Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 516 in total

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  1. Kavitha N, De S, Kanagasabai S
    J Obstet Gynaecol India, 2013 Apr;63(2):82-7.
    PMID: 24431611 DOI: 10.1007/s13224-012-0312-z
    INTRODUCTION: Traditionally, insulin has been the gold standard in the management of Type 2 diabetes in pregnancy and gestational diabetes. However, insulin therapy can be inconvenient because of the needs for multiple injections, its associated cost, pain at the injection site, need for refrigeration, and skillful handling of the syringes. This has led to the exploration of oral hypoglycemic agents as an alternative to insulin therapy.
    OBJECTIVES: This review examines and evaluates the evidences on the efficacy, safety, and current recommendations of oral hypoglycemic agents.
    CONCLUSION: The evidence of this study supports the use of glyburide and metformin in the management of Type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes with no increased risk of neonatal hypoglycemia or congenital anomalies. The safety of these oral hypoglycemic agents are limited to the prenatal period and more randomized controlled trials are required to provide information on the long-term follow up on neonatal and cognitive development.
    KEYWORDS: Gestational diabetes mellitus; Oral hypoglycemic agents; Type 2 diabetes
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents*
  2. Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS
    Molecules, 2012 Feb 15;17(2):1900-15.
    PMID: 22337138 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17021900
    Honey is a natural substance with many medicinal properties, including antibacterial, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. It reduces hyperglycemia in diabetic rats and humans. However, the mechanism(s) of its hypoglycemic effect remain(s) unknown. Honey comprises many constituents, making it difficult to ascertain which component(s) contribute(s) to its hypoglycemic effect. Nevertheless, available evidence indicates that honey consists of predominantly fructose and glucose. The objective of this review is to summarize findings which indicate that fructose exerts a hypoglycemic effect. The data show that glucose and fructose exert a synergistic effect in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. This synergistic effect might enhance intestinal fructose absorption and/or stimulate insulin secretion. The results indicate that fructose enhances hepatic glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis and storage via activation of hepatic glucokinase and glycogen synthase, respectively. The data also demonstrate the beneficial effects of fructose on glycemic control, glucose- and appetite-regulating hormones, body weight, food intake, oxidation of carbohydrate and energy expenditure. In view of the similarities of these effects of fructose with those of honey, the evidence may support the role of fructose in honey in mediating the hypoglycemic effect of honey.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology*
  3. Bukhari SA, Shamshari WA, Ur-Rahman M, Zia-Ul-Haq M, Jaafar HZ
    Molecules, 2014 Jul 11;19(7):10129-36.
    PMID: 25019556 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190710129
    Diabetes mellitus is a life threatening disease and scientists are doing their best to find a cost effective and permanent treatment of this malady. The recent trend is to control the disease by target base inhibiting of enzymes or proteins. Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4) is found to cause five times more risk of diabetes when expressed above average levels. This study was therefore designed to analyze the SFRP4 and to find its potential inhibitors. SFRP4 was analyzed by bio-informatics tools of sequence tool and structure tool. A total of three potential inhibitors of SFRP4 were found, namely cyclothiazide, clopamide and perindopril. These inhibitors showed significant interactions with SFRP4 as compared to other inhibitors as well as control (acetohexamide). The findings suggest the possible treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 by inhibiting the SFRP4 using the inhibitors cyclothiazide, clopamide and perindopril.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use; Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry*
  4. Sarian MN, Ahmed QU, Mat So'ad SZ, Alhassan AM, Murugesu S, Perumal V, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2017;2017:8386065.
    PMID: 29318154 DOI: 10.1155/2017/8386065
    The best described pharmacological property of flavonoids is their capacity to act as potent antioxidant that has been reported to play an important role in the alleviation of diabetes mellitus. Flavonoids biochemical properties are structure dependent; however, they are yet to be thoroughly understood. Hence, the main aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of some structurally related flavonoids to identify key positions responsible, their correlation, and the effect of methylation and acetylation on the same properties. Antioxidant potential was evaluated through dot blot, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ABTS+ radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and xanthine oxidase inhibitory (XOI) assays. Antidiabetic effect was investigated through α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) assays. Results showed that the total number and the configuration of hydroxyl groups played an important role in regulating antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in scavenging DPPH radical, ABTS+ radical, and FRAP assays and improved both α-glucosidase and DPP-4 activities. Presence of C-2-C-3 double bond and C-4 ketonic group are two essential structural features in the bioactivity of flavonoids especially for antidiabetic property. Methylation and acetylation of hydroxyl groups were found to diminish the in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of the flavonoids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry*
  5. Tourkmani AM, Abdelhay O, Alharbi TJ, Bin Rsheed AM, Azmi Hassali M, Alrasheedy AA, et al.
    Int J Clin Pract, 2021 Mar;75(3):e13817.
    PMID: 33159361 DOI: 10.1111/ijcp.13817
    BACKGROUND: Ramadan fasting is regarded as a form of worship amongst Muslims. However, patients with a high risk of diabetic complications are advised to avoid fasting, as the practice is associated with significant impacts on several health factors for type 2 diabetic patients, including glycaemic control. Thus, a lack of focused education before Ramadan may result in negative health outcomes.

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of a Ramadan-focused diabetes education programme on hypoglycaemic risk and other clinical and metabolic parameters.

    METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using Scopus, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar to identify relevant studies meeting the inclusion criteria from inception. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and guidelines were followed when performing the search and identification of appropriate studies.

    RESULTS: Seventeen studies were included in this systemic review; five of them met the criteria to compile for a meta-analysis. The included studies were with various study designs, including randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and non-randomised studies. Overall, the results revealed a significant reduction of hypoglycemia risk (81% reduction) for fasting patients in intervention groups who received Ramadan-focused education compared with patients receiving conventional care (OR 0.19, 95% CI: 0.08-0.46). Moreover, HbA1c significantly improved amongst patients who received a Ramadan-focused diabetes education intervention, compared with those receiving conventional care.

    CONCLUSION: Ramadan-focused diabetes education had a significant impact on hypoglycemia and glycaemic control, with no significant effect on body weight, blood lipids or blood pressure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
  6. Alam F, Islam MA, Mohamed M, Ahmad I, Kamal MA, Donnelly R, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 03 29;9(1):5389.
    PMID: 30926892 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-41854-2
    Pioglitazone, the only thiazolidinedione drug in clinical practice is under scrutiny due to reported adverse effects, it's unique insulin sensitising action provides rationale to remain as a therapeutic option for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing pioglitazone monotherapy with monotherapies of other oral antidiabetic drugs for assessing its efficacy and safety in T2DM patients. Mean changes in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and mean changes in fasting blood sugar (FBS) level, body weight (BW) and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Safety outcomes were changes in lipid parameters, blood pressure and incidences of adverse events. Metafor package of R software and RevMan software based on random-effects model were used for analyses. We included 16 randomised controlled trials. Pioglitazone monotherapy showed equivalent efficacy as comparators in reducing HbA1c by 0.05% (95% CI: -0.21 to 0.11) and greater efficacy in reducing FBS level by 0.24 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.48 to -0.01). Pioglitazone showed similar efficacy as comparators in reducing HOMA-IR (WMD: 0.05, 95% CI: -0.49 to 0.59) and increasing high-density lipoprotein level (WMD: 0.02 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.06 to 0.10). Improved blood pressure (WMD: -1.05 mmHg, 95% CI: -4.29 to 2.19) and triglycerides level (WMD: -0.71 mmol/l, 95% CI: -1.70 to 0.28) were also observed with pioglitazone monotherapy. There was a significant association of pioglitazone with increased BW (WMD: 2.06 kg, 95% CI: 1.11 to 3.01) and risk of oedema (RR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.48 to 3.31), though the risk of hypoglycaemia was absolutely lower (RR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.80). Meta-analysis supported pioglitazone as an effective treatment option for T2DM patients to ameliorate hyperglycaemia, adverse lipid metabolism and blood pressure. Pioglitazone is suggested to prescribe following individual patient's needs. It can be a choice of drug for insulin resistant T2DM patients having dyslipidaemia, hypertension or history of cardiovascular disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use*
  7. Jamaludin TSS, Mohammad NM, Hassan M, Nurumal MS
    Enferm Clin, 2021 04;31 Suppl 2:S372-S376.
    PMID: 33849203 DOI: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2020.09.028
    This study aimed to survey the level of knowledge and practice on medication adherence among Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 220 DM patients by using a convenience sampling method. It was found that 64.5% of studied participants have a high level of knowledge with good practice toward medication adherence. There was a significant association between sociodemographic characteristics with the level of knowledge and practice toward medication adherence. This study finding provides information to health care providers to improve their patient's care by playing their important role in promoting the importance of knowledge on medication adherence for a better quality of life to the DM patients. Not only a physician but also the nurse could enhance health education for their patient on medication adherence during the follow-up appointment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
  8. Godman B, Haque M, Leong T, Allocati E, Kumar S, Islam S, et al.
    Front Public Health, 2021;9:671961.
    PMID: 34249838 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.671961
    Background: Diabetes mellitus rates continue to rise, which coupled with increasing costs of associated complications has appreciably increased global expenditure in recent years. The risk of complications are enhanced by poor glycaemic control including hypoglycaemia. Long-acting insulin analogues were developed to reduce hypoglycaemia and improve adherence. Their considerably higher costs though have impacted their funding and use. Biosimilars can help reduce medicine costs. However, their introduction has been affected by a number of factors. These include the originator company dropping its price as well as promoting patented higher strength 300 IU/ml insulin glargine. There can also be concerns with different devices between the manufacturers. Objective: To assess current utilisation rates for insulins, especially long-acting insulin analogues, and the rationale for patterns seen, across multiple countries to inform strategies to enhance future utilisation of long-acting insulin analogue biosimilars to benefit all key stakeholders. Our approach: Multiple approaches including assessing the utilisation, expenditure and prices of insulins, including biosimilar insulin glargine, across multiple continents and countries. Results: There was considerable variation in the use of long-acting insulin analogues as a percentage of all insulins prescribed and dispensed across countries and continents. This ranged from limited use of long-acting insulin analogues among African countries compared to routine funding and use across Europe in view of their perceived benefits. Increasing use was also seen among Asian countries including Bangladesh and India for similar reasons. However, concerns with costs and value limited their use across Africa, Brazil and Pakistan. There was though limited use of biosimilar insulin glargine 100 IU/ml compared with other recent biosimilars especially among European countries and Korea. This was principally driven by small price differences in reality between the originator and biosimilars coupled with increasing use of the patented 300 IU/ml formulation. A number of activities were identified to enhance future biosimilar use. These included only reimbursing biosimilar long-acting insulin analogues, introducing prescribing targets and increasing competition among manufacturers including stimulating local production. Conclusions: There are concerns with the availability and use of insulin glargine biosimilars despite lower costs. This can be addressed by multiple activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
  9. Sivasothy Y, Loo KY, Leong KH, Litaudon M, Awang K
    Phytochemistry, 2016 Feb;122:265-269.
    PMID: 26712615 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.12.007
    A dimeric acylphenol and a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor, giganteone D (IC50 5.05μM), was isolated and characterized from the bark of Myristica cinnamomea King. The bark also yielded an acylphenol with an unprecedented skeleton for which the name cinnamomeone A (IC50 358.80μM) was proposed. Their structures were established by means of NMR and MS spectrometric analyses. The Lineweaver-Burk plot of giganteone D indicated that it was a mixed-type inhibitor. This is the first report on the α-glucosidase inhibiting potential of acylphenols.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification*; Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology*; Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry
  10. Ablat A, Mohamad J, Awang K, Shilpi JA, Arya A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:786130.
    PMID: 24688431 DOI: 10.1155/2014/786130
    The ethanol extract of B. javanica seed was fractionated with solvents of different polarities and tested for antioxidant activities by several assays including DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous ion chelating activity (FCA), and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NORSA) along with their polyphenolic contents. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using a glycogen phosphorylase α (GPα) inhibition assay and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in nondiabetic rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), rich in tannin, exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities to DPPH, FRAP, and NORSA, except for FCA. The EAF also exerted a dose-depended inhibition of GPα (IC50 = 0.75 mg/ml). Further evaluation of hypoglycemic effect on OGGT indicated that rats treated with EAF (125 mg/kg bw) showed a 39.91% decrease (P < 0.05) in blood glucose levels at 30 min, and continuous fall (P < 0.05) of 28.89% and 20.29% was observed in the following hours (60 and 90 min) compared to the normal control during OGTT. The EAF was applied to polyamide column chromatography, and the resulting tannin-free fraction was tested for both GPα inhibition and antioxidant (DPPH only) activity. The GP α inhibitory activity was retained, while antioxidant activity was lost (4.6-fold) after tannin removal. These results concluded that the GPα inhibitory activity initially detected was primarily due to the compounds other than tannins, whereas antioxidant activity was mainly due to the tannins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology; Hypoglycemic Agents/toxicity; Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry*
  11. Hasan MM, Ahmed QU, Mat Soad SZ, Tunna TS
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2018 May;101:833-841.
    PMID: 29635892 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.02.137
    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which has high prevalence. The deficiency in insulin production or impaired insulin function is the underlying cause of this disease. Utilization of plant sources as a cure of diabetes has rich evidence in the history. Recently, the traditional medicinal plants have been investigated scientifically to understand the underlying mechanism behind antidiabetic potential. In this regard, a substantial number of in vivo and in vitro models have been introduced for investigating the bottom-line mechanism of the antidiabetic effect. A good number of methods have been reported to be used successfully to determine antidiabetic effects of plant extracts or isolated compounds. This review encompasses all the possible methods with a list of medicinal plants which may contribute to discovering a novel drug to treat diabetes more efficaciously with the minimum or no side effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology; Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use*; Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry
  12. Ibrahim MMA, Ghadzi SMS, Kjellsson MC, Karlsson MO
    CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol, 2018 07;7(7):432-441.
    PMID: 29732710 DOI: 10.1002/psp4.12302
    In antidiabetic drug development, phase I studies usually involve short-term glucose provocations. Multiple designs are available for these provocations (e.g., meal tolerance tests (MTTs) and graded glucose infusions (GGIs)). With a highly nonlinear, complex system as the glucose homeostasis, the various provocations will contribute with different information offering a rich choice. Here, we investigate the most appropriate study design in phase I for several hypothetical mechanisms of action of a study drug. Five drug effects in diabetes therapeutic areas were investigated using six study designs. Power to detect drug effect was assessed using the likelihood ratio test, whereas precision and accuracy of the quantification of drug effect was assessed using stochastic simulation and estimations. An overall summary was developed to aid designing the studies of antihyperglycemic drug development using model-based analysis. This guidance is to be used when the integrated glucose insulin model is used, involving the investigated drug mechanisms of action.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents
  13. Balakumar P, Sundram K, Dhanaraj SA
    Pharmacol Res, 2014 Apr;82:34-9.
    PMID: 24705156 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2014.03.008
    Diabetes mellitus is a greatly challenging disease of the 21 century, and the mortality rate due to this insidious disease is increasing worldwide in spite of availability of effective oral hypoglycemic agents. Satisfactory management of glycemic control in patients afflicted with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains a major clinical challenge. Identification of potential pharmacological target sites is therefore continuing as an integral part of the diabetic research. The sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) expressed in the renal proximal tubule plays an essential role in glucose reabsorption. Pharmacological blockade of SGLT2 prevents glucose reabsorption and subsequently induces the elimination of filtered glucose via urine, the process is known as 'glucuresis'. Dapagliflozin is a selective inhibitor of SGLT2. The US FDA approved dapagliflozin in January 2014 to improve glycemic control along with diet and exercise in adult patients afflicted with T2DM. It has a potential to decrease glycated hemoglobin and to promote weight loss. Although the mechanism of action of dapagliflozin is not directly linked with insulin or insulin sensitivity, reduction of plasma glucose by dapagliflozin via induction of glucosuria could improve muscle insulin sensitivity. Moreover, dapagliflozin could cause diuresis and subsequently fall in blood pressure. In addition to general discussion on the pharmacology of dapagliflozin, we propose in this review the possibilities of dual antidiabetic effect of dapagliflozin and its possible additional beneficial actions in hypertensive-obese-T2DM patients through its indirect blood pressure-lowering action and reduction of body calories and weight. Long-term clinical studies are however needed to clarify this contention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects; Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics; Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology*; Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
  14. Solayman M, Ali Y, Alam F, Islam MA, Alam N, Khalil MI, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(5):549-65.
    PMID: 26601968
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders. In addition to exercise and diet, oral anti-diabetic drugs have been used as a part of the management strategy worldwide. Unfortunately, none of the conventional anti-diabetic drugs are without side effects, and these drugs pose an economic burden. Therefore, the investigation of novel anti-diabetic regimens is a major challenge for researchers, in which nature has been the primary resource for the discovery of potential therapeutics. Many plants have been shown to act as anti-diabetic agents, in which the main active constituents are believed to be polyphenols. Natural products containing high polyphenol levels can control carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as protecting and restoring beta-cell integrity, enhancing insulin releasing activity, and increasing cellular glucose uptake. Blackberries, red grapes, apricots, eggplant and popular drinks such as coffee, cocoa and green tea are all rich in polyphenols, which may dampen insulin resistance and be natural alternatives in the treatment of diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this review is to report on the available anti-diabetic polyphenols (medicinal plants, fruits and vegetables), their mechanisms in the various pathways of DM and their correlations with DM. Additionally, this review emphasizes the types of polyphenols that could be potential future resources in the treatment of DM via either novel regimens or as supplementary agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use*
  15. Velmurugan C, Sundaram T, Sampath Kumar R, Vivek B, Sheshadrishekar D, Ashok Kumar BS
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Mar;66(1):22-6.
    PMID: 23765138
    The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of Ethanolic extract of Ougeinia oojeinensis (200mg/kg) bark was evaluated with measurements including, Body weight, blood glucose level, urine glucose and biochemical parameters. The ethanolic extracts of the powdered bark was tested for its efficacy in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Animals were induced for diabetes with Alloxan (150 mg/kg of body weight- i.p.) and treated orally with Ethanolic extract of Ougeinia oojeinensis. The extracts were also evaluated for acute oral toxicity studies and its effect on different biochemical parameters. The extracts showed significant (p<0.01) antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity as compared to diabetic control. The extract shows beneficial effects on blood glucose and urine glucose level. It also reduces the elevated biochemical parameters such as triglycerides (TGL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), Total Cholesterol (TC) and increased the reduced level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and body weight, which might be due to presence of steroids, tannins, alkaloids and triterpenoids present in that extract. Thus ethanolic extract could serve as good oral hypoglycemic agents and seems to be promising for the development of phytomedicines for diabetes mellitus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
  16. Sharifuddin Y, Chin YX, Lim PE, Phang SM
    Mar Drugs, 2015 Aug;13(8):5447-91.
    PMID: 26308010 DOI: 10.3390/md13085447
    Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders of the endocrine system characterised by hyperglycaemia. Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) constitutes the majority of diabetes cases around the world and are due to unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, as well as rise of obesity in the population, which warrants the search for new preventive and treatment strategies. Improved comprehension of T2DM pathophysiology provided various new agents and approaches against T2DM including via nutritional and lifestyle interventions. Seaweeds are rich in dietary fibres, unsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenolic compounds. Many of these seaweed compositions have been reported to be beneficial to human health including in managing diabetes. In this review, we discussed the diversity of seaweed composition and bioactive compounds which are potentially useful in preventing or managing T2DM by targeting various pharmacologically relevant routes including inhibition of enzymes such as α-glucosidase, α-amylase, lipase, aldose reductase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4). Other mechanisms of action identified, such as anti-inflammatory, induction of hepatic antioxidant enzymes' activities, stimulation of glucose transport and incretin hormones release, as well as β-cell cytoprotection, were also discussed by taking into consideration numerous in vitro, in vivo, and human studies involving seaweed and seaweed-derived agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology*
  17. Poulose V
    Med J Malaysia, 2002 Jun;57(2):209-10.
    PMID: 24326653
    Metformin Associated Lactic Acidosis (MALA) is a rare, but serious complications of Type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment with a mortality rate of around 50%. It most commonly occurs in the setting of hepatic, cardiac or renal insufficiency. We report the case of an elderly female with MALA and concomitant starvation ketosis in the absence of any known risk factor, who went undiagnosed for a period of at least a month and made a complete recovery in the hospital.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
  18. Embong M
    Med J Malaysia, 1990 Mar;45(1):1-7.
    PMID: 2152062
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
  19. Thevathasan OI
    Med J Malaya, 1972 Mar;26(3):217-9.
    PMID: 5031020
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents*
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