Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 296 in total

  1. Rahman A, Islam MT, Singh MJ, Kibria S, Akhtaruzzaman M
    Sci Rep, 2016 12 23;6:38906.
    PMID: 28008923 DOI: 10.1038/srep38906
    In this paper, we report a compact and ultra-wide band antenna on a flexible substrate using the 5-(4-(perfluorohexyl)phenyl)thiophene-2-carbaldehyde compound for microwave imaging. In contrast to other microwave based imaging systems, such as an array of 16 antennas, we proposed a bi-static radar based imaging system consisting of two omnidirectional antennas, which reduces complexity and the overall dimension. The proposed compact antennas are 20 × 14 mm2 and designed for operating at frequencies from 4 to 6 GHz. To allow for implantation into a bra, the electromagnetic performances of the antennas must be considered in bending conditions. In comparison with the recently reported flexible antennas, we demonstrated both electromagnetic performance and imaging reconstruction for bending conditions. For the proof of concept, the electromagnetic performances both at flat and bending conditions have been verified using a homogeneous multilayer model of the human breast phantom. Our results demonstrate that the antenna, even at bending conditions, exhibits an excellent omni-directional radiation pattern with an average efficiency above 70% and average gain above 1 dBi, within the operational frequency band. The comprehensive aim of the realized antenna is to design a biodegradable and wearable antenna-based bra for early breast cancer detection in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves*
  2. Norbahiah Misran, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal Faruque, Nurul Hafizah Mohd Hanafi, Farizah Ansarudin, Mohd Faisal Ibrahim
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:779-785.
    Kertas ini membincangkan kaedah untuk mengurangkan kesan interaksi gelombang elektromagnet dengan kepala manusia menggunakan bahan ferit dan metabahan. Pengukuran pengurangan bagi Kadar Penyerapan Spesifik (SAR) menggunakan bahan ferit dan metabahan telah dilaksana dengan kaedah domain-masa perbezaan-terhingga (FDTD) model Lossy-Drude melalui perisian CST Microwave Studio. Metabahan dibentuk dengan menyusun penyalun cincin terpisah (SRRs) secara berkala. Nilai SAR diukur pada beberapa nilai jarak antara model kepala dengan telefon, kelebaran, ketebalan dan ketinggian bahan ferit dan metabahan. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa nilai SAR1g telah berkurang kepada 1.043 W/kg dengan menggunakan bahan ferit dan 1.161 W/kg dengan menggunakan metabahan. Bagi SAR10g, nilai SAR menurun kepada 0.676 W/kg menggunakan bahan ferit dan 0.737 W/kg dengan menggunakan metabahan. Keputusan bagi nilai SAR dalam kepala manusia dengan kehadiran SRR yang membentuk metabahan telah dianalisis untuk menentusahkan kesan bagi pengurangan SAR ini. Keputusan analisis ini boleh memberikan maklumat yang dapat membantu dalam reka bentuk peralatan komunikasi tanpa wayar bagi mematuhi peraturan keselamatan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves
  3. Azim R, Islam MT, Misran N, Yatim B, Arshad H
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:563830.
    PMID: 25133245 DOI: 10.1155/2014/563830
    A small antenna with single notch band at 3.5 GHz is designed for ultrawideband (UWB) communication applications. The fabricated antenna comprises a radiating monopole element and a perfectly conducting ground plane with a wide slot. To achieve a notch band at 3.5 GHz, a parasitic element has been inserted in the same plane of the substrate along with the radiating patch. Experimental results shows that, by properly adjusting the position of the parasitic element, the designed antenna can achieve an ultrawide operating band of 3.04 to 11 GHz with a notched band operating at 3.31-3.84 GHz. Moreover, the proposed antenna achieved a good gain except at the notched band and exhibits symmetric radiation patterns throughout the operating band. The prototype of the proposed antenna possesses a very compact size and uses simple structures to attain the stop band characteristic with an aim to lessen the interference between UWB and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) band.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves*
  4. Alam MS, Islam MT, Arshad H
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:159468.
    PMID: 24883354 DOI: 10.1155/2014/159468
    A multiband microstrip resonator is proposed in this study which is realized through a rectangular radiator with embedded symmetrical rectangular slots in it and a defected ground surface. The study is presented with detailed parametric analyses to understand the effect of various design parameters. The design and analyses are performed using the FIT based full-wave electromagnetic simulator CST microwave studio suite. With selected parameter values, the resonator showed a peak gain of 5.85 dBi at 5.2 GHz, 6.2 dBi at 8.3 GHz, 3.9 dBi at 9.5 GHz, 5.9 dBi at 12.2 GHz, and 4.7 dBi at 14.6 GHz. Meanwhile, the main lobe magnitude and the 3 dB angular beam width are 6.2 dBi and 86°, 5.9 dBi and 53.7°, 8.5 dBi and 43.9°, 8.6 dBi and 42.1°, and 4.7 dBi and 30.1°, respectively, at the resonant frequencies. The overall resonator has a compact dimension of 0.52λ  × 0.52λ  × 0.027λ at the lower resonant frequency. For practical validation, a lab prototype was built on a 1.6 mm thick epoxide woven glass fabric dielectric material which is measured using a vector network analyzer and within an anechoic chamber. The comparison between the simulated and measured results showed a very good understanding, which implies the practical suitability of the proposed multiband resonator design.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves*
  5. Khan NI, Ijaz K, Zahid M, Khan AS, Abdul Kadir MR, Hussain R, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Nov 1;56:286-93.
    PMID: 26249592 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.05.025
    Hydroxyapatite is used extensively in hard tissue repair due to its biocompatibility and similarity to biological apatite, the mineral component of bone. It differs subtly in composition from biological apatite which contains other ions such as magnesium, zinc, carbonate and silicon (believed to play biological roles). Traditional methods of hydroxyapatite synthesis are time consuming and require strict reaction parameter control. This paper outlines synthesis of magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite using simple microwave irradiation of precipitated suspensions. Microwave irradiation resulted in a drastic decrease in ageing times of amorphous apatitic phases. Time taken to synthesize hydroxyapatite (which remained stable upon heat treatment at 900°C for 1h) reduced twelve folds (to 2h) as compared to traditionally required times. The effects of increasing magnesium concentration in the precursors on particle size, surface area, phase-purity, agglomeration and thermal stability, were observed using scanning electron microscopy, BET surface area analysis, X-ray diffraction and photo acoustic Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Porous agglomerates were obtained after a brief heat-treatment (1h) at 900°C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves*
  6. Ng KH
    Med Lab Sci, 1991 Jul;48(3):189-92.
    PMID: 1787775
    Uniformity of electric field intensity of microwaves within the microwave oven cavity is necessary to ensure even load-heating, and is particularly important in pathology procedures where small volume irradiation is carried out. A simple and rapid method for mapping electric field distribution, using reversible thermographic paint, is described. Spatial heating patterns for various positions, and the effects of introducing dummy loads to modify heating distributions, have been obtained for a dedicated microwave processor, and comparison made with a domestic microwave oven.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves*
  7. Ho GS, Faizal HM, Ani FN
    Waste Manag, 2017 Nov;69:423-430.
    PMID: 28811144 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.08.015
    High temperature thermal plasma has a major drawback which consumes high energy. Therefore, non-thermal plasma which uses comparatively lower energy, for instance, microwave plasma is more attractive to be applied in gasification process. Microwave-induced plasma gasification also carries the advantages in terms of simplicity, compactness, lightweight, uniform heating and the ability to operate under atmospheric pressure that gains attention from researchers. The present paper synthesizes the current knowledge available for microwave plasma gasification on solid fuels and waste, specifically on affecting parameters and their performance. The review starts with a brief outline on microwave plasma setup in general, and followed by the effect of various operating parameters on resulting output. Operating parameters including fuel characteristics, fuel injection position, microwave power, addition of steam, oxygen/fuel ratio and plasma working gas flow rate are discussed along with several performance criteria such as resulting syngas composition, efficiency, carbon conversion, and hydrogen production rate. Based on the present review, fuel retention time is found to be the key parameter that influences the gasification performance. Therefore, emphasis on retention time is necessary in order to improve the performance of microwave plasma gasification of solid fuels and wastes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves*
  8. Mohamad Aziz NA, Yunus R, Kania D, Abd Hamid H
    Molecules, 2021 Feb 03;26(4).
    PMID: 33546303 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26040788
    Biodiesels and biolubricants are synthetic esters produced mainly via a transesterification of other esters from bio-based resources, such as plant-based oils or animal fats. Microwave heating has been used to enhance transesterification reaction by converting an electrical energy into a radiation, becoming part of the internal energy acquired by reactant molecules. This method leads to major energy savings and reduces the reaction time by at least 60% compared to a conventional heating via conduction and convection. However, the application of microwave heating technology alone still suffers from non-homogeneous electromagnetic field distribution, thermally unstable rising temperatures, and insufficient depth of microwave penetration, which reduces the mass transfer efficiency. The strategy of integrating multiple technologies for biodiesel and biolubricant production has gained a great deal of interest in applied chemistry. This review presents an advanced transesterification process that combines microwave heating with other technologies, namely an acoustic cavitation, a vacuum, ionic solvent, and a supercritical/subcritical approach to solve the limitations of the stand-alone microwave-assisted transesterification. The combined technologies allow for the improvement in the overall product yield and energy efficiency. This review provides insights into the broader prospects of microwave heating in the production of bio-based products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves*
  9. Thangavelu SK, Rajkumar T, Pandi DK, Ahmed AS, Ani FN
    Waste Manag, 2019 Mar 01;86:80-86.
    PMID: 30902242 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2019.01.035
    Microwave assisted acid hydrolysis (H2SO4 and HCl with >0.5 mol/L) to produce bioethanol from sago pith waste (SPW) was studied. The energy consumption for microwave hydrolysis at different energy inputs and acid concentration were calculated. The overall energy consumption for bioethanol fuel production from SPW was assessed. A maximum of 88% glucose yield and 80% ethanol yield (3.1 g ethanol per 10 g SPW) were obtained using 1.0 mol/L H2SO4. Microwave hydrolysis using 1.0 mol/L H2SO4 consumed the minimum energy of 8.1 kJ to produce 1 g glucose from SPW when energy input was fixed at 54 kJ (900 W for 1 min). In general, 1 g glucose can produce 16 kJ. The overall energy consumption for fuel grade bioethanol production from SPW was 31.77 kJ per g ethanol, which was slightly higher than the lower heating values of ethanol (26.74 kJ/g ethanol).
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves*
  10. Kang K, Nanda S, Lam SS, Zhang T, Huo L, Zhao L
    Environ Res, 2020 07;186:109480.
    PMID: 32302869 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109480
    Microwave assisted hydrothermal treatment (MHTC) was compared with torrefaction in terms of carbonization efficiency and physicochemical characteristics of char products. The utilization of produced char was optimized for composite solid biofuel production. The results show that MHTC significantly improved the binding capability of the microwave hydrochar (MHC) particles during co-densification with unprocessed biomass and coal. One possible contributor to the improved binding is the pseudo lignin formed during the MHTC, which led to a better interlocking of the feedstock particles and promoted the solid bridge formation. Composite pellet prepared with 80 wt% of torrefaction char (TC-120), 10 wt% of microwave hydrochar (MHC-30), and 10 wt% of Coal-04 showed a higher heating value of 24.54 MJ/kg and energy density of 26.43 GJ/m3, which is significantly higher than that of the raw cotton stalk pellet (16.77 MJ/kg and 18.76 GJ/m3, respectively), showing great promise as a solid biofuel. The moisture resistance and oxidation reactivity are also significantly improved. The results demonstrate that MHCs provides dual functionalities in acting as binder and fuel promoter in the production of composite biofuel. This study can provide new insight into the unique functions of MHC during fuel application, which demonstrates the great potential of applying MHTC in energy recovery from lignocellulosic biomass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves*
  11. Mohd Ali MA, Gimbun J, Lau KL, Cheng CK, Vo DN, Lam SS, et al.
    Environ Res, 2020 06;185:109452.
    PMID: 32259725 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109452
    A synergistic effect of the activated limestone-based catalyst (LBC) and microwave irradiation on the transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) was screened using a two-level factorial design and response surface methodology. The catalyst was prepared using a wet-impregnation method and was characterised for its surface element, surface morphology, surface area and porosity. The reaction was performed in a purpose-built continuous microwave assisted reactor (CMAR), while the conversion and yield of biodiesel were measured using a gas chromatography. The results showed that the catalyst loading, methanol to oil molar ratio and the reaction time significantly affect the WCO conversion. The optimum conversion of oil to biodiesel up to 96.65% was achieved at catalyst loading of 5.47 wt%, methanol to oil molar ratio of 12.21:1 and the reaction time of 55.26 min. The application of CMAR in this work reduced the transesterification time by about 77% compared to the reaction time needed for a conventional reactor. The biodiesel produced in this work met the specification of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751). Engine test results shows the biodiesel has a lower NOx and particulate matters emissions compared to petrodiesel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves*
  12. Olalere OA, Gan CY, Akintomiwa OE, Adeyi O, Adeyi A
    Phytochem Anal, 2021 Sep;32(5):850-858.
    PMID: 33583076 DOI: 10.1002/pca.3030
    INTRODUCTION: The quality characteristics and stability of phenolic by-products from Cola nitida wastes are critical factors for drug formulation and food nutraceutical applications.

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, the effect of electromagnetic-based microwave-reflux extraction on the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, morphological characteristics, physisorption and chromatographic phenolic profiles were successfully investigated. These physicochemical analyses are often employed in the standardisation of dried herbal and food nutraceutical products.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, the electromagnetic-based extraction process was optimised using the Box-Behnken design. The oleoresin bio-products were subsequently characterised to determine the total phenolic content, morphological and microstructural degradation. These analyses were conducted to elucidate the effect of the microwave heating on the C. nitida pod powder.

    RESULTS: From the predicted response, the optimal percentage yield was achieved at 26.20% under 5.39 min of irradiation time, 440 W microwave power and oven temperature of 55°C. Moreover, the rapid estimation of the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were recorded at 124.84 ± 0.064 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (d.w.) and 6.93 ± 0.34 μg/mL, respectively. The physicochemical characterisation results from the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and physisorption analyses showed remarkable changes in the micro-surface area (13.66%) characteristics.

    CONCLUSION: The recorded optimal conditions established a basis for future scale-up of microwave extraction parameters with a potential for maximum yield. The physiochemical characterisation revealed the functional characteristics of C. nitida and their tolerance to microwave heating.

    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves*
  13. Zamri AA, Ong MY, Nomanbhay S, Show PL
    Environ Res, 2021 06;197:111204.
    PMID: 33894238 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111204
    The composition of carbon dioxide (CO2) is increasing day by day in the Earth's atmosphere. Worldwide energy demand is now increasing, and this has led to an increase in the percentage of global carbon emission. Moreover, this phenomenon can occur from the careless use of heating systems, generators and especially transportation, therefore, the release of these gases will continue to be widespread if there is no solution. Interaction within the microwave plasma-based gasification system of synthetic natural gas (syngas) production is presented in this paper. Consequently, this reduces the high concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide emission in our atmosphere. Syngas is very useful products that can be used as a source of energy such as fuel production and fuel source. The overview and basic theory about gasification process and microwave plasma technology are provided. Modelling of the microwave plasma system particularly on its application of system electromagnetic field inside waveguide of plasma reactor to produce microwave plasma and how it was calculated are presented in this paper. To recapitulate, the global challenges on the rising of greenhouse gases volume can be regulated with microwave plasma technology and its important aspects have been underlined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves*
  14. Abdullah RM, Zukarnain ZA
    Sensors (Basel), 2017 Jul 14;17(7).
    PMID: 28708067 DOI: 10.3390/s17071626
    Transferring a huge amount of data between different network locations over the network links depends on the network's traffic capacity and data rate. Traditionally, a mobile device may be moved to achieve the operations of vertical handover, considering only one criterion, that is the Received Signal Strength (RSS). The use of a single criterion may cause service interruption, an unbalanced network load and an inefficient vertical handover. In this paper, we propose an enhanced vertical handover decision algorithm based on multiple criteria in the heterogeneous wireless network. The algorithm consists of three technology interfaces: Long-Term Evolution (LTE), Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). It also employs three types of vertical handover decision algorithms: equal priority, mobile priority and network priority. The simulation results illustrate that the three types of decision algorithms outperform the traditional network decision algorithm in terms of handover number probability and the handover failure probability. In addition, it is noticed that the network priority handover decision algorithm produces better results compared to the equal priority and the mobile priority handover decision algorithm. Finally, the simulation results are validated by the analytical model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves
  15. Su MH, Azwar E, Yang Y, Sonne C, Yek PNY, Liew RK, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2020 09 05;396:122610.
    PMID: 32298865 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122610
    This study examined an aquaponic approach of circulating water containing ammonia excretions from African catfish grown in an aquaculture tank for bacterial conversion into nitrates, which then acted as a nutrient substance to cultivate lettuce in hydroponic tank. We found that microwave pyrolysis biochar (450 g) having microporous (1.803 nm) and high BET surface area (419 m2/g) was suitable for use as biological carrier to grow nitrifying bacteria (63 g of biofilm mass) that treated the water quality through removing the ammonia (67%) and total suspended solids (68%), resulting in low concentration of remaining ammonia (0.42 mg/L) and total suspended solid (59.40 mg/L). It also increased the pH (6.8), converted the ammonia into nitrate (29.7 mg/L), and increased the nitrogen uptake by the lettuce (110 mg of nitrogen per plant), resulting in higher growth in lettuce (0.0562 %/day) while maintaining BOD5 level (3.94 mg/L) at acceptable level and 100% of catfish survival rate. Our results demonstrated that microwave pyrolysis biochar can be a promising solution for growing nitrifying bacteria in aquaponic system for simultaneous toxic ammonia remediation and generation of nitrate for growing vegetable in aquaculture industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves
  16. Yek PNY, Liew RK, Osman MS, Lee CL, Chuah JH, Park YK, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2019 Apr 15;236:245-253.
    PMID: 30735943 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.01.010
    Microwave-steam activation (MSA), an innovative pyrolysis approach combining the use of microwave heating and steam activation, was investigated for its potential production of high grade activated carbon (AC) from waste palm shell (WPS) for methylene blue removal. MSA was performed via pyrolytic carbonization of WPS to produce biochar as the first step followed by steam activation of the biochar using microwave heating to form AC. Optimum yield and adsorption efficiency of methylene blue were obtained using response surface methodology involving several key process parameters. The resulting AC was characterized for its porous characteristics, surface morphology, proximate analysis and elemental compositions. MSA provided a high activation temperature above 500 °C with short process time of 15 min and rapid heating rate (≤150 °C/min). The results from optimization showed that one gram of AC produced from steam activation under 10 min of microwave heating at 550 °C can remove up to 38.5 mg of methylene blue. The AC showed a high and uniform surface porosity consisting high fixed carbon (73 wt%), micropore and BET surface area of 763.1 and 570.8 m2/g respectively, hence suggesting the great potential of MSA as a promising approach to produce high grade adsorbent for dye removal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves
  17. Xu D, Yang L, Zhao M, Zhang J, Syed-Hassan SSA, Sun H, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Feb 01;270:116120.
    PMID: 33341552 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116120
    Understanding the migration and conversion of nitrogen in wood-based panels (WBPs) during pyrolysis is fundamentally important for potentially transforming the N-containing species into valuable material-based products. This review firstly summarizes the commonly used methods for examining N evolution during the WBPs pyrolysis before probing into the association between the wood and adhesives.The potential effects of wood-adhesive interaction on the pyrolysis process are subsequently analyzed. Furthermore, the controversial statements from literature on the influence of adhesives on wood pyrolysis behavior are discussed, which is followed by the detailed investigation into the distribution and evolution of N-containing species in gas, liquid and char, respectively, during WBPs pyrolysis in recent studies. The differences in N species due to the heating sources (i.e. electrical heating vs microwave heating) are particularly compared. Finally, based on the characteristics of staged pyrolysis, co-pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis, the converting pathways for WBPs are proposed with an emphasis on the production of value-added chemicals and carbon materials, simultaneously mitigating NOx emission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves
  18. Hidayah Mansor, Razi Abdul-Rahman
    Introduction: For “smart health” Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications, substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) is a promising component to construct a wearable microwave device. For its efficacy in wearable devices, minimizing signal losses in terms of return and transition losses in SIW is of paramount importance. To enhance its performance, this paper presents the characterization of air-filled SIW transition losses for the SIW microwave device. Method: To investigate the effect of transition length on losses, the full-wave analysis of an air-filled SIW with different lengths of the taper transition was presented. For the analysis, the linear taper is designed for the Roger RT/Duroid 6002 substrate and utilized in the Ka-band frequencies. Result: From the full-wave analysis results, the length of the tran- sition taper can be reduced considerably while achieving a wide-bandwidth characteristic of return loss better than 20 GHz. The results also show that the transmission loss can be reliably reduced while reducing the size of the SIW component. Conclusion: The findings may contribute to the development of the compact design of wearable micro- wave devices having a comparable performance with the conventional waveguide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves
  19. Chan CH, Yusoff R, Ngoh GC, Kung FW
    J Chromatogr A, 2011 Sep 16;1218(37):6213-25.
    PMID: 21820119 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2011.07.040
    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is widely employed in the analysis and the extraction of active compounds from plants. This review summarizes the research done during the last decade on the MAE of active ingredients from plants. Advances and modifications to improve the performance of MAE are presented and discussed in detail. Modified MAE such as vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE), nitrogen-protected microwave-assisted extraction (NPMAE), ultrasonic microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE), dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) and other advancements in MAE are also detailed in this article. In addition, the microwave extraction procedures and the important parameters influencing its performance are also included, together with the advantages and the drawbacks of each MAE techniques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves*
  20. Akram M, Alshemary AZ, Goh YF, Wan Ibrahim WA, Lintang HO, Hussain R
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Nov 1;56:356-62.
    PMID: 26249601 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.06.040
    We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca(2+) ion released in SBF solution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microwaves*
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