins are reported to have a potential role as an adjunct treatment in asthma. However, comprehensive evidence of the benefits and harms of using statins is required to facilitate decision making.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of statins as an adjunct therapy for asthma in adults and children.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched for studies in the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid SP and Embase Ovid SP, from their inception dates We handsearched the proceedings of major respiratory conferences. We also searched clinical trials registries for completed, ongoing and unpublished studies, and scanned the reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews to identify additional studies. The search is current to 7 February 2020.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a parallel-group design that assessed statins for at least 12 weeks' duration. We considered all participants with a clinical diagnosis of asthma to be eligible, regardless of age, sex, disease severity and previous or current treatment. We planned to include studies reported as full text, those published as abstract only, and unpublished data.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened and selected the studies, extracted outcome data and intervention characteristics from included studies, and assessed risk of bias according to standard Cochrane methodological procedures. We resolved any disagreement through discussion.

    MAIN RESULTS: We found only one trial involving a total of 60 people living with asthma. The trial compared the effect of atorvastatin with a placebo (dummy treatment containing lactose) in treating people with chronic asthma. The trial did not report data for the primary outcomes or adverse events. There was uncertainty about the relative effect on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in the atorvastatin group compared with the placebo group. The study did not report serious adverse effects for the interventions. The included study had internal discrepancies in its reported data.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence was of very low certainty, so we are unable to draw conclusions about the effectiveness and safety of statins to treat asthma. High-quality RCTs are needed to assess the effect of statins on people with asthma. Well-designed multicentre trials with larger samples and longer duration of treatment are required, which assess outcomes such as adverse events, hospital utilisation and costs, to provide better quality evidence. Future studies that include subgroups of obese people with asthma are also required.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  7. Mehrbod P, Omar AR, Hair-Bejo M, Haghani A, Ideris A
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:872370.
    PMID: 25478576 DOI: 10.1155/2014/872370
    The influenza virus (IV) is known to be a resistant virus with frequent mutations, causing severe respiratory diseases in the upper respiratory system. Public health concerns about clinical efficacy of all conventional drugs are ambiguous; therefore, finding additional therapeutic agents is critical to prevent and control influenza outbreaks. Influenza is associated with the induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Scientists have reported that anti-inflammatory drugs, with pleiotropic effects, reduce the burden of severe influenza diseases. Therefore, statins, which are cardioprotective drugs with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, may help patients suffering from influenza virus (IV). This review delineates the potential use of statins as an alternative therapy in treating influenza related illness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  8. Ong LM, Punithavathi N, Lena YLL, Mahanim O, Leekha S, Storvas Clinical Trial Study Group
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Aug;66(3):214-9.
    PMID: 22111443
    A multicentre study was conducted to assess the long term efficacy and safety of a generic atorvastatin in the treatment of primary hypercholesterolaemia. Eighty five patients who received 10mg or 20 mg of atorvastatin for 8 weeks depending on target cholesterol goal were followed up by their own physicians and had final evaluation at 52 weeks. Reduction in mean low density Lipoprotein (LDL-C) was 36.5%, 37.9% and 32.2% at weeks 4, 8 and 52 respectively. LDL-C target was maintained in 81% and 69% of patients at week 8 and 52 respectively without drug related serious adverse events. Generic atorvastatin is safe and effective in usual clinical care setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  9. Punithavathi N, Ong LM, Lena YL, Leekha S, Storvas Clinical Trial Study Group
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Jun;64(2):150-4.
    PMID: 20058576 MyJurnal
    A multicenter study was conducted to assess the efficacy of a generic form of Atorvastatin (Ranbaxy's Storvas) in the treatment of Primary Hypercholesterolemia. One hundred and nineteen patients were given 10 mg of Storvas for four weeks and increased to 20 mg if target LDL-Cholesterol was not achieved. LDL-Cholesterol was reduced by 36.6% at four weeks and 37.5% at eight weeks from baseline. Total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly reduced. There were no drug-related serious adverse events. We conclude that the generic atorvastatin is safe and effective in the treatment of primary hypercholesterolaemia and the results are comparable to published data on innovator atorvastatin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  10. Khoo S, Wong VW, Goh GB, Fan J, Chan WK, Seto WK, et al.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2020 Feb;35(2):320-325.
    PMID: 31336392 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.14794
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients often have dyslipidemia, and optimal treatment of dyslipidemia lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Our aim was to study the prescription of statin and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treatment targets in NAFLD patients.

    METHODS: Consecutive NAFLD patients attending five clinics in Asia were included in this study. The 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was calculated based on the Framingham Heart Study, and patients were categorized as moderate, high, or very high risk for cardiovascular disease on the basis of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologist 2017 Guidelines. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treatment goal for each of the risk groups was 2.6, 2.6, and 1.8 mmol/L, respectively.

    RESULTS: The data for 428 patients were analyzed (mean age 54.4 ± 11.1 years, 52.1% male). Dyslipidemia was seen in 60.5% (259/428), but only 43.2% (185/428) were on a statin. The percentage of patients who were at moderate, high, and very high risk for cardiovascular disease was 36.7% (157/428), 27.3% (117/428), and 36.0% (154/428), respectively. Among patients who were on a statin, 58.9% (109/185) did not achieve the treatment target. Among patients who were not on a statin, 74.1% (180/243) should be receiving statin therapy. The percentage of patients who were not treated to target or who should be on statin was highest among patients at very high risk for cardiovascular disease at 79.6% (78/98) or 94.6% (53/56), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: This study highlights the suboptimal treatment of dyslipidemia and calls for action to improve the treatment of dyslipidemia in NAFLD patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  11. Hammad MA, Abdo MS, Mashaly AM, Syed Sulaiman SA, Alghamdi S, Mangi AA, et al.
    Diabetes Metab Syndr, 2019 07 08;13(4):2557-2564.
    PMID: 31405676 DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2019.07.005
    Statins have impacts on the metabolism of glucose that might influence the progress of diabetes in non-diabetics or affect glycemic control in patients with existing diabetes. Experimental proof has been contradictory about whether some statins display beneficial properties while others indicate harmful impressions. Some systematic reviews of statins had stated conflicting findings on the concern of glucose metabolism. The current study investigates the published systematic reviews and meta-analyses to combine their results and give a clear situation regarding the influence of statins therapy on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). This study has valuable strength points; long follow-up period and big sample size.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  12. Ho KT, Chin KW, Ng KS, Alemao E, Rajagopalan S, Yin D
    Am J Cardiovasc Drugs, 2006;6(6):383-91.
    PMID: 17192128
    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide, with hypercholesterolemia being a major risk factor. Evidence-based consensus guidelines have recommended consideration of increasingly stringent cholesterol-lowering goals, yet most patients do not meet these targets. Coronary heart disease (CHD) event and mortality rates and mean serum cholesterol levels have declined in Singapore in recent years; however, certain groups remain at elevated risk.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine (i) proportions of patients with CHD in Singapore who achieved goals for serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C); and (ii) factors influencing goal attainment.

    METHODS: A historical cohort study was conducted using records from the Singapore Cardiac Databank, a national registry of CHD patients. Serum LDL-C goal attainment was assessed in 5174 survivors of acute myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization (i.e. coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary interventions), of whom 3811 (73.7%) were at very high risk.

    RESULTS: At baseline, the mean patient age was 60.3 years, mean serum value of total cholesterol was 228 mg/dL, and mean LDL-C was 163 mg/dL. Of all CHD patients, approximately 70% did not achieve a serum LDL-C target of <100 mg/dL. Most patients receiving HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) regimens were treated initially with low- to medium-equipotency regimens and were never titrated to stronger regimens. The vast majority (approximately 94%) of patients at very high risk did not achieve the stringent serum LDL-C target of <70 mg/dL. Patients receiving higher potency statins were significantly more likely to achieve LDL-C goals, whereas those with higher baseline LDL-C levels or Malaysian ethnicity were less likely to achieve LDL-C goals.

    CONCLUSIONS: Most CHD patients in the large group of Singapore residents with CHD in the present study did not achieve recommended LDL-C targets. A more effective disease-management approach, including patient education concerning lifestyle modification (e.g. diet, physical activity), efforts to enhance medication adherence, and more effective, well tolerated therapies such as high-equipotency or high-dose statins and statin combination regimens, may be needed to improve achievement of consensus cholesterol targets. This is the first study of cholesterol goal attainment in a large group of Southeast Asians and serves as a baseline for future evaluations in Asian populations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  13. Lee WH, Loo CY, Ghadiri M, Leong CR, Young PM, Traini D
    Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 2018 08;133:107-130.
    PMID: 30189271 DOI: 10.1016/j.addr.2018.08.012
    Lung cancer is a highly invasive and prevalent disease with ineffective first-line treatment and remains the leading cause of cancer death in men and women. Despite the improvements in diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis and outcome of lung cancer patients is still poor. This could be associated with the lack of effective first-line oncology drugs, formation of resistant tumors and non-optimal administration route. Therefore, the repurposing of existing drugs currently used for different indications and the introduction of a different method of drug administration could be investigated as an alternative to improve lung cancer therapy. This review describes the rationale and development of repositioning of drugs for lung cancer treatment with emphasis on inhalation. The review includes the current progress of repurposing non-cancer drugs, as well as current chemotherapeutics for lung malignancies via inhalation. Several potential non-cancer drugs such as statins, itraconazole and clarithromycin, that have demonstrated preclinical anti-cancer activity, are also presented. Furthermore, the potential challenges and limitations that might hamper the clinical translation of repurposed oncology drugs are described.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  14. Abdul-Majeed S, Mohamed N, Soelaiman IN
    Life Sci, 2015 Mar 15;125:42-8.
    PMID: 25534439 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2014.12.012
    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMGCoA reductase and are commonly used as antihypercholesterolemic agents. Experimental studies clearly demonstrate the beneficial effects of statins on bone. Tocotrienols have also been shown to have anti-osteoporotic effects on the skeletal system. This study was conducted to observe the effect of a combination of delta-tocotrienol and lovastatin on structural bone histomorphometry and bone biomechanical strength in a postmenopausal rat model at clinically tolerable doses, and to compare it with the effect of delta-tocotrienol or lovastatin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  15. Abdul-Majeed S, Mohamed N, Soelaiman IN
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(13):1579-90.
    PMID: 23848479
    Skeletal tissue undergoes continuous remodeling which makes it unique among other body tissues. Osteoporosis is a common bone metabolic disorder affecting both men and women. Osteoporosis and its complications mainly osteoporotic fractures, have a high impact on health and economy. Current approved medications are associated with numerous side effects, which limit their use. Identification of a new and safe therapy is mandatory. Statins, also known as HMGCoA reductase inhibitors, are frequently used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and for the prevention of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. Statins improved bone health status in intact and ovariectomised rodents following high clinically intolerable oral doses. However, this beneficial effect of statins could not be significantly demonstrated in humans. The reason behind this discrepancy might be due to the safety and bioavailability of the currently used oral statins. Vitamin E, especially the tocotrienols at the dose 60 mg/kg/day provided significant antiosteoporotic effects in different animal models of osteoporosis. The use of the aforementioned dose of tocotrienols was shown to be safe in both humans and animals. Enhancement of bone formation and reduction of bone resorption were achieved more effectively by a combination of tocotrienols and statins than by either treatment when supplemented separately at clinically tolerable doses. Therefore, the adverse effects associated with high statin doses might be avoided with the coadministration of tocotrienols. Moreover, the combination therapy strategy might be useful for patients who are at high risk of osteoporosis, cardiovascular events and hypercholesterolaemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  16. Bonsu KO, Kadirvelu A, Reidpath DD
    Syst Rev, 2013;2:22.
    PMID: 23618535 DOI: 10.1186/2046-4053-2-22
    Statins are known to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in primary and secondary prevention studies. Subsequently, a number of nonrandomised studies have shown statins improve clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). Small randomised controlled trials (RCT) also show improved cardiac function, reduced inflammation and mortality with statins in HF. However, the findings of two large RCTs do not support the evidence provided by previous studies and suggest statins lack beneficial effects in HF. Two meta-analyses have shown statins do not improve survival, whereas two others showed improved cardiac function and reduced inflammation in HF. It appears lipophilic statins produce better survival and other outcome benefits compared to hydrophilic statins. But the two types have not been compared in direct comparison trials in HF.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  17. Hassan Y, Kassab Y, Abd Aziz N, Akram H, Ismail O
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2013 Apr;38(2):97-100.
    PMID: 23441979 DOI: 10.1111/jcpt.12027
    Pharmacists have the knowledge regarding optimal use of medications and the ability to influence physician prescribing. Successful interventions by a pharmacist to implement cardioprotective medications to a coronary artery disease patient's regimen would not only improve the patient's quality of care but may also increase his or her likelihood of survival. Therefore, the aim of this study was to (i) evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacist initiated interventions in increasing the prescription rates of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) secondary prevention pharmacotherapy at discharge, and to (ii) evaluate the acceptance rate of these interventions by prescribers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
  18. Ong HT
    QJM, 2005 Aug;98(8):599-614.
    PMID: 16006501
    The landmark HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) studies have practical lessons for clinicans. The 4S trial established the importance of treating the hypercholesterolaemic patient with cardiovascular heart disease. Next, WOSCOPS showed the benefit of treating healthy, high-risk hypercholesterolaemic men. CARE, a secondary prevention trial, showed the benefit of treating patients with cholesterol levels within normal limits. This was confirmed by the LIPID trial, another secondary prevention study, which enrolled patients with cholesterol levels 155-271 mg/dl (4-7 mmol/l). The importance of treating patients with established ischaemic heart disease, and those at high risk of developing heart disease, regardless of cholesterol level, was being realized. In the MIRACL trial, hypocholesterolaemic therapy was useful in the setting of an acute coronary syndrome, while the AVERT study showed that aggressive statin therapy is as good as angioplasty in reducing ischaemic events in patients with stable angina. By showing the value of fluvastatin after percutaneous intervention, LIPS confirmed that benefit is a class action of the statins. The HPS randomized over 20 000 patients, and showed beyond doubt the value of statins in reducing cardiovascular events in the high-risk patient. Although PROSPER showed benefit in treating the elderly patients above 70 years, statin therapy in this trial was associated with an increase in cancer incidence. The comparative statin trials, PROVE-IT, REVERSAL, Phase Z of the A to Z, ALLIANCE and TNT, all showed that high-dose statins will better reduce cardiovascular events in the high-risk patient, although the adverse effects of therapy will also be increased. ALLHAT-LLT, ASCOT-LLA and CARDS showed that for statin therapy to demonstrate a significant benefit, hypertensive or diabetic patients must be at sufficiently high risk of cardiovascular events. The emphasis is now on the risk level for developing cardiovascular events, and treatment should target the high-risk group and not the lipid level of the patient. No therapy is free of adverse effect. Treatment of those most at risk will bring the most benefit; treatment of those not at high risk of cardiovascular disease may expose patients who would not benefit much from therapy to its adverse effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  19. Lansberg P, Lee A, Lee ZV, Subramaniam K, Setia S
    Vasc Health Risk Manag, 2018;14:91-102.
    PMID: 29872306 DOI: 10.2147/VHRM.S158641
    Poor adherence to statin therapy is linked to significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events and death. Unfortunately, adherence to statins is far from optimal. This is an alarming concern for patients prescribed potentially life-saving cholesterol-lowering medication, especially for those at high risk of cardiovascular events. Research on statin adherence has only recently garnered broader attention; hence, major reasons unique to adherence to statin therapy need to be identified as well as suggestions for countermeasures. An integrated approach to minimizing barriers and enhancing facilitation at the levels of the patient, provider, and health system can help address adherence issues. Health care professionals including physicians, pharmacists, and nurses have an obligation to improve patient adherence, as routine care. In order to achieve sustained results, a multifaceted approach is indispensable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  20. Lee CY, Liu KT, Lu HT, Mohd Ali R, Fong AYY, Wan Ahmad WA
    PLoS One, 2021;16(2):e0246474.
    PMID: 33556136 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246474
    BACKGROUND: Sex and gender differences in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have been well studied in the western population. However, limited studies have examined the trends of these differences in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    OBJECTIVES: To study the trends in sex and gender differences in ACS using the Malaysian NCVD-ACS Registry.

    METHODS: Data from 24 hospitals involving 35,232 ACS patients (79.44% men and 20.56% women) from 1st. Jan 2012 to 31st. Dec 2016 were analysed. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, coronary risk factors, anthropometrics, treatments and outcomes. Analyses were done for ACS as a whole and separately for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), Non-STEMI and unstable angina. These were then compared to published data from March 2006 to February 2010 which included 13,591 ACS patients (75.8% men and 24.2% women).

    RESULTS: Women were older and more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, previous heart failure and renal failure than men. Women remained less likely to receive aspirin, beta-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) and statin. Women were less likely to undergo angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) despite an overall increase. In the STEMI cohort, despite a marked increase in presentation with Killip class IV, women were less likely to received primary PCI or fibrinolysis and had longer median door-to-needle and door-to-balloon time compared to men, although these had improved. Women had higher unadjusted in-hospital, 30-Day and 1-year mortality rates compared to men for the STEMI and NSTEMI cohorts. After multivariate adjustments, 1-year mortality remained significantly higher for women with STEMI (adjusted OR: 1.31 (1.09-1.57), p<0.003) but were no longer significant for NSTEMI cohort.

    CONCLUSION: Women continued to have longer system delays, receive less aggressive pharmacotherapies and invasive treatments with poorer outcome. There is an urgent need for increased effort from all stakeholders if we are to narrow this gap.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
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