Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 133 in total

  1. Jamaliah Jahim, Rafiqqah Mohamad Sabri, Nurleyna Yunus
    In this research, sago mill effluent was treated using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). Seven HRT from 10 to 1.5 days were tested to evaluate the methane production from sago mill effluent. The findings revealed the highest methane production rate was found at 1.288 L CH4/L reactor. d under HRT of 2 days The results showed that COD removals decreased from 70% to 47% as HRT was reduced from 10 to 2 days. The HRT 1.5 days was found critical for the studied system, which leads to decreased in methane production, yield and COD removal. Overall, ASBR was capable to treat sago mill effluent in producing methane by means of anaerobic digestion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane
  2. Khairudin NF, Mohammadi M, Mohamed AR
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Jun;28(23):29157-29176.
    PMID: 33550559 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-12794-0
    This study deals with the development of alumina-supported cobalt (Co/Al2O3) catalysts with remarkable performance in dry reforming of methane (DRM) and least carbon deposition. The influence of Co content, calcination, and reduction temperatures on the physicochemical attributes and catalyst activity of the developed catalysts was extensively studied. For this purpose, several characterization techniques including ICP-MS, H2 pulse chemisorption, HRTEM, H2-TPR, N2 adsorption desorption, and TGA were implemented, and the properties of the developed catalysts were carefully analyzed. The impact of reaction temperature, feed gas ratio, and gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) on the reactants conversion and products yield was investigated. Use of 10%Co/Al2O3 catalyst, calcined at 500°C and reduced under H2 at 900°C in DRM reaction at 850°C, CH4/CO2 ratio of 1:1, and GHSV of 6 L.g-1.h-1 resulted in a remarkable catalytic activity and sustainable performance in long-term operation where great CO2 (96%) and CH4 (98%) conversions and high H2 (83%) and CO (91%) yields with a negligible carbon deposition (3 wt%) were attained in 100-h on-stream reaction. The good performance of the developed catalyst in DRM reaction was attributed to the small Co particle size with well-dispersion on the alumina support which increased the catalytic activity and also the strong metal-support interaction which inhibited any serious metal sintering and enhanced the catalyst stability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane*
  3. Knox SH, Bansal S, McNicol G, Schafer K, Sturtevant C, Ueyama M, et al.
    Glob Chang Biol, 2021 08;27(15):3582-3604.
    PMID: 33914985 DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15661
    While wetlands are the largest natural source of methane (CH4 ) to the atmosphere, they represent a large source of uncertainty in the global CH4 budget due to the complex biogeochemical controls on CH4 dynamics. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first multi-site synthesis of how predictors of CH4 fluxes (FCH4) in freshwater wetlands vary across wetland types at diel, multiday (synoptic), and seasonal time scales. We used several statistical approaches (correlation analysis, generalized additive modeling, mutual information, and random forests) in a wavelet-based multi-resolution framework to assess the importance of environmental predictors, nonlinearities and lags on FCH4 across 23 eddy covariance sites. Seasonally, soil and air temperature were dominant predictors of FCH4 at sites with smaller seasonal variation in water table depth (WTD). In contrast, WTD was the dominant predictor for wetlands with smaller variations in temperature (e.g., seasonal tropical/subtropical wetlands). Changes in seasonal FCH4 lagged fluctuations in WTD by ~17 ± 11 days, and lagged air and soil temperature by median values of 8 ± 16 and 5 ± 15 days, respectively. Temperature and WTD were also dominant predictors at the multiday scale. Atmospheric pressure (PA) was another important multiday scale predictor for peat-dominated sites, with drops in PA coinciding with synchronous releases of CH4 . At the diel scale, synchronous relationships with latent heat flux and vapor pressure deficit suggest that physical processes controlling evaporation and boundary layer mixing exert similar controls on CH4 volatilization, and suggest the influence of pressurized ventilation in aerenchymatous vegetation. In addition, 1- to 4-h lagged relationships with ecosystem photosynthesis indicate recent carbon substrates, such as root exudates, may also control FCH4. By addressing issues of scale, asynchrony, and nonlinearity, this work improves understanding of the predictors and timing of wetland FCH4 that can inform future studies and models, and help constrain wetland CH4 emissions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane*
  4. Kumar G, Saratale RG, Kadier A, Sivagurunathan P, Zhen G, Kim SH, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2017 Jun;177:84-92.
    PMID: 28284119 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.02.135
    Bio-electrochemical systems (BESs) are the microbial systems which are employed to produce electricity directly from organic wastes along with some valuable chemicals production such as medium chain fatty acids; acetate, butyrate and alcohols. In this review, recent updates about value-added chemicals production concomitantly with the production of gaseous fuels like hydrogen and methane which are considered as cleaner for the environment have been addressed. Additionally, the bottlenecks associated with the conversion rates, lower yields and other aspects have been mentioned. In spite of its infant stage development, this would be the future trend of energy, biochemicals and electricity production in greener and cleaner pathway with the win-win situation of organic waste remediation. Henceforth, this review intends to summarise and foster the progress made in the BESs and discusses its challenges and outlook on future research advances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane/metabolism*
  5. Hassan SR, Zaman NQ, Dahlan I
    Prep Biochem Biotechnol, 2020;50(3):234-239.
    PMID: 31762367 DOI: 10.1080/10826068.2019.1692214
    Recycled paper mill effluent (RPME) consists of various organic and inorganic compounds. In this study, modified anaerobic hybrid baffled (MAHB) bioreactor has been successfully used to anaerobically digest RPME. The anaerobic digestion was investigated in relation to methane production rate, lignin removal, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, with respect to organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The analysis using kinetic study was carried out under mesophilic conditions (37 ± 2 °C) and influent COD concentrations (1000-4000 mg L-1), to prove its practicability towards RPME treatment. First-order kinetic model was used to clarify the behavior of RPME anaerobic digestion under different OLRs (0.14-4.00 g COD L-1 d-1) and HRT (1-7 d). The result shows that the highest COD removal efficiency and methane production rate were recorded to be 98.07% and 2.2223 L CH4 d-1, respectively. This result was further validated by evaluating the biokinetic coefficients (reaction rate constant (k) and maximum biogas production (ym)), which gave values of k = 0.57 d-1 and ym = 0.331 L d-1. This kinetic data concludes that MAHB presented satisfactory performance towards COD removal with relatively high methane production, which can be further utilized as on-site energy supply.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane/metabolism*
  6. Guo X, Sun C, Lin R, Xia A, Huang Y, Zhu X, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2020 11 15;399:122830.
    PMID: 32937692 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122830
    Stimulating direct interspecies electron transfer with conductive materials is a promising strategy to overcome the limitation of electron transfer efficiency in syntrophic methanogenesis of industrial wastewater. This paper assessed the impact of conductive foam nickel (FN) supplementation on syntrophic methanogenesis and found that addition of 2.45 g/L FN in anaerobic digestion increased the maximum methane production rate by 27.4 % (on day 3) while decreasing the peak production time by 33 % as compared to the control with no FN. Cumulative methane production from day 2 to 6 was 14.5 % higher with addition of 2.45 g/L FN than in the control. Levels of FN in excess of 2.45 g/L did not show benefits. Cyclic voltammetry results indicated that the biofilm formed on the FN could generate electrons. The dominant bacterial genera in suspended sludge were Dechlorobacter and Rikenellaceae DMER64, whereas that in the FN biofilm was Clostridium sensu stricto 11. The dominant archaea Methanosaeta in the FN biofilm was enriched by 14.1 % as compared to the control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane*
  7. Yuzir A, Chelliapan S, Sallis PJ
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Oct;102(20):9456-61.
    PMID: 21862323 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.07.083
    The effects of different hydraulic retention time (HRT) on (RS)-MCPP utilisation was investigated by decreasing the feed flow rate in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). Results showed an average COD removal efficiency of 91.4%, 96.9% and 94.4% when the reactor was operated at HRT 3, 7 and 17 d, respectively. However, when the HRT was reduced to 1d, the COD removal efficiency declined to just only 60%, confirming the AnMBR is stable to a large transient hydraulic shock loads. The (RS)-MCPP removal efficiency fluctuated from 6% to 39% at HRT 3 d, however when it was increased to 7 and 17 d, the removal efficiency increased to an average of 60% and 74.5%. In addition, (RS)-MCPP specific utilisation rates (SUR) were dependent on the HRT and gradually improved from 18 to 43 μg mg VSS(-1) d(-1) as flow rate increased.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane/biosynthesis
  8. Zwain HM, Aziz HA, Ng WJ, Dahlan I
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 May;24(14):13012-13024.
    PMID: 28378314 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8804-0
    Recycled paper mill effluent (RPME) contains high levels of organic and solid compounds, causing operational problems for anaerobic biological treatment. In this study, a unique modified anaerobic inclining-baffled reactor (MAI-BR) has been developed to treat RPME at various initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations (1000-4000 mg/L) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (3 and 1 day). The COD removal efficiency was decreased from 96 to 83% when the organic loading rate (OLR) was increased from 0.33 to 4 g/L day. Throughout the study, a maximum methane yield of 0.25 L CH4/g COD was obtained, while the pH fluctuated in the range of 5.8 to 7.8. The reactor performance was influenced by the development and distribution of the microbial communities. Based on the next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis, the microbial community represented a variety of bacterial phyla with significant homology to Euryarchaeota (43.06%), Planctomycetes (24.68%), Proteobacteria (21.58%), Acidobacteria (4.12%), Chloroflexi (3.14%), Firmicutes (1.12%), Bacteroidetes (1.02%), and others (1.28%). The NGS analysis showed that the microbial community was dominated by Methanosaeta concilii and Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. This can be supported by the presence of filamentous and spherical microbes of different sizes. Additionally, methanogenic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) microorganisms coexisted in all compartments, and these contributed to the overall degradation of substances in the RPME. Graphical abstract ᅟ.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane/chemistry
  9. Prananto JA, Minasny B, Comeau LP, Rudiyanto R, Grace P
    Glob Chang Biol, 2020 08;26(8):4583-4600.
    PMID: 32391633 DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15147
    Tropical peatlands are vital ecosystems that play an important role in global carbon storage and cycles. Current estimates of greenhouse gases from these peatlands are uncertain as emissions vary with environmental conditions. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of managed and natural tropical peatland GHG fluxes: heterotrophic (i.e. soil respiration without roots), total CO2 respiration rates, CH4 and N2 O fluxes. The study documents studies that measure GHG fluxes from the soil (n = 372) from various land uses, groundwater levels and environmental conditions. We found that total soil respiration was larger in managed peat ecosystems (median = 52.3 Mg CO2  ha-1  year-1 ) than in natural forest (median = 35.9 Mg CO2  ha-1  year-1 ). Groundwater level had a stronger effect on soil CO2 emission than land use. Every 100 mm drop of groundwater level caused an increase of 5.1 and 3.7 Mg CO2  ha-1  year-1 for plantation and cropping land use, respectively. Where groundwater is deep (≥0.5 m), heterotrophic respiration constituted 84% of the total emissions. N2 O emissions were significantly larger at deeper groundwater levels, where every drop in 100 mm of groundwater level resulted in an exponential emission increase (exp(0.7) kg N ha-1  year-1 ). Deeper groundwater levels induced high N2 O emissions, which constitute about 15% of total GHG emissions. CH4 emissions were large where groundwater is shallow; however, they were substantially smaller than other GHG emissions. When compared to temperate and boreal peatland soils, tropical peatlands had, on average, double the CO2 emissions. Surprisingly, the CO2 emission rates in tropical peatlands were in the same magnitude as tropical mineral soils. This comprehensive analysis provides a great understanding of the GHG dynamics within tropical peat soils that can be used as a guide for policymakers to create suitable programmes to manage the sustainability of peatlands effectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane/analysis
  10. Kong Y, Ma NL, Yang X, Lai Y, Feng Z, Shao X, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Oct;265(Pt A):114951.
    PMID: 32554093 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114951
    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), contribute significantly to global warming, and they have increased substantially over the years. Reforestation is considered as an important forestry application for carbon sequestration and GHGs emission reduction, however, it remains unknown whether reforestation may instead produce too much CO2 and N2O contibuting to GHGs pollution. This study was performed to characterize and examine the CO2 and N2O emissions and their controlling factors in different species and types of pure and mixture forest used for reforestation. Five soil layers from pure forest Platycladus orientalis (PO), Robinia pseudoacacia (RP), and their mixed forest P-R in the Taihang mountains of central China were sampled and incubated aerobically for 11 days. The P-R soil showed lower CO2 and N2O production potentials than those of the PO soils (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane/analysis
  11. Kurniawan TA, Liang X, Singh D, Othman MHD, Goh HH, Gikas P, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2022 Jan 01;301:113882.
    PMID: 34638040 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113882
    Due to its increasing demands for fossil fuels, Indonesia needs an alternative energy to diversify its energy supply. Landfill gas (LFG), which key component is methane (CH4), has become one of the most attractive options to sustain its continued economic development. This exploratory study seeks to demonstrate the added value of landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) in generating sustainable energy, resulting from CH4 emissions in the Bantargebang landfill (Jakarta). The power generation capacity of a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant based on a mathematical modeling was investigated. This article critically evaluated the production of electricity and potential income from its sale in the market. The project's environmental impact assessment and its socio-economic and environmental benefits in terms of quantitative and qualitative aspects were discussed. It was found that the emitted CH4 from the landfill could be reduced by 25,000 Mt annually, while its electricity generation could reach one million kW ⋅h annually, savings on equivalent electricity charge worth US$ 112 million/year (based on US' 8/kW ⋅ h). An equivalent CO2 mitigation of 3.4 × 106 Mt/year was obtained. The income from its power sale were US$ 1.2 ×106 in the 1st year and 7.7 ×107US$ in the 15th year, respectively, based on the projected CH4 and power generation. The modeling study on the Bantargebang landfill using the LFG extraction data indicated that the LFG production ranged from 0.05 to 0.40 m3 per kg of the landfilled MSW. The LFG could generate electricity as low as US' 8 per kW ⋅ h. With respect to the implications of this study, the revenue not only defrays the cost of landfill's operations and maintenance (O&M), but also provides an incentive and means to further improve its design and operations. Overall, this work not only leads to a diversification of primary energy, but also improves environmental protection and the living standard of the people surrounding the plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane/analysis
  12. Chai, S.P., Zein, S.H.S., Mohamed, A.R.
    ASM Science Journal, 2008;2(1):57-64.
    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991, a fundamental question still remained on how to control morphologically the synthesis of CNTs. This task has always been a challenge. In this paper, we report the results that we have published previously with the aim of sharing the possible controlled synthesis approach via this novel production method. Findings demonstrated that various CNTs could be synthesized by using specially developed supported catalysts from the catalytic decomposition of methane. These synthesized CNTs include carbon nanofibres, single-walled and multi-walled CNTs, Y-junction CNTs and CNTs with special morphologies. It was also revealed that catalyst composition and reaction parameters played an important role in controlling the morphology and type of CNTs formed. The synthesis of CNTs with various morphologies is important because this can enrich the nanostructures of the carbon family. This finding also provides useful data for better understanding of the parameters that govern the growth mechanism of CNTs which may be required in the near future for enhanced controlled synthesis of CNTs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane
  13. Kamarudin, K.S.N., Chieng, Y.Y., Hamdan, H., Mat, H.
    ASM Science Journal, 2008;2(1):35-44.
    The importance of zeolite surface area and pore volume in adsorption processes has been much reported in literature. In addition to that, structural framework and pore network system may also influence the adsorption capacity and selectivity of methane on zeolite. This paper discusses the characteristics of methane adsorption based on several physical properties of the adsorbents such as surface area, pore volume, pore network system and its interaction with adsorbate. The study, using FTIR spectroscopy showed that the adsorbed methane at room temperature was detected in the FTIR region between 3200 cm–1 – 1200 cm–1. Based on the physical properties of the adsorbents and the FTIR spectra of adsorbed methane, the surface area was not the only factor that determined methane adsorption; in fact the type of pore network system of the adsorbent also affected the interaction, thus affecting the adsorption of methane in zeolite.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane
  14. Khairudin NF, Sukri MFF, Khavarian M, Mohamed AR
    Beilstein J Nanotechnol, 2018;9:1162-1183.
    PMID: 29719767 DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.9.108
    Dry reforming of methane (DRM) is one of the more promising methods for syngas (synthetic gas) production and co-utilization of methane and carbon dioxide, which are the main greenhouse gases. Magnesium is commonly applied in a Ni-based catalyst in DRM to improve catalyst performance and inhibit carbon deposition. The aim of this review is to gain better insight into recent developments on the use of Mg as a support or promoter for DRM catalysts. Its high basicity and high thermal stability make Mg suitable for introduction into the highly endothermic reaction of DRM. The introduction of Mg as a support or promoter for Ni-based catalysts allows for good metal dispersion on the catalyst surface, which consequently facilitates high catalytic activity and low catalyst deactivation. The mechanism of DRM and carbon formation and reduction are reviewed. This work further explores how different constraints, such as the synthesis method, metal loading, pretreatment, and operating conditions, influence the dry reforming reactions and product yields. In this review, different strategies for enhancing catalytic activity and the effect of metal dispersion on Mg-containing oxide catalysts are highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane
  15. Arij Y, Fatihah S, Rakmi AR
    Bioresour Technol, 2018 Jul;260:213-220.
    PMID: 29626780 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.03.131
    The anaerobic treatment of leachate from a municipal waste transfer station in Malaysia was tested using a pilot scale anaerobic biofilm digester system that was operated under HRT sequence of 30-day, 25-day, 20-day and 10-day for 163 days under mesophilic conditions. Despite the leachate's complex characteristics, the system showed great performance given its maximum COD, BOD5 and total phosphorus removal efficiencies of 98 ± 1%, 99 ± 1% and 92 ± 9% respectively. The system was stable throughout its operation and showed optimal average values for the monitored parameters such as pH (7.53 ± 0.14), total VFA (79 ± 66 mg HOAc/L), alkalinity (10,919 ± 1556 mg CaCO3/L) and a non-toxic value for accumulated ammonia (960 ± 106 mg NH3-N/L). Measurement of the average daily biogas production yielded a value of 25 ± 1 m3/day throughout the system's operation with a composition of 57 ± 12% methane and 26 ± 6% carbon dioxide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane
  16. Fauzan NAB, Mukhtar H, Nasir R, Mohshim DFB, Arasu N, Man Z, et al.
    R Soc Open Sci, 2020 Sep;7(9):200795.
    PMID: 33047043 DOI: 10.1098/rsos.200795
    The key challenge in the synthesis of composite mixed matrix membrane (MMMs) is the incompatible membrane fabrication using porous support in the dry-wet phase inversion technique. The key objective of this research is to synthesize thin composite ternary (amine) mixed matrix membranes on microporous support by incorporating 10 wt% of carbon molecular sieve (CMS) and 5-15 wt% of diethanolamine (DEA) in polyethersulfone (PES) dope solution for the separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from methane (CH4) at high-pressure applications. The developed membranes were evaluated for their morphological structure, thermal and mechanical stabilities, functional groups, as well as for CO2-CH4 separation performance at high pressure (10-30 bar). The results showed that the developed membranes have asymmetric structure, and they are mechanically strong at 30 bar. This new class of PES/CMS/DEA composite MMMs exhibited improved gas permeance compared to pure PES composite polymeric membrane. CO2-CH4 perm-selectivity enhanced from 8.15 to 16.04 at 15 wt% of DEA at 30 bar pressure. The performance of amine composite MMMs is theoretically predicted using a modified Maxwell model. The predictions were in good agreement with experimental data after applying the optimized values with AARE % = ∼less than 2% and R2 = 0.99.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane
  17. Mahmod SS, Azahar AM, Luthfi AAI, Abdul PM, Mastar MS, Anuar N, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 06 08;10(1):9167.
    PMID: 32514030 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-65702-w
    Two-stage anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a promising method for converting the waste from the largest agricultural industry in Southeast Asia into a clean and sustainable energy. This study investigates the degradation of acid-rich effluent from the dark fermentation stage for the production of biomethane (BioCH4) in a 30-L continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR). The continuous methanogenic process was operated with varied HRTs (10 - 1 day) and OLRs (4.6-40.6 gCOD/L.d-1) under thermophilic conditions. Methanothermobacter sp. was the dominant thermophilic archaea that was responsible for the production rate of 4.3 LCH4/LPOME.d-1 and methane yield of 256.77 LCH4kgCOD at HRT of 2 d, which is the lowest HRT reported in the literature. The process was able to digest 85% and 64% of the initial POME's COD and TSS, respectively. The formation of methane producing granules (MPG) played a pivotal role in sustaining the efficient and productive anaerobic system. We report herein that the anaerobic digestion was not only beneficial in reducing the contaminants in the liquid effluent, but generating BioCH4 gas with a positive net energy gain of 7.6 kJ/gCOD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane
  18. Dehhaghi M, Tabatabaei M, Aghbashlo M, Kazemi Shariat Panahi H, Nizami AS
    J Environ Manage, 2019 Dec 01;251:109597.
    PMID: 31563049 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109597
    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic wastes is among the most promising approaches used for the simultaneous treatment of various waste streams, environment conservation, and renewable bioenergy generation (biomethane). Among the latest innovations investigated to enhance the overall performance of this process both qualitatively and quantitatively, the application of some nanoparticles (NPs) has attracted a great deal of attention. Typically, the NPs of potential benefit to the AD process could be divided into three groups: (i) zero-valent iron (ZVI) NPs, (ii) metallic and metal oxides NPs, and (iii) carbon-based NPs. The present review focuses on the latest findings reported on the application of these NPs in AD process and presents their various mechanisms of action leading to higher or lower biogas production rates. Among the NPs studies, ZVI NPs could be regarded as the most promising nanomaterials for enhancing biogas production through stabilizing the AD process as well as by stimulating the growth of beneficial microorganisms to the AD process and the enzymes involved. Future research should focus on various attributes of NPs when used as additives in biogas production, including facilitating mixing and pumping operations, enriching the population and diversity of beneficial microorganisms for AD, improving biogas release, and inducing the production and activity of AD-related enzymes. The higher volume of methane-enriched biogas would be translated into higher returns on investment and could therefore, result in further growth of the biogas production industry. Nevertheless, efforts should be devoted to decreasing the price of NPs so that the enhanced biogas and methane production (by over 90%, compared to control) would be more economically justified, facilitating the large-scale application of these compounds. In addition to economic considerations, environmental issues are also regarded as major constraints which should be addressed prior to widespread implementation of NP-augmented AD processes. More specifically, the fate of NPs augmented in AD process should be scrutinized to ensure maximal beneficial impacts while adverse environmental/health consequences are minimized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane
  19. Yan W, Vadivelu V, Maspolim Y, Zhou Y
    Waste Manag, 2021 Feb 01;120:221-229.
    PMID: 33310598 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2020.11.047
    Anaerobic digestion is a promising way for resource recovery from waste cooking oil (WCO) due to its high bio-methanation potential. In-situ mild alkaline (pH 8) enhanced two-stage continuous stirred tank reactors (ALK-2-CSTRs) were implemented to explore its efficiency in co-digesting WCO and sewage sludge with stepwise increase of WCO in the co-substrates. Results demonstrate that the ALK-2-CSTRs effectively promoted methane yield from the co-substrates via promoting hydrolysis, long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) degradation and protecting methanogens from exposure to high concentration of LCFAs directly. The maximum methane yield of the ALK-2-CSTRs is 39.2% higher than that of a single stage CSTR system at the optimal feed mixture of 45:55 (WCO:SS [VS]). The thermophilic operation applied to the stage-1 of the ALK-2-CSTRs failed to improve the methane yield when the methanogenic performance was stable; while upon WCO overloaded, the elevated temperature mitigated the deterioration of methanogenesis by stimulating the bioconversion of the toxic LCFAs, especially the unsaturated oleic acid. Microbial community analysis reveals the ALK-2-CSTRs stimulated the growth of lipolytic bacteria and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, which suggests the hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway was promoted. Cost evaluation demonstrates the economical superiority of the ALK-2-CSTR over the prevailing strategies developed for enhancing methane yield from the co-substrates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane
  20. Ramli SB, Ravoof TB, Tahir MI, Tiekink ER
    Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun, 2015 Jul 1;71(Pt 7):o475-6.
    PMID: 26279916 DOI: 10.1107/S205698901501107X
    In the title compound, C15H16N2S3 {systematic name: [({[(4-methyl-phen-yl)meth-yl]sulfan-yl}methane-thio-yl)amino][1-(thio-phen-2-yl)ethyl-idene]amine}, the central CN2S2 residue is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0061 Å) and forms dihedral angles of 7.39 (10) and 64.91 (5)° with the thienyl and p-tolyl rings, respectively; the dihedral angle between these rings is 57.52 (6)°. The non-thione S atoms are syn, and with respect to the thione S atom, the benzyl group is anti. In the crystal, centrosymmetrically related mol-ecules self-associate via eight-membered {⋯HNCS}2 synthons. The dimeric aggregates stack along the a axis and are are consolidated into a three-dimensional architecture via methyl-C-H⋯π(benzene) and benzene-C-H⋯π(thien-yl) inter-actions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methane
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