Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 454 in total

  1. Ch'ng ES, Khiro FI
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Aug;40(2):209-211.
    PMID: 30173241
    No abstract available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry/economics*; Immunohistochemistry/methods*
  2. Ajura AJ, Sumairi I, Lau SH
    Malays J Pathol, 2007 Dec;29(2):101-5.
    PMID: 19108402 MyJurnal
    Immunohistochemistry has become part of normal routine diagnostic work in the Stomatology Unit, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur. Of 9523 cases received from the year 2000 to 2005, 197 cases (2.1%) required immunohistochemical staining. These cases ranged from benign to malignant lesions. They include lymphomas (n=41), epithelial tumours (n=29), neural lesions (n=21), fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumours (n=16), small round cell tumour (n=11), vascular tumours (n=4), smooth muscle tumours (n=4), myxomatous tumours (n=4) and skeletal muscle tumours (n=1). In most of the cases (69.5%), immunohistochemical staining was mandatory to reach a definite diagnosis, while 60 cases (30.5%) required immunohistochemistry in confirming the diagnosis. In 32 cases (16.2%), definitive diagnosis could not be made due to the small size of the specimens received or the results of immunohistochemistry were inconclusive. Standardization of techniques, competent medical laboratory technologists and sufficient budget allocation are important in producing a high quality immunohistochemistry service.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry/economics; Immunohistochemistry/standards; Immunohistochemistry/utilization*
  3. Zainal Abidin I, Zulkarnaen AN, Dk Norlida AO, Wai Hoong C, Huong Ling L
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Oct;19(4):72-6.
    PMID: 23613651 MyJurnal
    The shoulder and axillary regions contain various complex anatomical structures in close proximity, many of which can give rise to neoplasms. Determining the origin and hence the exact diagnosis of advanced (diffuse) tumours in this region may become problematic. In view of the tumour morphology and the affected location in this case, we highlighted the importance of Hodgkin lymphoma immunohistochemistry interpretation in a tumour which was initially suspected to be a soft tissue sarcoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry
  4. Moorchung N
    Malays J Pathol, 2019 Apr;41(1):1-5.
    PMID: 31025631
    The term "Lock In" as applied to Science and Technology refers to a technology which has been utilised for a certain amount of time and it has been determined that the technology is viable and cost effective. An analysis of the technological advancements in pathology over a period of time shows that the newer technologies in contrast to the older technologies are reaching a state of "Technological Lock In" much faster. Three different discoveries, the development of the autopsy as a research tool, the discovery of the microscope and immunohistochemistry illustrate how rapidly "Technological Lock In" is being achieved with the passage of time. Three probable scenarios are possible because of this rapid "Technological Lock In". Technology may continue to progress at the same pace (an ideal scenario), may plateau until pathologists accept and absorb new technologies or thirdly, develop very rapidly so that the technology may never reach pathology practice. What will the future be? How will technology influence the principles and practices of Pathology? Only time will tell.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry
  5. Dass SA, Tan KL, Selva Rajan R, Mokhtar NF, Mohd Adzmi ER, Wan Abdul Rahman WF, et al.
    Medicina (Kaunas), 2021 Jan 12;57(1).
    PMID: 33445543 DOI: 10.3390/medicina57010062
    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast type of cancer with no expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). It is a highly metastasized, heterogeneous disease that accounts for 10-15% of total breast cancer cases with a poor prognosis and high relapse rate within five years after treatment compared to non-TNBC cases. The diagnostic and subtyping of TNBC tumors are essential to determine the treatment alternatives and establish personalized, targeted medications for every TNBC individual. Currently, TNBC is diagnosed via a two-step procedure of imaging and immunohistochemistry (IHC), which are operator-dependent and potentially time-consuming. Therefore, there is a crucial need for the development of rapid and advanced technologies to enhance the diagnostic efficiency of TNBC. This review discusses the overview of breast cancer with emphasis on TNBC subtypes and the current diagnostic approaches of TNBC along with its challenges. Most importantly, we have presented several promising strategies that can be utilized as future TNBC diagnostic modalities and simultaneously enhance the efficacy of TNBC diagnostic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry
  6. Hsieh YC, Wu HC, Chuang SS
    Malays J Pathol, 2023 Aug;45(2):297-298.
    PMID: 37658540
    No abstract available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry
  7. Eamsobhana P, Tungtrongchitr A, Yong HS, Prasartvit A, Wanachiwanawin D, Gan XX
    Parasitology, 2021 02;148(2):234-239.
    PMID: 33004092 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182020001894
    Serological tests may yield false-negative results for specific antibodies detection before or at the early seroconversion phase. Tests that detect circulating antigens of Angiostrongylus cantonensis would therefore be of value in diagnosis to distinguish current or past infection. Here, a quick, easy to perform, portable and inexpensive diagnostic device for detection of 31-kDa A. cantonensis specific antigens had been developed. This sandwich dot-immunogold filtration assay (AcDIGFAAg), for detecting active angiostrongyliasis was produced using anti-A. cantonensis polyclonal antibody dotted on the nitrocellulose membrane as a capture agent and colloidal gold-labelled anti-31 kDa A. cantonensis antibody as a detection agent. A well-defined pink dot, indicating positivity, was seen readily by naked eye within 10-15 min. The AcDIGFAAg detected A. cantonensis-specific antigens in cerebrospinal fluid samples from 4 out of 10 serologically confirmed angiostrongyliasis cases and 2 out of 5 suspected cases with negative anti-A. cantonensis antibodies. Among the 19 patient sera with A. cantonensis infection, 2 showed positive reaction by AcDIGFAAg. No positive AcDIGFAAg reaction was observed in all the serum samples with other parasitic diseases, and the healthy controls. The present 'AcDIGFAAg' enables rapid qualitative detection of the specific 31-kDa antigens of A. cantonensis in clinical samples with potential for application even under resource-limited settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry/methods*
  8. Niazi MKK, Abas FS, Senaras C, Pennell M, Sahiner B, Chen W, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(5):e0196547.
    PMID: 29746503 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196547
    Automatic and accurate detection of positive and negative nuclei from images of immunostained tissue biopsies is critical to the success of digital pathology. The evaluation of most nuclei detection algorithms relies on manually generated ground truth prepared by pathologists, which is unfortunately time-consuming and suffers from inter-pathologist variability. In this work, we developed a digital immunohistochemistry (IHC) phantom that can be used for evaluating computer algorithms for enumeration of IHC positive cells. Our phantom development consists of two main steps, 1) extraction of the individual as well as nuclei clumps of both positive and negative nuclei from real WSI images, and 2) systematic placement of the extracted nuclei clumps on an image canvas. The resulting images are visually similar to the original tissue images. We created a set of 42 images with different concentrations of positive and negative nuclei. These images were evaluated by four board certified pathologists in the task of estimating the ratio of positive to total number of nuclei. The resulting concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) between the pathologist and the true ratio range from 0.86 to 0.95 (point estimates). The same ratio was also computed by an automated computer algorithm, which yielded a CCC value of 0.99. Reading the phantom data with known ground truth, the human readers show substantial variability and lower average performance than the computer algorithm in terms of CCC. This shows the limitation of using a human reader panel to establish a reference standard for the evaluation of computer algorithms, thereby highlighting the usefulness of the phantom developed in this work. Using our phantom images, we further developed a function that can approximate the true ratio from the area of the positive and negative nuclei, hence avoiding the need to detect individual nuclei. The predicted ratios of 10 held-out images using the function (trained on 32 images) are within ±2.68% of the true ratio. Moreover, we also report the evaluation of a computerized image analysis method on the synthetic tissue dataset.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry/methods*
  9. Sachithanandan A, Nor Y
    Med J Malaysia, 2013 Apr;68(2):175-6.
    PMID: 23629571 MyJurnal
    Synchronous primary non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are rare and may be discovered unexpectedly following lung resection. Discrimination from intrapulmonary metastases is important to guide treatment and prognosis but is difficult solely on clinical or radiological findings. Histopathological evaluation with immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers can prove decisive and should feature in the diagnostic algorithm of such patients. We report a rare case of two synchronous primary NSCLCs diagnosed post operatively following pathological examination of the resected lobe, highlighting the value of IHC and discuss the management of such patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry
  10. Yadav M, Chandrashekran A, Vasudevan DM, Ablashi DV
    J Natl Cancer Inst, 1994 Dec 07;86(23):1792-4.
    PMID: 7966419
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry
  11. Shahidee Zainal Abidin, Han-Chung Lee, Sze-Zheng Fam, Syahril Abdullah, Norshariza Nordin, Pike-See Cheah, et al.
    Introduction: MiR-3099 was reported to play a role in neuronal cell differentiation/function in the brain during late embryonic and early neonatal development. To further explore its potential regulatory effects on embryonic brain development, this study aims to construct and validate an expression vector of miR-3099 for future gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies. Methods: pCAG-eGFP vector was modified to include IRES2 and miR-3099 with 150bp upstream and downstream genomic sequences. The newly constructed vector, pCAG-miR-3099-IRES2-eGFP, consists of CAG promoter. The in vitro expression level of miR-3099 was measured using stem-loop RT-qPCR after it was transfected into 293FT cell. Later, the vector was electroporated into the embryonic brain at E15.5. Three days later, the E18.5 embryonic brain was harvested and cryopreserved. Immunohistochemistry was performed by using antibody against eGFP to validate the in utero expression of the transgene in the neocortex of the brain. Results: Our finding showed that, the expression level of miR-3099 was significantly upregulated (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry
  12. Ng BHK, Tang IP, Suhashini G, Chai CK
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2019 Oct;71(Suppl 1):795-797.
    PMID: 31742066 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-018-1553-7
    Laryngeal leiomyosarcoma is a rare smooth muscle malignancy of the head and neck region. Diagnosis is based on immunohistochemistry. Here we present a case of laryngeal leiomyosarcoma that was diagnosed and treated in our center, focusing on the clinical features, histological diagnosis and management of this rare disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry
  13. Bukari BA, Citartan M, Ch'ng ES, Bilibana MP, Rozhdestvensky T, Tang TH
    Histochem Cell Biol, 2017 May;147(5):545-553.
    PMID: 28321500 DOI: 10.1007/s00418-017-1561-9
    Antibodies have been the workhorse for diagnostic immunohistochemistry to specifically interrogate the expression of certain protein to aid in histopathological diagnosis. This review introduces another dimension of histochemistry that employs aptamers as the core tool, the so-called aptahistochemistry. Aptamers are an emerging class of molecular recognition elements that could recapitulate the roles of antibodies. The many advantageous properties of aptamers suited for this diagnostic platform are scrutinized. An in-depth discussion on the technical aspects of aptahistochemistry is provided with close step-by-step comparison to the more familiarized immunohistochemical procedures, namely functionalization of the aptamer as a probe, antigen retrieval, optimization with emphasis on incubation parameters and visualization methods. This review offers rationales to overcome the anticipated challenges in transition from immunohistochemistry to aptahistochemistry, which is deemed feasible for an average diagnostic pathology laboratory.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry/methods*; Immunohistochemistry/trends
  14. Md Pauzi SH, Masir N, Yahaya A, Mohammed F, Tizen Laim NMS, Mustangin M, et al.
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2021 10 22;64(4):677-682.
    PMID: 34673585 DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_983_20
    Background: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) over-expression in breast cancer is associated with aggressive tumor behavior and predicts response to targeted therapy. Accurate HER2 result is paramount for optimal patient management. However, routine HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing are subjected to intra- and inter-laboratory variability.

    Objective: This study aims to determine inter-laboratory variation in HER2 IHC testing through a slide-exchange program between five main reference laboratories.

    Method: A total of 20 breast carcinoma cases with different known HER2 expression and gene status were selected by the central laboratory in five testing rounds. Three unstained tissue sections from each case were sent to participating laboratories, which immunostained and interpreted the HER2 immunohistochemistry result. One of the stained slides was sent to one designated participating laboratory for evaluation. Results were analyzed by the central laboratory.

    Results: A complete concordance was achieved in six IHC-positive and six IHC-negative cases, its gene status of which was confirmed by in-situ-hybridization (ISH) study. The discordant results were observed in six equivocal cases, one negative case and one positive case with a concordance rate of 50-88.3%. Interestingly, the negative discordant case actually displays tumor heterogeneity. Good inter-observer agreement was achieved for all participating laboratories (k = 0.713-1.0).

    Conclusion: Standardization of HER2 testing method is important to achieve optimum inter-laboratory concordance. Discordant results were seen mainly in equivocal cases. Intra-tumoral heterogeneity may impact the final HER2 IHC scoring. The continuous quality evaluation is therefore paramount to achieve reliable HER2 results.

    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry/methods; Immunohistochemistry/statistics & numerical data*
  15. Khoo JJ
    Med J Malaysia, 2002 Jun;57(2):161-8.
    PMID: 24326646
    Borderline epithelial tumours or low malignant potential epithelial tumours of ovary have a better prognosis and hence it is important to distinguish this group from their malignant counterparts. Several studies were done correlate the growth rates of tumours with nuclear proteins that are expressed in proliferating cells. Immunohistochemical stains with monoclonal antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were used on 51 archival epithelial tumours of ovary. The percentage of PCNA reactivity showed means of 1.1%, 2.3% and 27.7% with benign, borderline tumours and malignant epithelial tumours of ovary. respectively. The % PCNA reactivity was found to be significantly different amongst the three group (p<0.001). Thus , PCNA reactivity can help to differentiate borderline tumours from malignant epithelial tumours of ovary. This is critical when light microscopic appearances are equivocal and therapeutic management is dependent on the diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry
  16. Jayaram G, Cheah PL, Yip CH
    Acta Cytol., 2000 May-Jun;44(3):375-9.
    PMID: 10833994
    BACKGROUND: Teratoma of the thyroid in adults is extremely rare, and most are malignant. Only nine cases have been adequately documented in the English-language literature, and there are no reports detailing the fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic characteristics.

    CASE: A 32-year-old female presented with a left-sided nodular thyroid mass with left cervical lymphadenopathy. FNA cytology of the thyroid and lymph nodes was done. The cytologic and immunocytochemical features were that of a small round cell tumor with neuroepithelial (NE) differentiation, metastasizing to the cervical nodes. Microscopic study of the thyroidectomy specimen showed a tumor showing an NE pattern with occasional islands of squamous and cuboidal epithelium, leading to a diagnosis of malignant teratoma.

    CONCLUSION: Knowledge of FNA cytologic features of rare but highly malignant lesions like thyroid teratomas allow early recognition so that suitable and possibly aggressive treatment protocols can be adopted in the hope of prolonging survival.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry
  17. Jayapalan RR, Mun KS, Wong KT, Sia SF
    World Neurosurg X, 2019 Apr;2:100006.
    PMID: 31218281 DOI: 10.1016/j.wnsx.2018.100006
    Background: Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (World Health Organization grade I) is considered as a benign tumor with very low potential for progression. The potential for malignant transformation of this tumor is not known and has never been reported before in literature.

    Case Description: We report a 42-year-old man, diagnosed with rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle with a positive isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation, progressed to glioblastoma after 6 years from diagnosis. We discuss the clinical history, radiological findings, and histopathological characteristic with immunohistochemistry findings observed in this unique case.

    Conclusions: Despite being acceptable as benign, based on our observations in this case, there is a potential for malignant transformation of rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor. The role of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation leading to malignant transformation could not be established as our finding is novel and further prospective studies are required to prove this association.

    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry
  18. Tegginamani AS, Hs V, Wanjari SG, Dubey G
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2019 Aug;29(8):796.
    PMID: 31358112 DOI: 10.29271/jcpsp.2019.08.796
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry
  19. Mir SA, Masoodi SR, Wani AI, Ahmad SN, Hameed I
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Nov;23(6):118-122.
    PMID: 28090186 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2016.23.6.13
    Primary adrenal lymphomas (PAL) are rare occurrences with only less than 150 cases reported in the literature. Two-thirds of these cases were reported in the last decade due to the advancements in imaging techniques and immunohistochemistry. The non-specific signs and symptoms have resulted in a delayed onset of symptoms and diagnosis of these tumors. Reports of the results of chemotherapy are not gratifying, and most patients die within one year of the diagnosis. We report a 65-year-old male with adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), who presented with hypercalcemia and renal failure. We reviewed all adrenal NHL cases presented with hypercalcemia and attempted to comprehend its etiology and overall survival effect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry
  20. Akhir MKAM, Choy CS, Abdullah MA, Ghani FA, Veerakumarasivam A, Hussin H
    Malays J Med Sci, 2020 Feb;27(1):37-45.
    PMID: 32158343 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2020.27.1.4
    Introduction: Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 domains (LIM) homeobox genes are among the most important sub-families of homeobox genes. These genes are thought to play an important role in cancer. In this study, the protein expression of these genes was examined in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. The expression pattern of Islet-1 (ISL1) and LIM homeobox 5 (LHX5) across different cancer stages and grades, as well as the association between the protein expression of these genes and patient demographics and clinicopathological features, were examined.

    Methods: A total of 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded urothelial carcinoma tissues were selected from the Department of Pathology, Hospital Kuala Lumpur and the protein expression of ISL1 and LHX5 was determined using immunohistochemistry.

    Results: Positive expression of ISL1 and LHX5 was detected in 94% and 98% of the samples, respectively. There were no distinct LHX5 expression patterns associated with different cancer stages, but the proportion of high-expressing tumours was higher in high-grade tumours. In addition, there was a significant association between the expression of LHX5 and tumour grade. The proportion of tumours expressing high levels of ISL1 was found to be highest in later stage tumours.

    Conclusion: The high percentage of tumours expressing both these genes suggests that ISL1 and LHX5 play an important role in bladder tumourigenesis across multiple stages.

    Matched MeSH terms: Immunohistochemistry
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