Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 22 in total

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  1. Boo NY, Mahmud MN, Samad SA
    Acta Paediatr Scand, ;80(6-7):735-7.
    PMID: 1867096
    One of the babies in a pair of xiphaomphalopagus conjoined twins developed oliguria, transient rise in serum creatinine and persistent nephrogram on the sixth day of life following injection of radiocontrast medium for computerised axial tomography scanning of the urinary system. The other twin was spared but developed hypertension and "dialysed" the oliguric twin. The renal profiles of both neonates subsequently remained normal until they reached adequate weight for surgical separation at a later date.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced*
  2. Suraya Y, Yoong KY
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2001 Sep;56(3):378-81.
    PMID: 11732087
    Inspite of the advent of newer antimanic drugs, lithium carbonate remains widely used in the treatment and prevention of manic-depressive illness. However care has to be exercised due to its low therapeutic index. The central nervous system and renal system are predominantly affected in acute lithium intoxication and is potentially lethal. The more common side effect involves the central nervous system. It occurs early and is preventable. We describe three cases of lithium toxicity admitted to Johor Bahru Hospital, with emphasis on its neurological preponderance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced
  3. Segasothy M, Abdul Samad S, Zulfiqar A, Shaariah W, Morad Z, Prasad Menon S
    Nephron, 1994;66(1):62-6.
    PMID: 8107955
    Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) were performed in 40 patients who had consumed excessive quantities of analgesics (> 1 kg) to compare their value in the diagnosis of analgesic nephropathy (AN). The computed tomography and sonographic features were renal papillary calcifications. Renal papillary necrosis (RPN) was documented in 20 of 40 patients by US and in 14 of 40 patients by CT. In 11 patients, both US and CT were positive. In 9 patients, US was positive whilst CT was negative. In 3 patients, CT was positive whilst US was negative. Prevalence of RPN was 50% using US and 35% using CT. Using US as a gold standard, sensitivity of CT was 55%, specificity 85%, positive predictive value 78.6% and negative predictive value 34.6%. Percent agreement with CT and US was 70%. Cohen's kappa statistic adjusting for chance agreement was 40%. Based on these results, it is found that US yielded a higher percentage of positive cases of RPN.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced
  4. Boettiger DC, Saphonn V, Lee MP, Phanuphak P, Pham TT, Heng Sim BL, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2014 Dec 1;67(4):e131-3.
    PMID: 25197829 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000338
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced*
  5. Selvaratnam G, Philips RH, Mohamed AK, Radzi A
    Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev, 1997 Aug;16(3):171-97.
    PMID: 9512763
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced
  6. Segasothy M, Suleiman AB, Puvaneswary M, Rohana A
    Nephron, 1988;50(1):50-4.
    PMID: 3050572
    180 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis and those who had undergone renal transplantation were questioned retrospectively. 14 patients had consumed excessive quantities of analgesics (greater than 1 kg) prior to the institution of long-term dialysis or transplantation. Sonographic examination done on these patients indicated that 7 had renal papillary necrosis (RPN). The sonographic features were renal papillary calcifications surrounding the central sinus in a complete or incomplete garland pattern. In 5 of these patients RPN is attibutable to the excessive consumption of paracetamol. We have earlier reported 10 cases of RPN due to excessive consumption of paracetamol. Thus 15 cases of RPN attributable to paracetamol consumption (1.0-15.3 kg over a period ranging from 3 to 23 years) have been documented. It is concluded that paracetamol may assume an increasingly important role in the causation of analgesic nephropathy (AN) and ESRD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced*
  7. Mathews A, Bailie GR
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 1987 Oct;12(5):273-91.
    PMID: 3119606
    This article reviews the clinical pharmacokinetics, clinical toxicity and cost-effectiveness analysis of aminoglycosides and of dosing services for aminoglycosides. The reader is referred elsewhere for a review of the pharmacology, antimicrobial spectrum of activity and clinical use of these drugs. A critique of the more commonly used methods of aminoglycoside dosage determinations is included, based on the inter-individual variation in aminoglycoside disposition parameters. The advantages and disadvantages of arbitrary, predictive, and pharmacokinetic methods of dosing determination are summarized. Justification for the routine determination of serum aminoglycoside concentrations is reviewed. We review the lack of standardization of definitions for aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity in published studies, and studies which illustrate these differences are highlighted. Evidence for the association between serum aminoglycoside concentrations and nephrotoxicity is examined. Ototoxicity is similarly reviewed. The concept of cost-effectiveness analysis is examined extensively in this review. We discuss the literature concerning the cost benefit analysis of drug dosing services.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced
  8. Segasothy M, Tong BK, Kamal A, Murad Z, Suleiman AB
    Aust N Z J Med, 1984 Feb;14(1):23-6.
    PMID: 6590001
    Seven cases of analgesic nephropathy due to excessive ingestion of paracetamol are reported. None of these patients had been taking any other analgesic. All had radiological features of papillary necrosis. With the increasing use of paracetamol as a mild analgesic it is necessary to be aware of the possibility that paracetamol may induce analgesic nephropathy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced*
  9. Segasothy M, Kong BCT, Kamal A, Murad Z, Suleiman AB
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1983 Dec;38(4):315-9.
    PMID: 6599990
    A prospective study was performed on patients admitted to the medical and renal wards of General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Over a period of 14 months from 1 January 1982, 12 new cases of analgesic nephropathy (AN) were documented. Contrary to the experience in the West and in Australia, AN in Malaysia tends to have a male preponderance and occurs even in the younger age groups. The common analgesics abused are paracetamol, Chap Kaki Tiga and Chap Harimau. The main reasons for analgesic abuse are headache and arthritis. In addition to radiological features of renal papillary necrosis patients have the other manifestations of the disease such as peptic ulceration, anaemia, neuro-psychiatric disorders and ischaemic heart disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced*
  10. Segasothy M, Cheong I, Kong BC, Suleiman AB, Morad Z
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1986 Dec;41(4):377-9.
    PMID: 3670164
    In a prospective study performed on patients admitted to the medical and renal wards of General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, over a period of 14 months from January 1982, we documented 12 new cases of analgesic nephropathy (AN). Since then up to July 1986, we have documented a further 16 cases of AN giving a total of 28 cases over a four-and-a-half-year period.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced*
  11. Chitra P, Bakthavatsalam B, Palvannan T
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2014 Sep;68(7):881-5.
    PMID: 25194446 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2014.07.017
    Rheumatoid arthritis in HIV patients undergoing HAART is associated with increased risk of side effect. Elevation of uric acid (UA) is important in tissue damage, deposition of crystal in joints leads to the development of rheumatoid arthritis in the HAART complaint group. This study was carried out to investigate the relationship of uric acid, RA factor, ANA, ESR, cystatin C, urea and creatinine in the HAART complaint group. Moreover; the ratio of uric acid/cystatin C, uric acid/urea and uric acid/creatinine were also studied. To analyze the progression of HIV, the immunological parameters were correlated with uric acid. Our result showed a statistically high significant increase in uric acid, RA factor, ANA, ESR, cystatin C, urea and creatinine in the HAART complaint group when compared to HAART non-complaint group, early stage and control. The ratio of uric acid/cystatin C, uric acid/urea, uric acid/creatinine were significantly increased in the HAART complaint group. Statistically significant positive correlation was observed between uric acid and cystatin C, urea, creatinine, absolute CD4 and CD8 count. The increased level of uric acid, RA factor, ANA, ESR, cystatin C and increased ratio of uric acid/cystatin C in the HAART complaint group might conclude the mechanism underlying the increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis in the HAART complaint group which may relate to the combined effects of low-grade inflammation and renal dysfunction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced*
  12. Kadir FA, Kassim NM, Abdulla MA, Yehye WA
    PMID: 24499255 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-294
    Oxidative stress due to abnormal induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) molecules is believed to be involved in the etiology of many diseases. Evidences suggest that ROS is involved in nephrotoxicity through frequent exposure to industrial toxic agents such as thioacetamide (TAA). The current investigation was designed to explore the possible protective effects of the leaves of Vitex negundo(VN) extract against TAA-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced
  13. Segasothy M, Chin GL, Sia KK, Zulfiqar A, Samad SA
    Br. J. Rheumatol., 1995 Feb;34(2):162-5.
    PMID: 7704463
    We determined the consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the prevalence of chronic renal impairment and renal papillary necrosis (RPN) in patients with various types of arthritis. Ninety-four patients with chronic arthritis who had consumed more than 1000 capsules and/or tablets of NSAIDs were studied. Renal profiles and radiological investigations such as intravenous urogram (IVU), ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were performed to look for evidence of RPN. Twelve patients did not complete the study. Ten of the 82 patients who had completed the study (12.2%) had radiologic evidence of RPN. Five out of 53 patients (9.4%) with rheumatoid arthritis, three out of 11 patients (27.3%) with gouty arthritis and two out of seven patients (28.6%) with osteoarthritis had RPN. Renal impairment (serum creatinine levels of 125-451 mumol/l) was found in 20 patients (24.4%). The patients had consumed 1000-26,300 capsules and/or tablets over a period ranging from 1 yr to more than 30 yr. Patients with chronic arthritis who consume excessive amount of NSAIDs are at risk of developing RPN and chronic renal impairment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced*
  14. Tanuma J, Jiamsakul A, Makane A, Avihingsanon A, Ng OT, Kiertiburanakul S, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(8):e0161562.
    PMID: 27560968 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161562
    BACKGROUND: In resource-limited settings, routine monitoring of renal function during antiretroviral therapy (ART) has not been recommended. However, concerns for tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-related nephrotoxicity persist with increased use.

    METHODS: We investigated serum creatinine (S-Cr) monitoring rates before and during ART and the incidence and prevalence of renal dysfunction after starting TDF by using data from a regional cohort of HIV-infected individuals in the Asia-Pacific. Time to renal dysfunction was defined as time from TDF initiation to the decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to <60 ml/min/1.73m2 with >30% reduction from baseline using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation or the decision to stop TDF for reported TDF-nephrotoxicity. Predictors of S-Cr monitoring rates were assessed by Poisson regression and risk factors for developing renal dysfunction were assessed by Cox regression.

    RESULTS: Among 2,425 patients who received TDF, S-Cr monitoring rates increased from 1.01 to 1.84 per person per year after starting TDF (incidence rate ratio 1.68, 95%CI 1.62-1.74, p <0.001). Renal dysfunction on TDF occurred in 103 patients over 5,368 person-years of TDF use (4.2%; incidence 1.75 per 100 person-years). Risk factors for developing renal dysfunction included older age (>50 vs. ≤30, hazard ratio [HR] 5.39, 95%CI 2.52-11.50, p <0.001; and using PI-based regimen (HR 1.93, 95%CI 1.22-3.07, p = 0.005). Having an eGFR prior to TDF (pre-TDF eGFR) of ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 showed a protective effect (HR 0.38, 95%CI, 0.17-0.85, p = 0.018).

    CONCLUSIONS: Renal dysfunction on commencing TDF use was not common, however, older age, lower baseline eGFR and PI-based ART were associated with higher risk of renal dysfunction during TDF use in adult HIV-infected individuals in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced*
  15. Alharazy SM, Kong N, Saidin R, Gafor AH, Maskon O, Mohd M, et al.
    Angiology, 2014 Mar;65(3):225-6.
    PMID: 23564021 DOI: 10.1177/0003319713483544
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced*
  16. Koriem KM, Arbid MS, Emam KR
    Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2014 Jul;38(1):14-23.
    PMID: 24860957 DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2014.04.029
    Octylphenol (OP) is one of ubiquitous pollutants in the environment. It belongs to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). It is used in many industrial and agricultural products. Pectin is a family of complex polysaccharides that function as a hydrating agent and cementing material for the cellulose network. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of pectin in kidney dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by OP exposure. Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into four equal groups; group 1 control was injected intraperitoneally (i.p) with saline [1 ml/kg body weight (bwt)], groups 2, 3 & 4 were injected i.p with OP (50 mg/kg bwt) three days/week over two weeks period where groups 3 & 4 were injected i.p with pectin (25 or 50 mg/kg bwt) three days/week over three weeks period. The results of the present study revealed that OP significantly decreased glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels while increased significantly lipid peroxidation (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and protein carbonyls (PC) levels in the kidney tissues. On the other hand, OP increased serum urea and creatinine. Furthermore, OP increased significantly serum uric acid but decreased significantly the kidney weight. Moreover, OP decreased p53 expression while increased bcl-2 expression in the kidney tissue. The treatment with either dose of pectin to OP-exposed rats restores all the above parameters to approach the normal values where pectin at higher dose was more effective than lower one. These results were supported by histopathological investigations. In conclusion, pectin has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities in kidney toxicity induced by OP and the effect was dose-dependent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced
  17. Ansar S, Iqbal M, AlJameil N
    Hum Exp Toxicol, 2014 Dec;33(12):1209-16.
    PMID: 24596035 DOI: 10.1177/0960327114524237
    Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) induces tissue necrosis as a result of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and oxidative damage that leads to high incidence of renal carcinomas. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of diallyl sulphide (DAS) against Fe-NTA-induced nephrotoxicity. A total of 30 healthy male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each: (1) control, (2) DAS (200 mg kg(-1)), (3) Fe-NTA (9 g Fe kg(-1)), (4) DAS (100 mg kg(-1)) + Fe-NTA (9 mg Fe kg(-1)) and (5) DAS (200 mg kg(-1)) + Fe-NTA (9 mg Fe kg(-1)). Fe-NTA + DAS-treated groups were given DAS for a period of 1 week before Fe-NTA administration. The intraperitoneal administration of Fe-NTA enhanced blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels with reduction in levels of antioxidant enzymes. However, significant restoration of depleted renal glutathione and its dependent enzymes (glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase) was observed in DAS pretreated groups. DAS also attenuated Fe-NTA-induced increase in LPO, hydrogen peroxide generation and protein carbonyl formation (p < 0.05). The results indicate that DAS may be beneficial in ameliorating the Fe-NTA-induced renal oxidative damage in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced
  18. Shah MD, Iqbal M
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2010 Dec;48(12):3345-53.
    PMID: 20828599 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.09.003
    Diazinon (O,O-diethyl-O-[2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl] phosphoro thioate), an organo-phosphate insecticide, has been used worldwide in agriculture and domestic for several years, which has led to a variety of negative effects in non target species including humans. However, its nephrotoxic effects and mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated so far. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the nephrotoxic effects of diazinon and its mechanism of action with special reference to its possible ROS generating potential in rats. Treatment of rats with diazinon significantly enhances renal lipid peroxidation which is accompanied by a decrease in the activities of renal antioxidant enzymes (e.g. catalase, glutathione peroxidise, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione S-transferase) and depletion in the level of glutathione reduced. In contrast, the activities of renal γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and quinone reductase were increased. Parallel to these changes, diazinon treatment enhances renal damage as evidenced by sharp increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Additionally, the impairment of renal function corresponds histopathologically. In summary, our results indicate that diazinon treatment eventuates in decreased renal glutathione reduced, a fall in the activities of antioxidant enzymes including the enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism and excessive production of oxidants with concomitant renal damage, all of which are involved in the cascade of events leading to diazinon-mediated renal oxidative stress and toxicity. We concluded that in diazinon exposure, depletion of antioxidant enzymes is accompanied by induction of oxidative stress that might be beneficial in monitoring diazinon toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced*
  19. Abdulla MH, Sattar MA, Johns EJ, Abdullah NA, Khan MA
    Eur J Nutr, 2011 Dec;50(8):689-97.
    PMID: 21373947 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-011-0180-9
    AIM: To explore the hypothesis that high fructose intake results in a higher functional contribution of α1A-adrenoceptors and blunts the adrenergically and angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced renal vasoconstriction.

    METHODS: Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats received either 20% fructose solution [FFR] or tap water [C] to drink ad libitum for 8 weeks. The renal vasoconstrictor response to noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE), methoxamine (ME) and Ang II was determined in the presence and absence of 5-methylurapidil (5-MU) (α1A-adrenoceptor antagonist) in a three-phase experiment (pre-drug, low- and high-dose 5-MU). Data, mean ± SEM were analysed by ANOVA or Student's unpaired t-test with significance at P < 0.05.

    RESULTS: FFR exhibited insulin resistance (HOMA index), hypertension and significant increases in plasma levels of glucose and insulin. All agonists caused dose-related reductions in cortical blood perfusion that were larger in C than in FFR while the magnitudes of the responses were progressively reduced with increasing doses of 5-MU in both C and FFR. The degree of 5-MU attenuation of the renal cortical vasoconstriction due to NA, ME and Ang II was significantly greater in the FFR compared to C.

    CONCLUSIONS: Fructose intake for 8 weeks results in smaller vascular response to adrenergic agonists and Ang II. The α1A-adrenoceptor subtype is the functional subtype that mediates renal cortical vasoconstriction in control rats, and this contribution becomes higher due to fructose feeding.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced
  20. Chong FW, Chakravarthi S, Nagaraja HS, Thanikachalam PM, Lee N
    Malays J Pathol, 2009 Jun;31(1):35-43.
    PMID: 19694312
    Cyclosporine A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor produced by the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindrocarpon lucidum, is an immunosuppressant prescribed in organ transplants to prevent rejection. Its adverse effect on renal dysfunction has limited its use in a clinical setting. Apigenin (4',5',7'-Trihydroxyflavone), a herbal extract, with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties, has been investigated for properties to reverse this adverse effect. This research was conducted to establish a standard protocol for immunohistochemical estimation of Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-beta) expression, as an indicator of Cyclosporine A induced damage, and to observe whether apoptotic index and TGF-beta expression can be used to assess effects of Apigenin on CsA induced renal dysfunction. Six groups of 5 male Sprague-Dawley albino rats each were dosed once daily for 21 days, as follows: (1) negative control--oral corn oil, (2) positive control--Cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg), (3) Group 3--Apigenin (20 mg/kg), (4) Group 4--Cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg) +Apigenin (10 mg/kg), (5) Group 5--Cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg) +Apigenin (15 mg/kg) and (6) Group 6--Cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg) +Apigenin (20 mg/kg). Cyclosporine A was administered intra-peritoneally while Apigenin was given orally. The rat kidneys were harvested and examined microscopically to assess the apoptotic index, and stained by immunohistochemistry for multifunctioning polypeptide TGF-beta expression. A high apoptotic index and TGF-beta intensity was observed in the Cyclosporine A group. Apigenin significantly reduced the both apoptotic index and TGF-beta intensity. The apoptotic index correlated with TGF-beta intensity, especially in glomeruli. This study indicates that Cyclosporine A can enhance the TGF-beta expression in rat kidney, signifying accelerated apoptosis. TGF-beta and apoptotic index may be used to assess Apigenin and its effect on Cyclosporine A induced renal damage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced
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