Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 474 in total

  1. Hoops AL
    Matched MeSH terms: Japan
  2. Godman B, Haque M, Kumar S, Islam S, Charan J, Akter F, et al.
    Curr Med Res Opin, 2021 09;37(9):1529-1545.
    PMID: 34166174 DOI: 10.1080/03007995.2021.1946024
    INTRODUCTION: Prevalence rates for diabetes mellitus continue to rise, which, coupled with increasing costs of complications, has appreciably increased expenditure in recent years. Poor glycaemic control including hypoglycaemia enhances complication rates and associated morbidity, mortality and costs. Consequently, this needs to be addressed. Whilst the majority of patients with diabetes have type-2 diabetes, a considerable number of patients with diabetes require insulin to help control their diabetes. Long-acting insulin analogues were developed to reduce hypoglycaemia associated with insulin and help improve adherence, which can be a concern. However, their considerably higher costs have impacted on their funding and use, especially in countries with affordability issues. Biosimilars can help reduce the costs of long-acting insulin analogues thereby increasing available choices. However, the availability and use of long-acting insulin analogues can be affected by limited price reductions versus originators and limited demand-side initiatives to encourage their use. Consequently, we wanted to assess current utilisation rates for long-acting insulin analogues, especially biosimilars, and the rationale for patterns seen, across multiple Asian countries ranging from Japan (high-income) to Pakistan (lower-income) to inform future strategies.

    METHODOLOGY: Multiple approaches including assessing utilization and prices of insulins including biosimilars among six Asian countries and comparing the findings especially with other middle-income countries.

    RESULTS: Typically, there was increasing use of long-acting insulin analogues among the selected Asian countries. This was especially the case enhanced by biosimilars in Bangladesh, India, and Malaysia reflecting their perceived benefits. However, there was limited use in Pakistan due to issues of affordability similar to a number of African countries. The high use of biosimilars in Bangladesh, India and Malaysia was helped by issues of affordability and local production. The limited use of biosimilars in Japan and Korea reflects limited price reductions and demand-side initiatives similar to a number of European countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: Increasing use of long-acting insulin analogues across countries is welcomed, adding to the range of insulins available, which increasingly includes biosimilars. A number of activities are needed to enhance the use of long-acting insulin analogue biosimilars in Japan, Korea and Pakistan.

    Matched MeSH terms: Japan
  3. Hashimoto T, Ozaki A, Bhandari D, Sawano T, Murayama A, Shrestha S, et al.
    Travel Med Infect Dis, 2021 07 21;43:102145.
    PMID: 34298174 DOI: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2021.102145
    Matched MeSH terms: Japan
  4. Kim SA, Babazono A, Jamal A, Li Y, Liu N
    BMJ Open, 2021 04 14;11(4):e041964.
    PMID: 33853793 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041964
    OBJECTIVES: We compared the care services use and medical institutional deaths among older adults across four home care facility types.

    DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study.

    SETTING: We used administrative claims data from April 2014 to March 2017.

    PARTICIPANTS: We included 18 347 residents of Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, who received home care during the period, and aged ≥75 years with certified care needs of at least level 3. Participants were categorised based on home care facility use (ie, general clinics, Home Care Support Clinics/Hospitals (HCSCs), enhanced HCSCs with beds and enhanced HCSCs without beds).

    PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We used generalised linear models (GLMs) to estimate care utilisation and the incidence of medical institutional death, as well as the potential influence of sex, age, care needs level and Charlson comorbidity index as risk factors.

    RESULTS: The results of GLMs showed the inpatient days were 54.3, 69.9, 64.7 and 75.0 for users of enhanced HCSCs with beds, enhanced HCSCs without beds, HCSCs and general clinics, respectively. Correspondingly, the numbers of home care days were 63.8, 51.0, 57.8 and 29.0. Our multivariable logistic regression model estimated medical institutional death rate among participants who died during the study period (n=9919) was 2.32 times higher (p<0.001) for general clinic users than enhanced HCSCs with beds users (relative risks=1.69, p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Participants who used enhanced HCSCs with beds had a relatively low inpatient utilisation, medical institutional deaths, and a high utilisation of home care and home-based end-of-life care. Findings suggest enhanced HCSCs with beds could reduce hospitalisation days and medical institutional deaths. Our study warrants further investigations of home care as part of community-based integrated care.

    Matched MeSH terms: Japan/epidemiology
  5. Normaliza Ab. Malik, Marhazlinda Jamaludin, Seow, Liang Lin
    Malaysian Dental Journal, 2010;31(1):52-57.
    Objectives: To evaluate the marginal microleakage of Class II cavities restored with various types of composite resins.
    Materials and Methods: Standard Class II slot cavities were prepared at the proximal surfaces of 40 intact premolars which were divided into 4 groups. Four types of composite resins (Esthet-X-Denstply, USA, FiltekTMZ350- 3M ESPE, USA, Beautifil- Shofu, Japan and Solare P-GC, Japan) were used to restore the slot cavities. All the specimens were thermocycled and immersed in 0.5% basic fuschin dye for 24 hours. The specimens were then sectioned in mesio-distal direction. The marginal microleakage at the occlusal and cervical margin was scored using the ISO microleakage scoring system. Data was entered using SPSS Version 12.0 and analyzed using STATA software programme.
    Results and discussion: All composite resins exhibited worse microleakage at the cervical margin compared to occlusal margin. Esthet-X showed significantly better microleakage score at the occlusal margin compared to Beautifil and Solare P. FiltekTMZ350 and Beautifil showed mainly microleakage into enamel only at the occlusal margin. Solare P demostrated better resistance against microleakage at the cervical margin compared to other composite resin tested. Esthet-X, Filtek Z350 and Beautiful is not significantly different from each other in terms of microleakage at the cervical margin.
    Conclusion: This study showed that none of the materials used in this study is able to eliminate microleakage. Composite resin restorations exhibited worse micorleakage at cervical margin in comparison to occlusal margin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Japan
  6. Shamsudin N, Hussein SH, Nugroho H, Fadzil MH
    Australas J Dermatol, 2015 Nov;56(4):285-9.
    PMID: 25367709 DOI: 10.1111/ajd.12247
    An objective tool to quantify treatment response in vitiligo is currently lacking. This study aimed to objectively evaluate the treatment response in vitiligo by using a computerised digital imaging analysis system (C-DIAS) and to compare it with the physician's global assessment (PGA). Tacrolimus ointment 0.1% (Protopic; Astellas Pharma Tech,Toyama, Japan) was applied twice daily on selected lesions which were photographed every 6 weeks for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy end-point was the mean percentage of repigmentation (MPR), as assessed by the digital method (MPR-C-DIAS) or by the PGA. The response was categorised into none (0%), mild (1-25%), moderate (26-50%), good (51-75%) and excellent (76-100%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Japan
  7. Savedoff WD, Smith AL
    Citation: Savedoff WD, Smith AL. Achieving Universal Health Coverage: Learning from Chile, Japan, Malaysia and Sweden. Maine, United States: Result for Development Institute; 2011

    Over the last hundred years, most countries have made substantial progress toward universal health coverage. The shared trends includes rising incomes, increasing total health expenditures and an expanding role for government in improving access to health care. Despite this, countries vary significantly in their particular routes to universal health coverage. These routes are shaped by prominent leaders and strong popular movements and framed by particular moral claims and world views. They are affected by unpredictable events related to economic cycles, wars, epidemics and initiatives in other public policy spheres. They are also influenced by a country’s own institutional development and experiences in other countries. As a result of these highly contingent paths, countries reach universal health coverage at different income levels and with disparate institutional arrangements for expanding health care access and mitigating financial risk. This paper examines the histories of attaining universal health coverage in four countries – Sweden, Japan, Chile and Malaysia. It shows that domestic pressures for universalizing access to health care are extremely varied, widespread, and persistent. Secondly, universal health coverage is everywhere accompanied by a large role for government, although that role takes many forms. Third, the path to universal health coverage is contingent, emerging from negotiation rather than design. Finally, universal health coverage is attained incrementally and over long periods of time. These commonalities are shared by all four cases despite substantial differences in income, political regimes, cultures, and health sector institutions. Attention to these commonalities will help countries seeking to expand health coverage today.
    Matched MeSH terms: Japan
  8. Okano K, Shimizu K, Saito T, Maseda H, Utsumi M, Itayama T, et al.
    Microbiol Resour Announc, 2020 Mar 19;9(12).
    PMID: 32193242 DOI: 10.1128/MRA.01413-19
    This report describes the whole-genome sequence of a microcystin-degrading bacterium, Novosphingobium sp. strain MD-1, isolated from a lake in Japan. The Novosphingobium sp. strain MD-1 genome had a total length of 4,617,766 bp. Moreover, strain MD-1 showed a conserved microcystin-degrading gene cluster (mlrA to mlrF), similar to Sphingopyxis sp. strain C-1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Japan
  9. Ibrahim N, Parsa A, Hassan B, van der Stelt P, Rahmat RA, Ismail SM, et al.
    BMC Oral Health, 2021 05 08;21(1):249.
    PMID: 33964918 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-021-01595-z
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the trabecular bone microstructures of anterior and posterior edentulous regions of human mandible using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and micro computed tomography (µCT).

    METHODS: Twenty volumes of interests consisting of six anterior and fourteen posterior edentulous regions were obtained from human mandibular cadavers. A CBCT system with a resolution of 80 µm (3D Accuitomo 170, J. Morita, Kyoto, Japan) and a µCT system with a resolution of 35 µm (SkyScan 1173, Kontich, Belgium) were used to scan the mandibles. Three structural parameters namely, trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were analysed using CTAn software (v 1.11, SkyScan, Kontich, Belgium). For each system, the measurements obtained from anterior and posterior regions were tested using independent sample t-test. Subsequently, all measurements between systems were tested using paired t-test.

    RESULTS: In CBCT, all parameters of the anterior and posterior mandible showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). However, µCT showed a significant different of Tb.Th (p = 0.023) between anterior and posterior region. Regardless of regions, the measurements obtained using both imaging systems were significantly different (p ≤ 0.021) for Tb.Th and Tb.N.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current study demonstrated that only the variation of Tb.Th between anterior and posterior edentulous region of mandible can be detected using µCT. In addition, CBCT is less feasible than µCT in assessing trabecular bone microstructures at both regions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Japan
  10. Van Song N, Phuong NTM, Oanh TTK, Chien DH, Phuc VQ, Mohsin M
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Apr;28(16):19911-19925.
    PMID: 33410000 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-12041-y
    The study tries to discover the impact of financial and social indicators' growth towards environmental considerations to understand the drivers of economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions change in G7 countries. The DEA-like composite index has been used to examine the tradeoff between financial and social indicator matters in environmental consideration by using a multi-objective goal programming approach. The data from 2008 to 2018 is collected from G-7 countries. The results from the DEA-like composite index reveals that there is a mixed condition of environmental sustainability in G-7 countries where the USA is performing better and Japan is performing worse among the set of other countries. The further result shows that the energy and fiscal indicators help to decrease the dangerous gas emissions. Divergent to that, the human and financial index positively contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. Fostering sustainable development is essential to successfully reduce emissions, meet established objectives, and ensure steady development. The study provides valuable information for policymakers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Japan
  11. Takaoka H, Fukuda M, Otsuka Y, Iwasa M
    Trop Biomed, 2021 Jun 01;38(2):68-71.
    PMID: 33973575 DOI: 10.47665/tb.38.2.040
    A rare non-sex mosaic abnormality represented by genitalia-like appendages on the ventral surface of abdominal segment 8 of a male black fly collected in Hokkaido, Japan, is reported. The appendages consist of a pair of style-like projections each arising from a coxite-like base, inverted-Y shaped ventral plate-like structure, and isolated round structure. This male was morphologically and molecularly identified as an abnormal form of S. (S.) iwatense (Shiraki), the only species in the Simulium (Simulium) ornatum species-group in Japan, although certain morphological characteristics of this male including the reduced number of uppereye (large) facets and elongate cerci are different from those of S. (S.) iwatense.
    Matched MeSH terms: Japan
  12. Takaoka H, Otsuka Y, Low VL, Adler PH, Fukuda M, Huang YT, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2021 Dec;224:106124.
    PMID: 34508715 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.106124
    The species status of two cytoforms of two species complexes in the Simulium (Simulium) tuberosum species-group, which are almost indistinguishable in the pupal stage, was morphologically and genetically evaluated. Cytoform 'L' of the S. (S.) tani Takaoka & Davies complex, previously recognized as S. (S.) suzukii Rubtsov in Taiwan, is described as a new species, S. (S.) jianshiense. It is morphologically distinguishable as adults from two members of the S. (S.) suzukii complex: cytoform 'C' from Hokkaido, selected to represent the type of S. (S.) suzukii sensu stricto, and cytoform 'D' from Okinawa Island and, based on our chromosomal analysis, also from Amami Island. This new species is genetically separated from both cytoforms of the S. (S.) suzukii complex with a genetic distance of 5.31-6.67%. Cytoform 'D' is distinguished from cytoform 'C' by the color of the male forecoxa and relative length of the female sensory vesicle to the third maxillary palpomere. Accordingly, the name S. (S.) ryukyuense Ogata, once regarded as a synonym of S. (S.) suzukii, is revalidated and applied to cytoform 'D'. The genetic distance between S. (S.) ryukyuense and S. (S.) suzukii sensu stricto is 1.24-1.60%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Japan
  13. Takaoka H, Fukuda M, Otsuka Y, Low VL, Ya'cob Z
    Acta Trop, 2022 Jan;225:106207.
    PMID: 34687650 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.106207
    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) omutaense Ogata & Sasa, 1954 is the only named species in the Simulium batoense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia Enderlein recorded from Honshu and Kyushu, Japan. It represents the northernmost distribution of this species-group, of which most members are distributed in the Oriental region. This species, the only member of the Simulium omutaense subgroup, is unique among the seven subgroups of the S. batoense species-group by having the pupal gill with one long filament and seven short filaments, similar to the arrangement of the pupal gill filaments in the S. zonatum subgroup of the S. epistum species-group in the same subgenus. This species is fully redescribed based on adults, pupal exuviae and mature larvae, and is most similar to species of the S. decuplum subgroup, based on adult morphological characteristics, although the pupal gill of the latter subgroup is markedly different by having 10 or 12 short filaments. Its close relationship to the S. decuplum subgroup is supported by a DNA analysis using COI gene sequences, with genetic distances of 9.30-11.02%. On the other hand, genetic distances between S. (G.) omutaense and species of the S. zonatum subgroup were 16.32-16.93%. Our study shows that a similar arrangement of the pupal gills in two different species-groups, which is rarely seen, has evolved independently and its occurrence does not necessarily reflect phylogenetic relationships.
    Matched MeSH terms: Japan
  14. Ma SP, Yoshida Y, Makino Y, Tadano M, Ono T, Ogawa M
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2003 Aug;69(2):151-4.
    PMID: 13677370
    A 240-nucleotide sequence of the capsid/premembrane gene region of 23 Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strains isolated in Tokyo and Oita, Japan was determined and phylogenetic analyses were performed. All the strains clustered into two distinct genotypes (III and I). All strains isolated before 1991 belonged to genotype III, while those isolated after 1994 belonged to genotype I. In addition, the strains of the genotype I isolated in Japan showed a close genetic relationship with those from Korea and Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis Virus, Japanese/genetics*; Encephalitis, Japanese/epidemiology*; Encephalitis, Japanese/virology*; Japan/epidemiology
  15. Kodama H, Ohno Y
    Hinyokika Kiyo, 1989 Jun;35(6):923-34.
    PMID: 2678977
    In this paper, urolithiasis is remarked from the standpoint of descriptive epidemiology, which examines the frequency distribution of a given disease in a population in terms of time, place and personal characteristics with an aim of identifying risk factors or some clues to the etiology. Some descriptive epidemiological features of urolithiasis are summarized. Prevalence rate is around 4% (4-15% in males and 4-8% in females), and incidence rate varies from area to area: 53.2 per 100,000 population in 1975 in Japan, 364 in 1976 in Malaysia, and 540 in 1979 in West Germany. Prevalence and/or incidence rates have, in general, increased in the developed countries since World War II and in the developing countries as well, where upward trends are quite analogous to the trends observed in the nineteenth century in Europe. Recurrence rate, which is much higher in males than in females, ranges from 31% to 75%, depending on the follow-up periods. In the industrialized countries, upper urinary (renal and ureteral) stones account for more than 90% of total stones, which are ordinarily calcium complexes in composition. More common in the developing countries are lower urinary (bladder and urethral) stones, frequently composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate, which indicates a close association with urinary tract infections. Variations in frequency are evident by season and by region within a country. Age and sex differentials in urinary stone formers are substantial: more common in males 30-40 years old in the industrialized countries and in children under 10 years old in the developing countries. Racial differentials are also noted; blacks appear to suffer less frequently than whites. Stone formers experience more frequent episodes of stone formation in their family members, particularly father and brothers, than non-stone formers. These findings on racial differentials and family preponderance suggest the possible relevance of genetic factors in stone formation. Stone formers are more likely to be occupationally sedentary and socially affluent. This observation and differentials by age and sex suggest the probable relevance of lifestyle and environmental factors in stone formation. Epidemiological factors incriminated for stone formation will be discussed in a separate paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Japan/epidemiology
  16. Kohno A, Nik Farid ND, Musa G, Abdul Aziz N, Nakayama T, Dahlui M
    BMJ Open, 2016;6(3):e010668.
    PMID: 27006344 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010668
    While living overseas in another culture, retirees need to adapt to a new environment but often this causes difficulties, particularly among those elderly who require healthcare services. This study examines factors affecting healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Japan
  17. Fukuda M, Uni S, Otsuka Y, Eshita Y, Nakatani J, Ihara K, et al.
    Parasitol Int, 2015 Dec;64(6):519-21.
    PMID: 26209456 DOI: 10.1016/j.parint.2015.07.006
    A case of zoonotic onchocercosis has been found in a resident who lived in Iizuka City, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan for some time. A 24-year-old male developed a painful nodule on the middle finger of his right hand. The nodule was surgically removed from the vagina fibrosa tendinis of the finger at Beppu Medical Center, Beppu City, Oita Prefecture in 2012. The causative agent was identified as a female Onchocerca dewittei japonica based on its histopathological characteristics. The identity of the filarioid has been confirmed by sequencing the cox1 gene. The present study indicates that the zoonotic onchocercosis caused by O. dewittei japonica has been concentrated in northeast Kyushu.
    Matched MeSH terms: Japan
  18. Cheah JS, Tay G
    Singapore Med J, 1997 Dec;38(12):540-4.
    PMID: 9550922
    During the Japanese Occupation of Singapore (1942-1945), Singapore was renamed Syonan (or Syonanto). The Japanese Military Administration established The Medical College on 27 April 2603 (1943) and it was known as The Marei Ika Daigaku or Syonan Medical College. It was sited at the Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Hakua Byoin). The Ika Daigaku relocated to the General Hospital, Malacca in February 2604 (1944) where it functioned till the end of the Japanese Occupation in September 1945. About 200 students from Singapore, Malaya, Sumatra and Java attended the Syonan Medical College; the students were taught mainly Japanese language and culture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Japan
  19. Cheah JS, Tay G
    Singapore Med J, 1998 Jan;39(1):42-4.
    PMID: 9557106
    During the Japanese Occupation of Singapore and Malaya (1941-1945), Singapore was renamed Syonan (or Syonanto) and Malaya was called Malai (or Marai; Marei). On 27 April 2603 (1943) the Japanese Military Administration established. The Marai Ika Daigaku (Syonan Medical College) at the Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Hakuai Byoin), Syonan. The Medical College shifted to the General Hospital, Malacca in February 2604 (1944) where it functioned till the end of the Japanese Occupation in September 2605 (1945).
    Matched MeSH terms: Japan
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