METHODS: A prospective cohort study of all patients with COVID-19 found in the Electronic Medical Records of Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah Hospital in Kuwait was conducted. The study included 3995 individuals (symptomatic and asymptomatic) of all ages who tested positive from February 24th to May 27th, 2020, out of which 315 were treated in the ICU and 3619 were discharged including those who were transferred to a different healthcare unit without having previously entered the ICU. A competing risk analysis considering two events, namely, ICU admission and hospital discharge using flexible hazard models was performed to describe the association between event-specific probabilities and patient characteristics.
RESULTS: Results showed that being male, increasing age and comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and weakened immune system increased the risk of ICU admission within 10 days of entering the hospital. CKD and weakened immune system decreased the probabilities of discharge in both females and males however, the age-related pattern differed by gender. Diabetes, which was the most prevalent comorbid condition, had only a moderate impact on both probabilities (18% overall) in contrast to CKD which had the largest effect, but presented only in 7% of those admitted to ICU and in 1% of those who got discharged. For instance, within 5 days a 50-year-old male had 19% (95% C.I.: [15,23]) probability of entering the ICU if he had none of these comorbidities, yet this risk jumped to 31% (95% C.I.: [20,46]) if he had also CKD, and to 27% in the presence of asthma/COPD (95% C.I.: [19,36]) or of weakened immune system (95% C.I.: [16,42]).
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides useful insight in describing the probabilities of ICU admission and hospital discharge according to age, gender, and comorbidities among confirmed COVID-19 cases in Kuwait. A web-tool is also provided to allow the user to estimate these probabilities for any combination of these covariates. These probabilities enable deeper understanding of the hospital demand according to patient characteristics which is essential to hospital management and useful for developing a vaccination strategy.
Materials and Methods: The data were obtained from the Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders Registry during the period of 2004-2020.
Results: A total of 313 pediatric cases of IEI, 71% diagnosed at molecular level, were registered with a cumulative follow-up period of 29,734 months. Skin manifestations were seen in 40.3% of the patients, and they were among the presenting manifestations in 33%. Patients with skin manifestations were older at both onset and diagnosis ages of IEI symptoms, but this was statistically significant for the latter only. The diagnosis delay was significantly longer in patients with skin manifestations. There was a statistically significant association between having skin manifestations and IEI category, being more common in patients with complement deficiencies, combined immunodeficiencies, and diseases of immune dysregulation. There was no statistically significant association between having skin manifestations and both gender and survival. Skin infections were the most frequent manifestations followed by eczema and autoimmune associations. Among IEI with more than 10 cases, skin lesions were a consistent finding in dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency, hyper IgE syndrome, ataxia-telangiectasia, and recombination activation gene (RAG)1 deficiency.
Conclusions: Skin manifestations are common in IEI patients, and they had significant diagnosis delay and referral to specialists. Improvement of awareness about IEI is needed among pediatricians and dermatologists.
OBJECTIVES: To compare gravimetric measurements with existing networks that rely on beta-attenuation measurements in a desert climate; determine the annual levels of PM2.5 and PM10 over a two-year period in Kuwait; assess compliance with air quality standards; and identify and quantify PM2.5 sources.
METHODS: We custom-designed particle samplers that can withstand large quantities of dust without their inlet becoming overloaded. The samplers were placed in two populated residential locations, one in Kuwait City and another near industrial and petrochemical facilities in Ali Sabah Al-Salem (ASAS) to collect PM2.5 and PM10 samples for mass and elemental analysis. We used positive matrix factorization to identify PM2.5 sources and apportion their contributions.
RESULTS: We collected 2339 samples during the period October 2017 through October 2019. The beta-attenuation method in measuring PM2.5 consistently exceeded gravimetric measurements, especially during dust events. The annual levels for PM2.5 in Kuwait City and ASAS were 41.6 ± 29.0 and 47.5 ± 27.6 μg/m3, respectively. Annual PM2.5 levels in Kuwait were nearly four times higher than the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Regional pollution was a major contributor to PM2.5 levels in both locations accounting for 44% in Kuwait City and 46% in ASAS. Dust storms and re-suspended road dust were the second and third largest contributors to PM2.5, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The premise that frequent and extreme dust storms make air quality regulation futile is dubious. In this comprehensive particulate pollution analysis, we show that the sizeable regional anthropogenic particulate sources warrant national and regional mitigation strategies to ensure compliance with air quality standards.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This chart review study examined the benefits of tocilizumab treatment among 127 patients diagnosed with severe coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia.
RESULTS: 90 of 127 patients (71%) survived. Mortality was highest in the elderly with multiple medical conditions.
CONCLUSION: Despite the small sample size and retrospective nature of the work, our findings are consistent with recent studies suggesting tocilizumab administration in patients presenting with severe COVID pneumonia with associated hyperinflammatory features conferred mortality benefit.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted between 24th February 2020 and 20th April 2020. All consecutive patients in the entire State of Kuwait diagnosed with COVID-19 according to WHO guidelines and admitted to Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah Hospital were included. Patients received standardized investigations and treatments. Multivariable analysis was used to determine the associations between risk factors and outcomes (admission to intensive care and/or mortality).
Findings: Of 1096 patients, the median age was 41 years and 81% of patients were male. Most patients were asymptomatic on admission (46.3%), of whom 35 later developed symptoms, and 59.7% had no signs of infection. Only 3.6% of patients required an ICU admission and 1.7% were dead at the study's cutoff date. On multivariable analysis, the risk factors found to be significantly associated with admission to intensive care were age above 50 years old, a qSOFA score above 0, smoking, elevated CRP and elevated procalcitonin levels. Asthma, smoking and elevated procalcitonin levels correlated significantly with mortality in our cohort.
STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study.
METHODS: This study was completed alongside similar studies undertaken by the rest of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and led by Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study will allow further understanding of possible obstacles that may be encountered while implementing a nationwide prevention program. The 10-dimensional model of readiness had been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with five countries (Brazil, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and South Africa) through a five-stage process. Stakeholders and decision makers were invited to participate. Scores for each dimension were compared with those for the rest of the GCC countries.
RESULTS: The overall score of Kuwait was 39.17 out of 100. This was below the mean average score for the GCC countries (47.83). Out of the 10 dimensions, key informants scored the highest on legislation, mandates and policies (6.61). The lowest score was reported on attitudes towards CM prevention (1.94). Informal social resources (5.72) ranked the highest as compared to the rest of the GCC countries.
CONCLUSIONS: The readiness of Kuwait is weak on several dimensions and needs to be strengthened. Despite that, the country is moderately ready to implement large-scale evidence-based CM prevention programs because it is strong in the infrastructure of knowledge, legislation, mandates, and policies and informal social resources.