Mark-release-recapture experiments were carried out in Sabah, East Malaysia on the malaria and filariasis vector, Anopheles balabacensis. Samples of wild females were marked with different colours of fluorescent pigments, released in man-baited huts fitted with exit traps. Simultaneous collections and releases were also made in night-biting catches on a water buffalo and on four men. All subsequent recaptures were made in the same situation in which the mosquitoes were marked. The same individual mosquitoes were caught biting men and buffalo on different occasions and the numbers caught showed a strong preference for man over buffalo. The length of the oviposition cycle in the field was found to be 3.0 days. After blood-feeding on man in a hut, An. balabacensis were found to exit on the night or early morning. The same individual mosquitoes were found resting in the hut or exit trap on different occasions. The results indicate that there is strong evidence for the existence of genetic variability in the tendency of An. balabacensis to rest in houses and to bite man and buffalo. The obvious existence of this phenomenon is considered discouraging for the prospects of interruption of malaria transmitted by An. balabacensis in nature.
This report deals with a father and his son who developed acute renal failure following multiple bee stings. The renal lesion in these patients appears to be due to rhabdomyolysis caused by the bee venom. The other mechanisms are also discussed. The need for clinicians to be aware of acute renal failure as a complication of bee stings is stressed.
Matched MeSH terms: Insect Bites and Stings/complications*
Black flies (Simuliidae) are important biting insects and vectors of diseases agents of humans and livestock. Thus, understanding the taxonomy and biodiversity of these insects is crucial for control and management of these diseases. In this study, we used mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I sequences to examine genetic diversity of three human-biting and possible vector black fly taxa; the Simulium asakoae species-complex, S. chamlongi and S. nigrogilvum. High levels of genetic diversity (>3.5% intraspecific genetic divergence) were found in all three taxa. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the S. asakoae complex can be divided into seven groups with the largest group consisting of specimens from Thailand, Malaysia and Myanmar. This group most likely represents true S. asakoae. The remaining haplotypes formed groups with conspecific haplotypes or with other closely related species. Among these groups, one including S. monglaense and another including S. myanmarense suggest that certain specimens identified as S. asakoae most likely belong to those species. Therefore, they constitute new locality records for Thailand and also represent new records of anthropophily. Members of S. chamlongi are not monophyletic as its clade also included S. hackeri. A median joining network revealed strong geographic associations of the haplotypes of S. nigrogilvum suggesting limitation of gene flow. Because this species occurs mainly in high elevation habitats, low land areas could present a barrier to gene flow.
INTRODUCTION: Trikatu is composed of dried fruits of Piper nigrum L and Piper retrofractum Vahl, and dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale R. Although this preparation has been used to relieve pruritis, pain, and inflammation for a long time, there is no clinical evidence to confirm its efficacy and safety. Therefore, we performed a double-blind, within person-randomized controlled study of 30 healthy volunteers to determine efficacy and safety of topical Trikatu on mosquito bite reactions.
METHODS: All subjects were bitten by Aedes aegypti laboratory mosquitoes on their forearms and they were randomly assigned arms to apply either Trikatu or reference product on the mosquito bite papule. The main outcome was the difference of papule size reduction at 30 min, measured by a caliper, between the Trikatu and reference arms. Pruritis, redness, pain, and patient satisfaction were assessed at 15, 30, 60, 180, and 360 min as secondary outcomes.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences between treatment and reference arms on any outcome at any time of measurement.
CONCLUSION: Trikatu did not show additional effects for relieving mosquito bite reaction as compared with the reference product containing camphor, menthol, and eucalyptus. For further study, it is very important to consider a proper selection of subjects, comparator product, and concentration of extract when Trikatu preparation is investigated.
KEYWORDS: Eucalyptus oil; Mosquito bite; Mosquito bite symptoms; Papule size reduction; Trikatu preparation
Matched MeSH terms: Insect Bites and Stings/drug therapy*; Insect Bites and Stings/epidemiology; Insect Bites and Stings/physiopathology
This dataset investigated the diversity, the geographic and spatial distribution of haematophagous flies collected from cattle farms in Peninsular Malaysia. Biting flies were trapped from 25 cattle farms over a one-year period. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to establish the presence/absence of statistical differences in the number of flies caught in relation to the different geographic distributions (zones). Three thousand eight hundred and eighty-nine haematophagous flies comprising of 36 different species, including Musca species (3189; 82.0%), Stomoxys species (588; 15.1%), Tabanus species (58; 1.5%), Chrysops species (19; 0.5%), Haematopota javana (3; 0.1%), Haematobosca species (29; 0.7%) and Haematobia exigua (3; 0.1%) were collected using three different types of fly traps. More biting flies were trapped in the southwest (1070; 27.5%) and south (1045; 26.9%) zones compared to other arbitrary zones of Peninsular Malaysia. Haematophagous flies were spatially distributed both in the inland and coastal parts of the country. The difference in the catch of Stomoxys species within zones was not significant (F = 1.299; df = 5; p = 0.306), although it was highest in the southwest zone. The number of Musca species caught was highest in the south zone compared to other zones, the differences was not significant (F = 0.770; df = 5; p = 0.583). Tabanidae fly species were most abundant in the southwest zone, the differences among zones was not significant (F = 1.179; df = 5; p = 0.356).
The hornets are a group of venomous stinging insects that at times cause human death. A fatal case of a child stung by the lesser banded hornet Vespa affinis indosinesis is reported. Though often covered by the mass media, this constitutes the first scientifically reported case.
Matched MeSH terms: Insect Bites and Stings/diagnosis*; Insect Bites and Stings/pathology
Two field trials in the control of subperiodic brugian filariasis vectors, mainly Mansonia bonneae and Mansonia dives were carried out in Sarawak, East Malaysia. In the first trial, malathion ultra-low volume (ULV) spray was used to control the Mansonia mosquitos in two filariasis endemic villages. Six spray rounds were applied at biweekly intervals at Kampung Rasau and two spray rounds were applied at monthly intervals in Kampung Triboh. ULV malathion spray reduced biting Ma. bonneae population for 3 days after spraying. The biting density decreased to 50% of the pre-treatment level by the 12th - 13th day and reached the pre-treatment level by the 24th - 25th day. Contact bioassay tests on caged Mansonia mosquitos revealed considerable penetration of the malathion aerosol indoors and relatively adequate coverage outdoors. The estimated number of bites per case per day was 1.09 to 4 times less in the sprayed kampung than in an unsprayed control kampung. The parous and daily survival rates of Mansonia mosquitos were not significantly affected by the spraying. In a second trial, chemotherapy with diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) was combined with vector control through indoor residual spraying in Kampung Ampungan. The results were compared with the use of only DEC mass treatment in Kampung Sebangkoi and Kampung Sebamban. The combined control measures in Kampung Ampungan reduced the MfD-50 to 44% of the pre-treatment level over a period of 4 years. In the other two kampungs where only mass DEC therapy was applied, the microfilarial rate and MfD-50 declined significantly in the second blood survey but increased gradually in two subsequent follow-up blood surveys. The total insecticidal impact for Ma. bonneae was 3.9 to 1 indoors and 2.7 to 1 outdoors. These results indicated that quarterly pirimiphos-methyl indoor spraying used in integrated control could reduce indoor transmission by 3.9 times. The infective rate from the Ma. bonneae dissected in all three kampungs after the interventions, irrespective of DEC treatment alone or in combination with pirimiphos-methyl residual spraying were reduced by two fold. However the infection rate of brugian filarial larvae in Kampung Ampungan was significantly reduced after the use of DEC and insecticide. Annual Transmission Potential (ATP) showed a high significant reduction in Kampung Ampungan (p > 0.001) compared with Kampungs Sebangkoi and Schambam. In Ampungan, the ATP was reduced by 8.5 times indoors after the MDA and insecticidal application and 3 times outdoors. The reduction rate for Sebangkoi and Sebamban both indoors and outdoors were less than 2 fold.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Matched MeSH terms: Insect Bites and Stings/epidemiology; Insect Bites and Stings/prevention & control
Brachial plexopathy is usually related to trauma like direct injury to the nerve and stretching injuries. Neurological complications following bee sting are uncommon. Here, we describe a rare case of acute brachial plexopathy as a neurological complication following bee sting. A23-year-old maleinitially presented with angioedema and anaphylactic shock one hour after a bee stung at his neck. Twenty four hours after the incidence, he presented with sudden onset of left upper limb weakness. Nerve conduction study and electromyography had shown evidence of left brachial plexopathy.
A 3-year old preschool boy presented with a pruritic red streak at the dorsum of his right foot traveling
upward from the affected site which was red and swollen. Insect sting was the more likely trigger which had caused the cellulitis and subsequently the acute lymphangitis.
We report three patients with corneal bee sting at our tertiary care center in a three-year period starting from 2014 to 2016. All patients sustained a bee sting injury to the cornea. All patients received early preoperative topical antibiotics, topical cycloplegic and intensive topical steroids. However, the timing of the initial presentation, the duration, and the location of the retained stinger differed in each case leading to different postsurgical outcomes.
Essential oil of Citrus family plant is known to have repellent effect against mosquito. Unfortunately, due to its high volatility effect, its repellency effect was compromised. The incorporation of essential oil in a microencapsulation formulation has been shown to help improve the stability and potency of the repellent. In this study, Citrus grandis peel oil (CGPO) was encapsulated by using the interfacial precipitation chemistry technique. The microencapsulated CGPO was then formulated into lotion form to produce topical repellent formulation. This study includes the characterization of microcapsules with regards to the morphology, size distribution, zeta potential, Fourier Transmission Infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR), and Thermogravity analysis (TGA). The effectiveness of the microencapsulated CGPO-lotion formulation against mosquitoes was evaluated in the laboratory setting. Results indicated that CGPO have been successfully encapsulated with 6.5 µm in diameter and zeta potential values, -47.9 mV. The FTIR analysis spectrum indicated the presence of interaction between the wall materials in microcapsules. The TGA analysis demonstrated that microencapsulation improved the thermal stability of CGPO. Repellency assay revealed that microencapsulated CGPO- based formulation possessed excellent effect compared with pure CGPO. In conclusion, CGPO was successfully encapsulated and the microencapsulation aid to improve the repellency effect of CGPO against mosquito bites.
Wasp stings can present in various ways, ranging from mild self-limiting illness to severe multi organ failure with a potentially fatal outcome. We report a case of multiple wasp stings leading to acute renal failure needing prolonged dialysis support and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.
Matched MeSH terms: Insect Bites and Stings/complications*
Phlebotomine sand flies were collected using CO2 baited CDC light trap in 2000 and 2001 in limestone areas and caves of western Malaysia. A total of 1,548 specimens were collected comprising 18 species from two genera: Phlebotomus (6 spp) and Sergentomyia (12 spp). Phlebotomus major major (38.9%) was the predominant species followed by Sergentomyia perturbans (20.1%), P. stantoni (15.3%) and others. Biting activity of the sand flies at the Gua Senyum caves, Gua Kota Gelanggi, Batu caves and Gua Kelam were observed using the bare leg landing catch (BLC) technique. Four Phlebotomus spp at Gua Senyum were found to bite humans with a unimodal biting peak (between 01:00 and 04:00 AM). At Gua Kota Gelanggi P. major major was observed to bite humans, but at Batu Caves and Gua Kelam no sand flies were observed to bite humans. Sergentomyia spp did not feed on humans even though high numbers were caught in light traps. The populations of phleobotomine sand flies fluctuated, with several peaks especially among P. major major which peaked in December and was low in February and August. Phlebotomus stantoni was abundant throughout 2001. Most species populations were weakly related to rainfall because they inhabited caves.
Matched MeSH terms: Insect Bites and Stings/parasitology
Two new repellent formulations, KBR 3023 10% and 20% from Bayer AG, Germany, were evaluated together with DEET 10% and 20% as standard repellent formulations. Evaluation was based on two separate field studies: a daytime study (0900-1700 hr) in a forested orchard on Penang Island and a nighttime study (2100-0100 hr) in a squatter residential area on the adjacent mainland of peninsular Malaysia. Both studies were carried out by exposing humans with bare arms and legs to mosquitoes landing/biting for an eight hour period. Right arms and legs of the human baits were treated with different repellent formulations (KBR 3023 10%, 20% and DEET 10%, 20%) and the left limbs were left untreated to act as controls. The daytime study indicated that all four formulations were equally effective (P < 0.05) as repellents against the predominant Aedes albopictus with greater than 88.5% reduction in landing/biting in the first four hours and not less than 65.0% in the next four hours of the assessment period. In the night study, all four formulations were also found to be equally effective (P < 0.05) in repelling Culex quinquefasciatus, the predominant species. All four formulations provided complete protection against Cx. quinquefasciatus in the first two hours of exposure. The percentage reduction values were maintained above 90.0% for the next six hours of the assessment period. In conclusion, both the KBR 3023 and DEET formulations were found to be equally effective (P < 0.05) in providing a long-lasting reduction in human-mosquito contact in both the day and night field studies.
Matched MeSH terms: Insect Bites and Stings/prevention & control*
Holoendemic malaria transmission in two small isolated forest communities and a coastal village was studied by (1) all night human bait collections of Anopheles species from inside and outside houses and (2) buffalo-biting and CDC light-trapping catches during March and November 1984. During the same period thick and thin blood films were collected from the human population, and spleen rates were determined in children from two to nine years of age. Using both the immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and the dissection technique, more sporozoite-positive infections were detected in An. balabacensis and An. flavirostris in November than in March. IRMA confirmed the presence of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. An average of 76.2% of the An. balabacensis population lived long enough to have reached a point where infectivity with P. falciparum was possible in November. Although fewer than five adult females bit humans per night at any time, a resident could theoretically have received more than 160 infective bites in one year. A high frequency of feeding on humans, coupled with increased anopheline life expectancy, contributed to high estimates of falciparum malaria vectorial capacity (number of infections distributed per case per day); for An. balabacensis (1.44-7.44 in March and 9.97-19.7 in November) and for An. flavirostris (0.19-5.14 in March and 6.27-15.8 in November). These high values may explain the increased malaria parasite rates obtained from at least two forest communities. Correlation between actual and calculated rates of gametocytaemia was poorest in Kapitangan due to inadequate sampling of the human population. In Banggi island, malaria is stable and holoendemic, and the population enjoys a high degree of immunity.
Matched MeSH terms: Insect Bites and Stings/epidemiology
Two soap formulations, both containing 20% deet and one each containing permethrin at 0.5 and 1.0%, respectively, were applied to exposed arms and legs of volunteers as personal protection against outdoor human biting mosquitoes in six locations on Penang Island, Malaysia. The predominant mosquito species collected from these locations were Aedes albopictus, Mansonia uniformis, Culex gelidus, Anopheles lesteri and Armigeres subalbatus. Efficacy and residual effects up to 4 hours indicated good protection against these species. Reduction in mosquito landing-biting rates in treated groups ranged from 83.8 to 100.0%. At high densities, small percentages of Ma. uniformis and An. lesteri landed or bit on treated skin. Use of the soap formulations in terms of cost-effectiveness, safety and overall vector control strategy for some tropical diseases is discussed.
Matched MeSH terms: Insect Bites and Stings/prevention & control
Anaphylaxis is rarely associated with the vasospastic acute coronary syndrome with or without the presence of underlying coronary artery disease. We report here a case of Kounis syndrome in a man with no known cardiovascular risk developed acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated with complete heart block following Solenopsis (fire ant) bite.
Matched MeSH terms: Insect Bites and Stings/complications*