METHODS: We investigated serum creatinine (S-Cr) monitoring rates before and during ART and the incidence and prevalence of renal dysfunction after starting TDF by using data from a regional cohort of HIV-infected individuals in the Asia-Pacific. Time to renal dysfunction was defined as time from TDF initiation to the decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to <60 ml/min/1.73m2 with >30% reduction from baseline using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation or the decision to stop TDF for reported TDF-nephrotoxicity. Predictors of S-Cr monitoring rates were assessed by Poisson regression and risk factors for developing renal dysfunction were assessed by Cox regression.
RESULTS: Among 2,425 patients who received TDF, S-Cr monitoring rates increased from 1.01 to 1.84 per person per year after starting TDF (incidence rate ratio 1.68, 95%CI 1.62-1.74, p <0.001). Renal dysfunction on TDF occurred in 103 patients over 5,368 person-years of TDF use (4.2%; incidence 1.75 per 100 person-years). Risk factors for developing renal dysfunction included older age (>50 vs. ≤30, hazard ratio [HR] 5.39, 95%CI 2.52-11.50, p <0.001; and using PI-based regimen (HR 1.93, 95%CI 1.22-3.07, p = 0.005). Having an eGFR prior to TDF (pre-TDF eGFR) of ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 showed a protective effect (HR 0.38, 95%CI, 0.17-0.85, p = 0.018).
CONCLUSIONS: Renal dysfunction on commencing TDF use was not common, however, older age, lower baseline eGFR and PI-based ART were associated with higher risk of renal dysfunction during TDF use in adult HIV-infected individuals in the Asia-Pacific region.
METHODS: Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats received either 20% fructose solution [FFR] or tap water [C] to drink ad libitum for 8 weeks. The renal vasoconstrictor response to noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE), methoxamine (ME) and Ang II was determined in the presence and absence of 5-methylurapidil (5-MU) (α1A-adrenoceptor antagonist) in a three-phase experiment (pre-drug, low- and high-dose 5-MU). Data, mean ± SEM were analysed by ANOVA or Student's unpaired t-test with significance at P < 0.05.
RESULTS: FFR exhibited insulin resistance (HOMA index), hypertension and significant increases in plasma levels of glucose and insulin. All agonists caused dose-related reductions in cortical blood perfusion that were larger in C than in FFR while the magnitudes of the responses were progressively reduced with increasing doses of 5-MU in both C and FFR. The degree of 5-MU attenuation of the renal cortical vasoconstriction due to NA, ME and Ang II was significantly greater in the FFR compared to C.
CONCLUSIONS: Fructose intake for 8 weeks results in smaller vascular response to adrenergic agonists and Ang II. The α1A-adrenoceptor subtype is the functional subtype that mediates renal cortical vasoconstriction in control rats, and this contribution becomes higher due to fructose feeding.