Displaying all 16 publications

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  1. Mukherjee AP, Yuen TK
    Med J Aust, 1971 Jan 30;1(5):257-60.
    PMID: 5545973
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/pathology
  2. Tey WK, Kuang YC, Ooi MP, Khoo JJ
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2018 Mar;155:109-120.
    PMID: 29512490 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2017.12.004
    Interstitial fibrosis in renal biopsy samples is a scarring tissue structure that may be visually quantified by pathologists as an indicator to the presence and extent of chronic kidney disease. The standard method of quantification by visual evaluation presents reproducibility issues in the diagnoses. This study proposes an automated quantification system for measuring the amount of interstitial fibrosis in renal biopsy images as a consistent basis of comparison among pathologists. The system extracts and segments the renal tissue structures based on colour information and structural assumptions of the tissue structures. The regions in the biopsy representing the interstitial fibrosis are deduced through the elimination of non-interstitial fibrosis structures from the biopsy area and quantified as a percentage of the total area of the biopsy sample. A ground truth image dataset has been manually prepared by consulting an experienced pathologist for the validation of the segmentation algorithms. The results from experiments involving experienced pathologists have demonstrated a good correlation in quantification result between the automated system and the pathologists' visual evaluation. Experiments investigating the variability in pathologists also proved the automated quantification error rate to be on par with the average intra-observer variability in pathologists' quantification.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Interstitial fibrosis in renal biopsy samples is a scarring tissue structure that may be visually quantified by pathologists as an indicator to the presence and extent of chronic kidney disease. The standard method of quantification by visual evaluation presents reproducibility issues in the diagnoses due to the uncertainties in human judgement.

    METHODS: An automated quantification system for accurately measuring the amount of interstitial fibrosis in renal biopsy images is presented as a consistent basis of comparison among pathologists. The system identifies the renal tissue structures through knowledge-based rules employing colour space transformations and structural features extraction from the images. In particular, the renal glomerulus identification is based on a multiscale textural feature analysis and a support vector machine. The regions in the biopsy representing interstitial fibrosis are deduced through the elimination of non-interstitial fibrosis structures from the biopsy area. The experiments conducted evaluate the system in terms of quantification accuracy, intra- and inter-observer variability in visual quantification by pathologists, and the effect introduced by the automated quantification system on the pathologists' diagnosis.

    RESULTS: A 40-image ground truth dataset has been manually prepared by consulting an experienced pathologist for the validation of the segmentation algorithms. The results from experiments involving experienced pathologists have demonstrated an average error of 9 percentage points in quantification result between the automated system and the pathologists' visual evaluation. Experiments investigating the variability in pathologists involving samples from 70 kidney patients also proved the automated quantification error rate to be on par with the average intra-observer variability in pathologists' quantification.

    CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy of the proposed quantification system has been validated with the ground truth dataset and compared against the pathologists' quantification results. It has been shown that the correlation between different pathologists' estimation of interstitial fibrosis area has significantly improved, demonstrating the effectiveness of the quantification system as a diagnostic aide.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/pathology
  3. Looi LM, Cheah PL
    Hum Pathol, 1997 Jul;28(7):847-9.
    PMID: 9224755
    A retrospective study was conducted to investigate whether there was a correlation between the histological pattern of renal amyloidosis, the chemical type of amyloid protein involved and the clinical presentation. Eighteen consecutive cases of systemic amyloidosis that had renal biopsies processed and examined histopathologically at the Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur were reviewed. The age range of patients was 25 to 64 yrs (mean, 46 yrs). The male:female ratio was 2.6:1. Three patients were Malay, 9 Chinese, 3 Indian, 1 Indonesian, 1 Iban, and 1 Bisaya. According to the predominant site of amyloid deposition, 14 cases showed a glomerular pattern and 4 a vascular pattern. 8 cases were designated as 2 anti-human amyloid-A (AA) amyloidosis on the basis of permanganate-sensitivity and immunoreactivity of deposits with anti-human AA protein antibody. Ten cases contained deposits that were permanganate-resistant and nonimmunoreactive for AA protein and were designated as AL in type. The histomorphologic pattern of renal amyloidosis did not provide a reliable means of differentiating AA from AL amyloidosis. The glomerular pattern tended to present with renal manifestations such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic renal failure, whereas the vascular pattern tended to present with nonrenal manifestations such as diarrhoea. These findings may have a bearing on the pathophysiology of amyloidosis and provide clues to appropriate management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/pathology*
  4. Looi LM
    Histopathology, 1989 Feb;14(2):111-20.
    PMID: 2707747
    The histological location of amyloid within various organs in 25 cases of systemic AA amyloidosis was studied with a view to determine whether different morphological patterns exist in this category of amyloidosis. Although morphological variations due to progressive severity of disease were observed, there were appreciable variations in the patterns of amyloid deposition in the kidney and spleen that could not be simply explained on those grounds. Eleven (61%) of 18 kidneys examined showed severe glomerular involvement with mild degrees of vascular deposition while the remaining seven showed predominantly vascular involvement. The glomerular pattern appeared to be more ominous, being significantly associated with severe proteinuria or chronic renal failure. In nine (69%) of 13 spleens examined, amyloid was confined to the walls of small and medium-sized arteries while in the remaining four, vascular involvement was less severe and amyloid was deposited mainly along the reticulin of the white pulp. Possible explanations for these different patterns included resorption and redistribution of amyloid within the body during the course of the disease, and variation in tissue deposition as a manifestation of polymorphism of amyloid proteins. The latter appeared more feasible in view of the recent demonstration of SAA polymorphism and AA heterogeneity in man.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/pathology
  5. Raman S, Rachagan SP, Boopalan P, Jeyarani S
    Med J Malaysia, 1986 Dec;41(4):361-4.
    PMID: 3312976
    A case of infantile polycystic kidneys diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound is presented here. This condition was confirmed at post-mortem following delivery of the child. The clinical and pathological features of this inheritable disease is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polycystic Kidney Diseases/pathology
  6. Khoo JJ
    Malays J Pathol, 2001 Dec;23(2):101-4.
    PMID: 12166589
    Consecutive renal biopsies received from 1994 to 2000 in Johor Bahru were reviewed. There were 441 cases, of which 407 were adequate biopsies (92.3%). Lupus nephritis formed the largest diagnostic entity (126 cases, 31.0%). This reflected the high prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in Malaysia. The most common histological pattern of lupus nephritis was diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis: WHO Class IV (96 cases, 76.2%). Other diagnostic entities were minimal change disease (28.5%), proliferative glomerulonephritis (10.6%), IgA nephropathy (9.8%), focal glomerulosclerosis (4.9%), membranous glomerulonephritis (4.4%), transplant rejection (3.9%), end stage nephropathy (3.4%) and others (3.4%). The morphological pattern of renal biopsies in Johor was similar to that reported in the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/pathology*
  7. Draman CR, Seman MR, Mohd Noor FS, Kelsom WM
    Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl, 2013 Jan;24(1):178-83.
    PMID: 23354221
    Kidney biopsy is indicated to confirm the clinical diagnosis or to evaluate prognosis of a renal problem. It is a reliable and safe procedure, especially with real-time ultrasound guidance. This is a single-center, retrospective review of the biopsies performed in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Pahang from 2000 to 2010. The demographic data, clinical parameters, and histological reports were extracted from clinic records and analyzed to determine the diagnostic adequacy of biopsy samples for both lupus and non-lupus patients. A total of 219 biopsies were performed throughout the period and only 74 were included in this review. Their mean age was 22.5 ± 10.5 years. 59.5% of the biopsies were performed on female patients. Malays comprised 79.7% (n = 59) of them, followed by Chinese (18.9%, n=14) and Indian (1.4%, n=1). About one-third of the biopsies(n = 25) were performed on patients with lupus nephritis and two-thirds (n = 49) on non-lupus nephritis patients. At the time of biopsy, their serum creatinine values were normal, serum albumin 28.4 ± 10 g/L and total cholesterol 8.9 ± 4.6 mmol/L (mean ± SD). The urine dipstick was 3+ for both proteinuria and hematuria and daily protein excretion was 3.6 ± 3.2 g. Sixty-seven specimens were considered adequate and only six (8%) were inadequate for histological interpretations. The mean number of glomeruli in the biopsy specimens was 16 ± 9.9 (range: 0-47 glomeruli). In non-lupus patients, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was the commonest histological diagnosis (n = 15, 30.6%), followed by minimal change disease (n = 13, 26.5%) and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (n = 7, 14.3%). Membranous nephropathy was diagnosed in four (8.2%) and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in two (4.1%) specimens. Both post-infectious glomerulonephritis and advanced glomerulosclerosis were found in one specimen each. Among the lupus nephritis patients (n = 25), 88% of them were females (P <0.05) and lupus nephritis WHO class IV was the commonest variant (n = 12, 48%) followed by WHO class III (n = 7, 28%). Membranous glomerulopathy or lupus nephritis WHO class V was found in three (12%), and two (8%) had lupus nephritis WHO class II. Serum albumin, urinalysis findings, and daily urinary protein excretion were comparable for both lupus and non-lupus patients. In conclusion, renal biopsy in our center is adequate and sufficient for histological interpretations and management of patients with renal problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/pathology*
  8. Prathap K, Looi LM
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1982 Jan;11(1):52-6.
    PMID: 7073229
    Adequately biopsied renal tissue received in the Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from 1,000 consecutive Malaysian patients during an eleven year period between 1970 and 1981 was reviewed. The youngest patient was 6 days old and the oldest 80 years. Both sexes were equally represented. The majority of the patients were Chinese (71%) with Malays and Indians comprising most of the remainder. Over half the patients (50.4%) presented with the nephrotic syndrome. Other modes of presentation included systemic lupus erythematosus, proteinuria and haematuria separately or in combination and hypertension. Minimal change (25.7%) and proliferative glomerulonephritis (24.8%) were present in about equal numbers and together accounted for over half of the cases (50.5%). Lupus nephritis was the third most common diagnosis (18.4%). In addition, there were patients with focal glomerulonephritis (5.4%), membranous glomerulonephritis (5.5%), Berger's disease (5.8%), amyloidosis (0.6%) and end stage renal disease (4.0%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/pathology*
  9. Looi LM, Cheah PL
    Malays J Pathol, 2009 Jun;31(1):11-6.
    PMID: 19694308 MyJurnal
    Western-style medicine was introduced to Malaya by the Portuguese, Dutch and British between the 1500s and 1800s. Although the earliest pathology laboratories were developed within hospitals towards the end of the 19th Century, histopathology emerged much later than the biochemistry and bacteriology services. The University Departments of Pathology were the pioneers of the renal histopathology diagnostic services. The Department of Pathology, University of Malaya (UM) received its first renal biopsy on 19 May 1968. Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM) and Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) started their services in 1979 and 1987 respectively. It is notable that the early services in these University centres caterred for both the university hospitals and the Ministry of Health (MOH) until the mid-1990s when MOH began to develop its own services, pivoted on renal pathologists trained through Fellowship programmes. Currently, key centres in the MOH are Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Sultanah Aminah Hospital Johor Bahru and Malacca Hospital. With the inclusion of renal biopsy interpretation in the Master of Pathology programmes, basic renal histopathology services became widely available throughout the country from 2000. This subsequently filtered out to the private sector as more histopathologists embraced private practice. There is now active continuing professional development in renal histopathology through clinicopathological dicussions, seminars and workshops. Renal research on amyloid nephropathy, minimal change disease, IgA nephropathy, fibrillary glomerulonephritis, lupus nephritis and microwave technology have provided an insight into the patterns of renal pathology and changing criteria for biopsy. More recently, there has been increasing involvement of renal teams in clinical trials, particularly for lupus nephritis and renal transplant modulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/pathology*
  10. Sagliker Y, Acharya V, Golea O, Sabry A, Bali M, Eyupoglu K, et al.
    J. Nephrol., 2008 Mar-Apr;21 Suppl 13:S134-8.
    PMID: 18446747
    It is known that secondary hyperparathyroidism (SH) and particularly skeletal changes is a severe condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sagliker syndrome (SS) is a very prominent feature in CKD including uglifying human face appearances, short stature, extremely severe maxillary and mandibulary changes, soft tissues in the mouth, teeth-dental abnormalities, finger tip changes and severe psychological problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/pathology
  11. Kiew LV, Munavvar AS, Law CH, Azizan AN, Nazarina AR, Sidik K, et al.
    J. Physiol. (Lond.), 2004 Jun 15;557(Pt 3):981-9.
    PMID: 15047774
    An antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (As-ODN) to the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA sequence expressing the intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was employed to determine ICAM-1's role in renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in the rat. Wistar-Kyoto rats receiving i.v. either lipofectin-As-ODN (As-ODN group), lipofectin-reverse ODN (Rv-ODN group) or lipofectin (ischaemia control group) 8 h prior to study were anaesthetized and subjected to 30 min of renal artery occlusion. Renal haemodynamic and excretory parameters were monitored before and after renal ischaemia. On termination of the study renal tissue was subjected to histological and Western blot analysis. Renal blood flow decreased in the 3 h post-ischaemia period in the ischaemia control and Rv-ODN groups, but was maintained in the As-ODN group. Glomerular filtration rate was depressed initially but gradually increased to 10% above basal levels in the ischaemia control and Rv-ODN groups, but was below basal levels (20%) in the As-ODN group. There was a three- to fourfold increase in sodium and water excretion following ischaemia in the ischaemia control and reverse-ODN groups but not in the As-ODN treated group. The As-ODN ameliorated the histological evidence of ischaemic damage and reduced ICAM-1 protein levels to a greater extent in the medulla than cortex. These observations suggested that in the post-ischaemic period afferent and efferent arteriolar tone was increased with a loss of reabsorptive capacity which was in part due to ICAM-1. The possibility arises that the action of ICAM-1 at vascular and tubular sites in the deeper regions of the kidney contributes to the ischaemia-reperfusion injury.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/pathology
  12. Koriem KM, Arbid MS, Emam KR
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 2014 Jul;38(1):14-23.
    PMID: 24860957 DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2014.04.029
    Octylphenol (OP) is one of ubiquitous pollutants in the environment. It belongs to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). It is used in many industrial and agricultural products. Pectin is a family of complex polysaccharides that function as a hydrating agent and cementing material for the cellulose network. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of pectin in kidney dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by OP exposure. Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into four equal groups; group 1 control was injected intraperitoneally (i.p) with saline [1 ml/kg body weight (bwt)], groups 2, 3 & 4 were injected i.p with OP (50 mg/kg bwt) three days/week over two weeks period where groups 3 & 4 were injected i.p with pectin (25 or 50 mg/kg bwt) three days/week over three weeks period. The results of the present study revealed that OP significantly decreased glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels while increased significantly lipid peroxidation (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and protein carbonyls (PC) levels in the kidney tissues. On the other hand, OP increased serum urea and creatinine. Furthermore, OP increased significantly serum uric acid but decreased significantly the kidney weight. Moreover, OP decreased p53 expression while increased bcl-2 expression in the kidney tissue. The treatment with either dose of pectin to OP-exposed rats restores all the above parameters to approach the normal values where pectin at higher dose was more effective than lower one. These results were supported by histopathological investigations. In conclusion, pectin has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities in kidney toxicity induced by OP and the effect was dose-dependent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/pathology
  13. Yankuzo H, Ahmed QU, Santosa RI, Akter SF, Talib NA
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Apr 26;135(1):88-94.
    PMID: 21354289 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.02.020
    Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng (curry leaf) is widely used as a nephroprotective agent in kidney's infirmities among diabetics by the traditional practitioners in Malaysia. However, the latter role of curry leaf has been grossly under reported and is yet to receive proper scientific evaluation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/pathology
  14. Shah MD, Iqbal M
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2010 Dec;48(12):3345-53.
    PMID: 20828599 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.09.003
    Diazinon (O,O-diethyl-O-[2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl] phosphoro thioate), an organo-phosphate insecticide, has been used worldwide in agriculture and domestic for several years, which has led to a variety of negative effects in non target species including humans. However, its nephrotoxic effects and mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated so far. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the nephrotoxic effects of diazinon and its mechanism of action with special reference to its possible ROS generating potential in rats. Treatment of rats with diazinon significantly enhances renal lipid peroxidation which is accompanied by a decrease in the activities of renal antioxidant enzymes (e.g. catalase, glutathione peroxidise, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione S-transferase) and depletion in the level of glutathione reduced. In contrast, the activities of renal γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and quinone reductase were increased. Parallel to these changes, diazinon treatment enhances renal damage as evidenced by sharp increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Additionally, the impairment of renal function corresponds histopathologically. In summary, our results indicate that diazinon treatment eventuates in decreased renal glutathione reduced, a fall in the activities of antioxidant enzymes including the enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism and excessive production of oxidants with concomitant renal damage, all of which are involved in the cascade of events leading to diazinon-mediated renal oxidative stress and toxicity. We concluded that in diazinon exposure, depletion of antioxidant enzymes is accompanied by induction of oxidative stress that might be beneficial in monitoring diazinon toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/pathology
  15. Chong FW, Chakravarthi S, Nagaraja HS, Thanikachalam PM, Lee N
    Malays J Pathol, 2009 Jun;31(1):35-43.
    PMID: 19694312
    Cyclosporine A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor produced by the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindrocarpon lucidum, is an immunosuppressant prescribed in organ transplants to prevent rejection. Its adverse effect on renal dysfunction has limited its use in a clinical setting. Apigenin (4',5',7'-Trihydroxyflavone), a herbal extract, with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties, has been investigated for properties to reverse this adverse effect. This research was conducted to establish a standard protocol for immunohistochemical estimation of Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-beta) expression, as an indicator of Cyclosporine A induced damage, and to observe whether apoptotic index and TGF-beta expression can be used to assess effects of Apigenin on CsA induced renal dysfunction. Six groups of 5 male Sprague-Dawley albino rats each were dosed once daily for 21 days, as follows: (1) negative control--oral corn oil, (2) positive control--Cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg), (3) Group 3--Apigenin (20 mg/kg), (4) Group 4--Cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg) +Apigenin (10 mg/kg), (5) Group 5--Cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg) +Apigenin (15 mg/kg) and (6) Group 6--Cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg) +Apigenin (20 mg/kg). Cyclosporine A was administered intra-peritoneally while Apigenin was given orally. The rat kidneys were harvested and examined microscopically to assess the apoptotic index, and stained by immunohistochemistry for multifunctioning polypeptide TGF-beta expression. A high apoptotic index and TGF-beta intensity was observed in the Cyclosporine A group. Apigenin significantly reduced the both apoptotic index and TGF-beta intensity. The apoptotic index correlated with TGF-beta intensity, especially in glomeruli. This study indicates that Cyclosporine A can enhance the TGF-beta expression in rat kidney, signifying accelerated apoptosis. TGF-beta and apoptotic index may be used to assess Apigenin and its effect on Cyclosporine A induced renal damage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/pathology
  16. Lakshmanan H, Raman J, Pandian A, Kuppamuthu K, Nanjian R, Sabaratam V, et al.
    Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2016 Aug;79:25-34.
    PMID: 27177820 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.05.010
    Senecio candicans DC. (Asteraceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcer and stomach pain in the Nilgiris, district, Tamil Nadu. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicity of an aqueous extract of Senecio candicans (AESC) plant in Wistar albino rats. The study was conducted in consideration of the OECD 408 study design (Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents) and the extract was administered via gavage at doses of 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg body weight per day for 90-days. Hematological, biochemical parameters were determined on days 0, 30, 60 and 90 of administration. Animals were euthanized after 90 d treatment and its liver and kidney sections were taken for histological study. The results of sub-chronic study showed significant increase (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/pathology
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