Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells of the immune system. They can be generated in vitro from peripheral blood monocytes supplemented with GM-CSF, IL-4 and TNF alpha. During induction, DCs will increase in size and acquire multiple cytoplasmic projections when compared to their precursor cells such as monocytes or haematopoietic stem cells which are usually round or spherical. Morphology of DCs can be visualized by conventional light microscopy after staining or phase-contrast inverted microscopy or confocal laser scanning microscopy. In this report, we described the morphological appearances of DCs captured using the above-mentioned techniques. We found that confocal laser scanning microscopy yielded DCs images with greater details but the operating cost for such a technique is high. On the other hand, the images obtained through light microscopy after appropriate staining or phase contrast microscopy were acceptable for identification purpose. Besides, these equipments are readily available in most laboratories and the cost of operation is affordable. Nevertheless, morphological identification is just one of the methods to characterise DCs. Other methods such as phenotypic expression markers and mixed leukocyte reactions are additional tools used in the characterisation of DCs.
A new technique based on the statistical autoregressive (AR) model has recently been developed as a solution to signal-to-noise (SNR) estimation in scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. In the present study, we propose to cascade the Lagrange time delay (LTD) estimator with the AR model. We call this technique the mixed Lagrange time delay estimation autoregressive (MLTDEAR) model. In a few test cases involving different images, this model is found to present an optimum solution for SNR estimation problems under different noise environments. In addition, it requires only a small filter order and has no noticeable estimation bias. The performance of the proposed estimator is compared with three existing methods: simple method, first-order linear interpolator, and AR-based estimator over several images. The efficiency of the MLTDEAR estimator, being more robust with noise, is significantly greater than that of the other three methods.
Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) was able to quantify the β-carotene concentration in oil droplets and determine the partitioning characteristics of β-carotene within the emulsion system in situ. The results were validated by a conventional method involving solvent extraction of β-carotene separately from the total emulsion as well as the aqueous phase separated by centrifugation, and quantification by absorption spectrophotometry. CRM also enabled the localization of β-carotene in an emulsion. From the Raman image, the β-carotene partitioning between the aqueous and oil phases of palm olein-in-water emulsions stabilized by whey protein isolate (WPI) was observed. Increasing the concentration of β-carotene in an emulsion (from 0.1 to 0.3g/kg emulsion) with a fixed gross composition (10% palm olein:2% WPI) decreased the concentration of β-carotene in the oil droplet. CRM is a powerful tool for in situ analyses of components in heterogeneous systems such as emulsions.
In this work, polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) were prepared through solution casting technique. The CNW was first isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch microcrystalline cellulose (OPEFB-MCC) by using 64% H2SO4 and was designated as CNW-S. The optical microscopy revealed that the large particle of OPEFB-MCC has been broken down by the hydrolysis treatment. The atomic force microscopy confirmed that the CNW-S obtained is in nanoscale dimension and appeared in individual rod-like character. The produced CNW-S was then incorporated with PLA at 1, 3, and 5 parts per hundred (phr) resins for the PLA-CNW-S nanocomposite production. The synthesized nanocomposites were then characterized by a mean of tensile properties and thermal stability. Interestingly to note that incorporating of 3 phr/CNW-S in PLA improved the tensile strength by 61%. Also, CNW-S loading showed a positive impact on the Young's modulus of PLA. The elongation at break (Eb) of nanocomposites, however, decreased with the addition of CNW-S. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the CNW-S dispersed well in PLA at lower filler loading before it started to agglomerate at higher CNW-S loading (5phr). The DSC analysis of the nanocomposites obtained showed that Tg,Tcc and Tm values of PLA were improved with CNW-S loading. The TGA analysis however, revealed that incopreated CNW-S in PLA effect the thermal stability (T10,T50 and Tmax) of nanocomposite, where it decrease linearly with CNW-S loading.
Fat is an important ingredient in baking products and it plays many roles in providing desirable textural properties of baking products, particularly biscuit. In this study, the effect of fat types on dough rheological properties and quality of semi-sweet biscuit (rich tea type) were investigated using various techniques. Texture profile and extensibility analysis were used to study the dough rheology, while three-point bend test and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyse the textural characteristics of final product. TPA results showed that the type of fat significantly influenced dough textural properties. Biscuit produced with higher solid fat oil showed higher breaking force but this was not significantly different when evaluated by sensory panel. Scanning electron microscopy showed that biscuit produced with palm mid-fraction had an open internal microstructure and heterogeneous air cells as compared to other samples.
This is the extended project by introducing the modified dynamic range histogram modification (MDRHM) and is presented in this paper. This technique is used to enhance the scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging system. By comparing with the conventional histogram modification compensators, this technique utilizes histogram profiling by extending the dynamic range of each tile of an image to the limit of 0-255 range while retains its histogram shape. The proposed technique yields better image compensation compared to conventional methods.
Pollen micro-morphological features have proven to be helpful for the plant taxonomists in the identification and classification of plants. The utilization of this plantmayhelpfulin the areas of lignocellulosic conversion to biofuels and diversify application toward biomass. The current study was planned with the aim to evaluate the pollen features of complex Ranunculaceous flora of District Chitral, Northern Pakistan using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Light Microscope (LM) for their taxonomic importance. Pollens of 18 Ranunculaceous species belonging to 6 genera were collected from different localities of the research area. SEM and LM were used to examine both qualitative and quantitative micro-morphological features. Sculptring of the sexine include; Scabrate, psilate, echinate, verrucate, perforate gemmate, and reticulate and so forth. Shape of the pollens was sub-spheroidal, spheroidal, prolate, subprolate and oblate and so forth. Type of pollen was ranged from mono to tricolpate and tricolporate. Quantitative characters include length/width of the pollen, colpus, exine thickness, and P/E ratio. Based on these micro-morphological features a taxonomic key was prepared for the fast and correct identification. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT: Study of the pollen micro-morphological features of Ranunculaceous species by SEM and LM. Analysing both qualitative and quantitative characters of the pollens. Preparation of taxonomic key based on micro-morphological features for the correct and fast identification.
In-situ observations of the polymorphic transformation in a single targeted Cu₆Sn₅ grain constrained between Sn-0.7 wt % Cu solder and Cu-Cu₃Sn phases and the associated structural evolution during a solid-state thermal cycle were achieved via a high-voltage transmission electron microscope (HV-TEM) technique. Here, we show that the monoclinic η'-Cu₆Sn₅ superlattice reflections appear in the hexagonal η-Cu₆Sn₅ diffraction pattern upon cooling to isothermal 140 °C from 210 °C. The in-situ real space imaging shows that the η'-Cu₆Sn₅ contrast pattern is initiated at the grain boundary. This method demonstrates a new approach for further understanding the polymorphic transformation behavior on a real solder joint.
The morphological data of Malesian Lejeunea is described in detail based on examination of about 600 fresh specimens and 1500 herbarium specimens of Lejeunea from other herbaria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and photographs illustrating the characters of Lejeunea are presented.
Influence of laser treatment on mechanical properties, wear resistance, and Vickers hardness of aluminum alloy was studied. The specimens were treated by using Nd:YaG laser of energy 780 mj, wavelength 512 nm, and duration time 8 ns. The wear behavior of the specimens was studied for all specimens before and after treatment by Nd:YaG laser and the dry wear experiments were carried out by sing pinon-disc technique. The specimens were machined as a disk with diameter of 25 mm and circular groove in depth of 3 mm. All specimens were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDS), optical microscopy, and Vickers hardness. The results showed that the dry wear rate was decreased after laser hardening and increased Vickers hardness values by ratio of 2.4:1. The results showed that the values of wear rate for samples having circular grooves are less than samples without grooves after laser treatment.
We investigated microwave-stimulated fixation of tissues for transmission electron microscopy using a domestic microwave oven operating at a frequency of 2.45 GHz with an output power of 500W. Microwave-stimulated fixation, in 4% glutaraldehyde, of fresh rat kidney, liver, heart and brain tissues was compared to conventional fixation. Human renal biopsies were similarly studied. Electron microscopy showed excellent ultrastructural preservation comparable to that obtained by conventional fixation. The optimal temperature range for microwave-stimulated fixation was found to lie between 50 degrees C and 55 degrees C. Our results indicate that microwave-stimulated fixation is a rapid and reproducible technique and can be effectively applied to routine diagnostic pathology.
Atomic force microscopes (AFM) as one of the scanning probe microscopy (spm) modes have become useful tools, not only for observing surface morphology and nanostructure topography but also for fabrication of various nanostructures itself. In this work, silicon oxide (SiOx) patterns were formed on Si(100) surface by means of AFM anodization, where a non-contact mode used to oxidize Si wafer at the nanoscale size. The oxide patterns could serve as masks for the chemical etching of Si surface in alkaline solution in order to create the Si nanodots. A special attention is paid to finding relations between the size of dots and operational parameters as tip bias voltage and tip writing speed Dot arrays with 10 nm high and less than 50 nm in diameter have been successfully fabricated. The ability to control oxidation and scanning speed can be utilized in fabrication of complex nanostructures and make scanning probe lithography (SPL) as a very promising lithographic technique in nanoelectronic devices, nanophotonics and other high-tech areas.
This article reports on the studies of structural and optical properties of nanoporous GaN prepared by Pt assisted electro chemical etching. The porous GaN samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical transmission (OT). SEM images liang indicated that the density of the pores increased with etching duration, however, the etching duration has no significant effect on the size and shape of the pores. AFM measurements exhibited that the surface roughness was increased with etching durations, however, for long etching duration, the increase of the surface roughness became insignificant. OT measurements revealed that the increase of pore density would lead to the reduction of light transmission. The studies showed that the porosity could influence the structural and optical properties of the GaN.
Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Microscopy, Atomic Force
Microstructural, topology, inner morphology, and gas-sensitivity of mixed xWO(3)(1-x)Y(2)O(3) nanoparticles (x = 1, 0.95, 0.9, 0.85, 0.8) thick-film semiconductor gas sensors were studied. The surface topography and inner morphological properties of the mixed powder and sensing film were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, gas sensitivity properties of the printed films were evaluated in the presence of methane (CH(4)) and butane (C(4)H(10)) at up to 500 °C operating temperature of the sensor. The results show that the doping agent can modify some structural properties and gas sensitivity of the mixed powder.
The preparation and observations of spheroplast W303 cells are described with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM). The spheroplasting conversion was successfully confirmed qualitatively, by the evaluation of the morphological change between the normal W303 cells and the spheroplast W303 cells, and quantitatively, by determining the spheroplast conversion percentage based on the OD800 absorbance data. From the optical microscope observations as expected, the normal cells had an oval shape whereas spheroplast cells resemble a spherical shape. This was also confirmed under four different mediums, that is, yeast peptone-dextrose (YPD), sterile water, sorbitol-EDTA-sodium citrate buffer (SCE), and sorbitol-Tris-Hcl-CaCl2 (CaS). It was also observed that the SCE and CaS mediums had a higher number of spheroplast cells as compared to the YPD and sterile water mediums. The OD800 absorbance data also showed that the whole W303 cells were fully converted to the spheroplast cells after about 15 minutes. The observations of the normal and the spheroplast W303 cells were then performed under an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The normal cells showed a smooth cell surface whereas the spheroplast cells had a bleb-like surface after the loss of its integrity when removing the cell wall.
The objective of the present study was to develop, optimize, and evaluate rotigotine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (RNPs) for nose-to-brain delivery. Rotigotine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by the ionic gelation method and optimized for various parameters such as the effect of chitosan, sodium tripolyphosphate, rotigotine concentration on particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using photon correlation spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The developed RNPs showed a small hydrodynamic particle size (75.37 ± 3.37 nm), small PDI (0.368 ± 0.02), satisfactory zeta potential (25.53 ± 0.45 mV), and very high entrapment efficiency (96.08 ± 0.01). The 24-h in vitro release and ex vivo nasal permeation of rotigotine from the nanoparticles were 49.45 ± 2.09% and 92.15 ± 4.74% while rotigotine solution showed corresponding values of 95.96 ± 1.79%and 58.22 ± 1.75%, respectively. The overall improvement ratio for flux and permeability coefficient were found to be 4.88 and 2.67 when compared with rotigotine solution. A histopathological study showed that the nanoparticulate formulation produced no toxicity or structural damage to nasal mucosa. Our results indicated that rotigotine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles provide an efficient carrier for nose-to-brain delivery.
Highly ordered vertically grown zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) were synthesized on ZnO-coated SiO2/Si substrate using zinc acetylacetonate hydrate as a precursor via a simple hydrothermal method at 85 °C. We used 0.05 M of ZnO solution to facilitate the growth of ZnO NRs and the immersion time was varied from 0.5 to 4 h. The atomic force microscopy revealed the surface roughness of ZnO seed layer used to grow the ZnO NRs. The morphology of vertically grown ZnO NRs was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction examination and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the structure of highly ordered ZnO NRs was crystalline with a strong (002) peak corresponded to ZnO hexagonal wurtzite structure. The growth of highly ordered ZnO NRs was favorable due to the continuous supply of Zn2+ ions and chelating agents properties obtained from the acetylacetonate-derived precursor during the synthesis. Two-point probe current-voltage measurement and UV-vis spectroscopy of the ZnO NRs indicated a resistivity and optical bandgap value of 0.44 Ω.cm and 3.35 eV, respectively. The photoluminescence spectrum showed a broad peak centered at 623 nm in the visible region corresponded to the oxygen vacancies from the ZnO NRs. This study demonstrates that acetylacetonate-derived precursors can be used for the production of ZnO NRs-based devices with a potential application in biosensors.
A halloysite nanotubes⁻polyvinyl alcohol⁻polyvinylpyrrolidone (HNTs⁻PVA⁻PVP) composite has been investigated for a quite long time aiming at improving the physico⁻chemical characterization of HNTs. In this work, HNTs⁻PVA⁻PVP composite were prepared based on a unique procedure characterized by crosslinking two polymers with HNTs. The composite of two polymers were modified by treating HNTs with phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄) and by using malonic acid (MA) as a crosslinker. The composite was also treated by adding the dispersion agent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The HNTs⁻PVA⁻PVP composite shows better characteristics regarding agglomeration when HNTs is treated in advance by H₃PO₄. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), brunauer⁻emmett⁻teller (BET), size distribution, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to characterize the physio-chemical properties of the composite. FTIR shows additional peaks at 2924.29, 1455.7, and 682.4 cm-1 compared to the neat HNTs due to adding MA. Despite that, the XRD spectra do not show a significant difference, the decrease in peak intensity could be attributed to the addition of semi-crystalline PVA and the amorphous PVP. The images taken by TEM and FESEM show the possible effects of MA on the morphology and internal feature of HNTs⁻PVA⁻PVP composite treated by MA by showing the deformation of the matrix. The BET surface area increased to 121.1 m²/g compared to the neat HNTs at 59.1 m²/g. This result, the second highest recorded result, is considered a breakthrough in enhancing the properties of HNTs⁻PVA⁻PVP composite, and treatment by MA crosslinking may attribute to the size and the number of the pores. The results from these techniques clearly showed that a significant change has occurred for treated HNTs⁻PVA⁻PVP composite where MA was added. The characterization of HNTs⁻PVA⁻PVP composite with and without treating HNTs and using crosslinker may lead to a better understanding of this new composites as a precursor to possible applications in the dentistry field.