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  1. Raja M. Zuha Raja Kamal, Mohamed Abdullah Marwi, Jeffery, John, Ahmad Firdaus Mohd. Salleh, Wan Omar Abdullah, Baharudin Omar
    MyJurnal
    The anatomical structures of the first, second and third instars of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) were examined by light microscopy. Observations were documented on the three main characteristics; the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior spiracle and posterior spiracle. The first instar larva bore cornuae of fairly pigmented delineation with slim hypostomal sclerite and distinct dental sclerite. First instar did not have obscured anterior spiracle but posterior spiracles were obscured with thin lining of opened peritreme. Intersegmental spines were evident. The second instar larva displayed a prominent anterodorsal process approaching closer to hypostomal sclerite while upper margin of the dorsal cornua was slightly pigmented. Each anterior spiracle consisted of nine to ten papillae, arranged in a single row. Peritreme of the posterior spiracle thick, opening at the end of peritreme was not wide and confined to two spiracular slits. The third instar larva showed a prominent arch of the ventral cornua with broad and bold appearance. It approached the dorsal cornua and became narrow at the incision median. The anterior spiracle consisted of a single row of nine to ten papillae while intersegmental spine could be identified with one to three dark pigmented tips. A dark pigmented and wide periterime was observed confining three short and thick spiracular slits while button was poorly pigmented. The most distinctive feature of this second and third instar larva was the slender, thorn-like tubercle with numerous spined tips on the middle line segment of the body. These findings provide identification features of C. rufifacies larvae instars.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System
  2. Alhammami M, Ooi CP, Tan WH
    Data Brief, 2017 Jun;12:480-484.
    PMID: 28508027 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2017.04.026
    We present in this paper a novel dataset (MMU VAAC) for violent actions against children recognition. This original dataset has been recorded using Microsoft Kinect with the usage of a child mannequin. MMU VAAC dataset contains skeleton joints, depth, and RGB modalities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System
  3. Nazimi AJ, Rajaran JR, Nordin R
    J Craniofac Surg, 2019 Oct;30(7):e609-e611.
    PMID: 31503125 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005617
    Orbital blowout fractures are common. The same goes for its surgical complications when the efficiency of the dissection of entrapped or herniated intraorbital contents into the fracture could not be completely and safely dissected out. The authors describe a modification of the commonly used Howarth periosteal elevator for dissection of intraorbital content displacement or herniation on orbital blowout fracture. The instrument was modified by marking out the instrument from the tip into 10, 20, 25, 30, and 40 mm on both of its concave and convex surfaces to allow safe orbital soft tissue dissection and distance control. From the authors' experience, these simple modifications from its original instrument design allow better intraoperative control and appreciation of any intact important intraorbital anatomical structures such as inferomedial strut and posterior ledge. At the same time of importantly getting complete orbital fracture dissection and visualization, it causes less trauma to surrounding soft tissue with the markings ensuring unnecessary orbital exploration or visualization. Dissection can be kept for optimum maneuverability at the required or intended location based on the preoperative scan or dimension of anatomical orbital implant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System
  4. Anbarasan A, Mohamad NH, Mariapan S
    Trauma Case Rep, 2018 Dec;18:42-45.
    PMID: 30533482 DOI: 10.1016/j.tcr.2018.11.013
    Open traumatic scapulothoracic dissociation is a rare and devastating injury. We are reporting a 21-year-old male factory worker who sustained a traumatic open scapulothoracic dissociation. His left arm was caught in conveyer belts resulting the arm, scapula, clavicle, and pectoral muscle torn from the body by tremendous traction force. He presented with pulseless, flail and cold limb and was promptly resuscitated and surgically managed with forequarter amputation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System
  5. Othman SA, Majawit LP, Wan Hassan WN, Wey MC, Mohd Razi R
    PLoS One, 2016;11(10):e0164180.
    PMID: 27706220 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164180
    To establish the three-dimensional (3D) facial soft tissue morphology of adult Malaysian subjects of the Malay ethnic group; and to determine the morphological differences between the genders, using a non-invasive stereo-photogrammetry 3D camera.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System
  6. Er, L.Z., Johar, M.J.
    Medicine & Health, 2019;14(2):266-270.
    MyJurnal

    Orbital cellulitis is an infection of the orbital soft tissue that could possibly lead to serious complications if treatment is delayed. It is important to differentiate this condition from a less life-threatening condition like preseptal cellulitis as orbital cellulitis would require a more aggressive treatment than the former condition. The present case discusses about a patient who was diagnosed with orbital cellulitis and developed complications from the disease. The delayed administration of the appropriate antibiotic subsequently led to the patient’s death. The delay was because of the reason that the patient belonged to the immunocompromised group who harbour different causative organism than the normal population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System
  7. Faisham WI, Zulmi W, Nor Azman MZ, Rhendra Hardy MZ
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Feb;61 Suppl A:57-61.
    PMID: 17042232
    Forequarter amputation entails surgical removal of entire upper extremity, scapula and clavicle. Several techniques of forequarter amputation have been described. The anterior approach has been the preferred technique of exploration of axillary vessels and brachial plexus. The posterior approach has been condemned to be unreliable and dangerous for most large tumor of the scapula and suprascapular area. We describe a surgical technique using posterior approach of exploration of major vessels for forequarter amputation of upper extremity in eight patients who presented with humeral-scapular tumor. There were six patients with osteosarcoma: three with tumor recurrent and three chemotherapy recalcitrant tumors with vessels involvement. One patient had massive fungating squamous cell carcinoma and another had recurrent rhabdomyosarcoma. Four patients had fungating ulcer and six patients had multiple pulmonary metastases at the time of surgery. The mean estimated blood transfusion was 900 ml (range 0-1600 ml) and two patients did not require transfusion. The duration of surgery ranged 2.5-6.0 hours (mean 3.8 hours). Two patients with known pulmonary metastases required post-operative intensive care monitoring. The mean duration of survival was 5.8 months. The posterior approach of exploring major vessels for forequarter amputation of upper extremity with musculoskeletal tumor is safe and reliable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System/pathology; Musculoskeletal System/surgery*
  8. Wong RSY
    Adv Pharmacol Sci, 2019;2019:5324170.
    PMID: 30838041 DOI: 10.1155/2019/5324170
    Spondyloarthritis or spondyloarthropathy (SpA) is a group of related rheumatic disorders, which presents with axial and nonaxial features, affecting structures within the musculoskeletal system, as well as other bodily systems. Both pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapeutic options are available for SpA. For decades, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used as the first-line drugs to treat the disease. Research has shown that other than pain relief, NSAIDs have disease-modifying effects in SpA. However, to achieve these effects, continuous and/or long-term NSAID use is usually required. This review will give an overview of SpA, discuss NSAIDs and their disease-modifying effects in SpA, and highlight some of the important adverse effects of long-term and continuous NSAID use, particularly those related to the gastrointestinal, renal, and cardiovascular systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System
  9. Lim YX, Chai SC
    J Hand Ther, 2020 03 04;33(4):553-561.
    PMID: 32143983 DOI: 10.1016/j.jht.2019.09.001
    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

    INTRODUCTION: Adhering to test administration and standardized instructions is important for attainment of accurate and reliable results in performance-based tests.

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To determine test-retest and interrater reliability of standardized translated instruction (St-TI) and spontaneously translated instruction (Sp-TI) of a hand function test.

    METHODS: Four raters and seventy-two subjects were divided into 2 groups: St-TI group, direct administration of the Hong Kong Chinese version of the Jebsen Hand Function Test to subjects by raters; and Sp-TI group, spontaneously translating the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test from English into Chinese by raters. Test-retest and interrater reliability were calculated based on instruction time by the rater and performance time by the subject.

    RESULTS: Test-retest and interrater reliability of instruction time by rater for St-TI has intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.35 to 0.70 and 0.24 to 0.55, respectively, whereas that for Sp-TI was -0.50 to 0.18 and -0.09 to 0.51, respectively. Test-retest and interrater reliability of performance time by subject for St-TI was 0.56 to 0.84 and 0.33 to 0.78, respectively, whereas that for Sp-TI was 0.54 to 0.87 and 0.35 to 0.77, respectively. Sp-TI had two test-retest minimal detectable change percent values that fell within the acceptable range (subtest 3 = 21.9% and subtest 6 = 25.7%).

    CONCLUSION: Instruction time by rater for Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test subtests had generally poor to moderate test-retest and interrater reliability for both St-TI and Sp-TI. Performance time by subject generally had moderate to good reliability, except for St-TI with poor to good interrater reliability.

    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System
  10. Ng YG, Shamsul Bahri MT, Irwan Syah MY, Mori I, Hashim Z
    J Occup Health, 2014;55(5):405-14.
    PMID: 23892641
    OBJECTIVES: Production agriculture is commonly associated with high prevalence of ergonomic injuries, particularly during intensive manual labor and during harvesting. This paper intends to briefly describe an overview of oil palm plantation management highlighting the ergonomics problem each of the breakdown task analysis.

    METHODS: Although cross-sectional field visits were conducted in the current study, insight into past and present occupational safety and health concerns particularly regarding the ergonomics of oil palm plantations was further exploited. Besides discussion, video recordings were extensively used for ergonomics analysis.

    RESULTS: The unique commodity of oil palm plantations presents significantly different ergonomics risk factors for fresh fruit bunch (FFB) cutters during different stages of harvesting. Although the ergonomics risk factors remain the same for FFB collectors, the intensity of manual lifting increases significantly with the age of the oil palm trees-weight of FFB.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is urgent need to establish surveillance in order to determine the current prevalence of ergonomic injuries. Thereafter, ergonomics interventions that are holistic and comprehensive should be conducted and evaluated for their efficacy using approaches that are integrated, participatory and cost-effective.

    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System/injuries*
  11. Ariff KM
    Med J Malaysia, 2000 Dec;55(4):451-8.
    PMID: 11221156
    The preferential utilization of healthcare systems by a rural Malaysian community in Perlis for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries was studied using focus group discussions. The objectives of the study were to explore the pattern of utilization of healthcare systems, the factors influencing the choice of a healthcare provider, rural residents' expectations of their healthcare provider and their views on integrating traditional and modern scientific healthcare systems. Most participants considered traditional and modern scientific healthcare systems as complementing each other. For musculoskeletal injuries, the traditional system was considered the primary choice of healthcare regardless of the participants' socioeconomic and educational levels. Key factors for preferring traditional care were the nature of treatment, the perceived shorter duration for recovery and inclusion of spiritual elements in the therapy. Barriers to seeking hospital treatment were the perceived longer duration for recovery, fear of surgery, use of metallic implants and casts that were culturally unacceptable and objections from elders. For perceived life-threatening situations, in children, pregnancy, and where injuries to internal organs were suspected, hospital treatment was preferred as the primary choice. Discussions on integrating traditional and modern scientific systems were inconclusive.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System/injuries*
  12. Radin Umar RZ, Sommerich CM, Lavender SA, Sanders E, Evans KD
    Ergonomics, 2018 Sep;61(9):1173-1186.
    PMID: 29757713 DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2018.1475016
    Sound workplace ergonomics and safety-related interventions may be resisted by employees, and this may be detrimental to multiple stakeholders. Understanding fundamental aspects of decision-making, behavioural change, and learning cycles may provide insights into pathways influencing employees' acceptance of interventions. This manuscript reviews published literature on thinking processes and other topics relevant to decision making and incorporates the findings into two new conceptual frameworks of the workplace change adoption process. Such frameworks are useful for thinking about adoption in different ways and testing changes to traditional intervention implementation processes. Moving forward, it is recommended that future research focuses on systematic exploration of implementation process activities that integrate principles from the research literature on sense-making, decision-making, and learning processes. Such exploration may provide the groundwork for development of specific implementation strategies that are theoretically grounded and provide a revised understanding of how successful intervention adoption processes work. Practitioner summary: Adoption and acceptance of workplace changes may be facilitated through sound implementation strategies. This manuscript explores several principles of sense-making and decision-making processes that can potentially be used by industrial practitioners to inform the design and development of implementation strategies for interventions that improve workplace ergonomics and safety.

    ABBREVIATIONS:  Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs); National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH); National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA); Health and Safety Executive (HSE).

    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System/injuries
  13. Amin NA, Nordin R, Fatt QK, Noah RM, Oxley J
    PMID: 25852937 DOI: 10.1186/s40557-014-0023-2
    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationships between psychosocial work factors and risk of WRMSDs among public hospital nurses in the Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 660 public hospital nurses. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on the occurrence of WRMSDs according to body regions, socio-demographic profiles, occupational information and psychosocial risk factors. 468 questionnaires were returned (response rate of 71%), and 376 questionnaires qualified for subsequent analysis. Univariate analyses were applied to test for mean and categorical differences across the WRMSDs; multiple logistic regression was applied to predict WRMSDs based on the Job Strain Model's psychosocial risk factors.

    RESULTS: Over two thirds of the sample of nurses experienced discomfort or pain in at least one site of the musculoskeletal system within the last year. The neck was the most prevalent site (48.94%), followed by the feet (47.20%), the upper back (40.69%) and the lower back (35.28%). More than 50% of the nurses complained of having discomfort in region one (neck, shoulders and upperback) and region four (hips, knees, ankles, and feet). The results also revealed that psychological job demands, job strain and iso-strain ratio demonstrated statistically significant mean differences (p

    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System
  14. Adlina, S., Narimah, A.H.H., Hakimi, Z.A., Suthahar, A., M Nor Hisyam, R., Ruhaida, M.K., et al.
    MyJurnal
    Stress has been recognized one of the factors causing disease. About 70-80% of all diseases may be stress related. Thus, stress management can be a part of an early measure of disease prevention. A descriptive cross sectional, randomized study was conducted to determine the stress inducing factors among preclinical students (universal sampling) in a public university in Selangor, Malaysia from 24th April to May 2005. A total of 163 students (52.8% year 1, 36.8% year 2 and 10.4% year 3) were interviewed in the data collection process. The main reasons students entered - medical school was because of their own interest or ambition (65%) and family influence (20.9%). Majority (76.4%) suffered moderate to great stress over hot conditions in lecture hall, tutoriaV small group session rooms and laboratories while 53.4% suffered when using the other facilities like cafeteria, toilet and transportation:. Almost all (95.1%) felt that examination was the most stressful, followed by early clinical exposure sessions (68.1%), problem·based learning sessions (62.5%), hospital visitations (59.7%), tutoriay small group sessions (49.3%), practical class (44.5%) and attending lectures (3 8.5%). Musculoskeletal System was the most stressful module among the first year students, followed by Nervous System and Gastrointestinal System with the percentage of 94.2%, 90.7% and 88.4% respectively while, 95% of the second year students felt that General, Hemopoietic ci? Lymphoid and Nervous System are the most stressful modules. This study revealed that academic sessions and lack of conducive teaching and learning environment as the main stress inducing contributors to preclinical medical students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System
  15. Singh VA, Ramalingam S, Haseeb A, Yasin NFB
    J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong), 2020 7 23;28(2):2309499020941659.
    PMID: 32696708 DOI: 10.1177/2309499020941659
    INTRODUCTION: Limb length discrepancy (LLD) of lower extremities is underdiagnosed due to compensatory mechanisms during locomotion. The natural course of compensation leads to biomechanical alteration in human musculoskeletal system leading to adverse effects. General consensus accepts LLD more than 2 cm as significant to cause biomechanical alteration. No studies were conducted correlating height and lower extremities true length (TL) to signify LLD. Examining significant LLD in relation to height and TL using dynamic gait analysis with primary focus on kinematics and secondary focus on kinetics would provide an objective evaluation method.

    METHODOLOGY: Forty participants with no evidence of LLD were recruited. Height and TL were measured. Reflective markers were attached at specific points in lower extremity and subjects walked in gait lab at a self-selected normal walking pace with artificial LLDs of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 cm simulated using shoe raise. Accommodation period of 30 min was given. Infrared cameras were used to capture the motion. Primary kinematic (knee flexion and pelvic obliquity (PO)) and secondary kinetic (ground reaction force (GRF)) were measured at right heel strike and left heel strike. Functional adaptation was analyzed and the postulated predictor indices (PIs) were used as a screening tool using height, LLD, and TL to notify significance.

    RESULTS: There was a significant knee flexion component seen in height category of less than 170 cm. There was significant difference between LLD 3 cm and 4 cm. No significant changes were seen in PO and GRF. PIs of LLD/height and LLD/TL were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curve. LLD/height as a PI with value of 1.75 was determined with specificity of 80% and sensitivity of 76%.

    CONCLUSION: A height of less than 170 cm has significant changes in relation to LLD. PI using LLD/height appears to be a promising tool to identify patients at risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System
  16. Murad MS, O'brien L, Farnworth L, Chien CW
    Scand J Occup Ther, 2013 Mar;20(2):101-10.
    PMID: 22967302 DOI: 10.3109/11038128.2012.720276
    Workers with musculoskeletal disorders undertaking Malaysia's return to work (RTW) programmes may experience challenges in occupational competence (OC) and negative emotional states (NES). This study aimed to measure and examines the OC and NES of the workers by comparing specific comparison groups and groups of different phases. A total of 76 participants were recruited from a national RTW programme and categorized into three groups based on different RTW phases: off-work (n = 22), re-entry (n = 31), and maintenance (n = 23). Self-report questionnaires consisted of the Occupational Self Assessment version 2.2 and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21. Results showed that injured workers exhibited significantly lower OC in comparison with an international group with various disabilities. In contrast, there was significantly higher NES when compared with Malaysia's general population. Significant differences in OC and NES were also found between workers in the three RTW phases. In particular, OC and NES in the off-work and re-entry phases were significantly lower (OC) and higher (NES) than in the maintenance phase. Furthermore, there was a moderate, negative correlation between OC and NES in the off-work and re-entry phase groups. This indicated that low levels of perceived OC were associated with higher levels of NES.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System/injuries*
  17. Mohd Din FH, Rampal S, Muslan MA, Hoe VC
    Occup Environ Med, 2016 07;73(7):429-34.
    PMID: 27013525 DOI: 10.1136/oemed-2015-103140
    OBJECTIVES: Pain catastrophising is defined as exaggerated negative thoughts, which can occur during an actual or anticipated painful experience, such as musculoskeletal injuries (MSI) or disorders (MSD). The aims of this study are to examine the association between pain catastrophising and MSI and MSD in Malaysian Army male recruits, and evaluate the effects of past injury.

    METHODS: A cohort of 611 male Malaysian Army recruits were recruited and followed up at 3 and 6 months. Pain catastrophising, MSD, sociodemographic and work factors were measured using a self-administered questionnaire, and MSI incidence was retrieved from the medical records. Multivariable fixed effects regression was used to model the cumulative incidence of MSD and MSI.

    RESULTS: Approximately 12% of the recruits were diagnosed with incident MSI and 80% reported incident MSD. Higher pain catastrophising at baseline was associated with higher 6 month MSD risk (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.6 per 1 SD increase of Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS) scores; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0), and longitudinally associated with MSD incidence (aOR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.4). Pain catastrophising was not associated with MSI incidence (aOR 1.0, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.3). The association between pain catastrophising and self-reported MSD was stronger among recruits with self-reported past injury (p for interaction <0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Pain catastrophising was able to predict symptomatic MSD, and not physician-diagnosed MSI, and these findings are directly related to individual health beliefs. Pain catastrophising has a greater influence on how military recruits perceived their musculoskeletal conditions during training, and efforts to reduce pain catastrophising may be beneficial.

    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System/injuries*
  18. Mitra NK, Barua A
    BMC Med Educ, 2015;15:29.
    PMID: 25884641 DOI: 10.1186/s12909-015-0318-1
    BACKGROUND: The impact of web-based formative assessment practices on performance of undergraduate medical students in summative assessments is not widely studied. This study was conducted among third-year undergraduate medical students of a designated university in Malaysia to compare the effect, on performance in summative assessment, of repeated computer-based formative assessment with automated feedback with that of single paper-based formative assessment with face-to face feedback.
    METHODS: This quasi-randomized trial was conducted among two groups of undergraduate medical students who were selected by stratified random technique from a cohort undertaking the Musculoskeletal module. The control group C (n = 102) was subjected to a paper-based formative MCQ test. The experimental group E (n = 65) was provided three online formative MCQ tests with automated feedback. The summative MCQ test scores for both these groups were collected after the completion of the module.
    RESULTS: In this study, no significant difference was observed between the mean summative scores of the two groups. However, Band 1 students from group E with higher entry qualification showed higher mean score in the summative assessment. A trivial, but significant and positive correlation (r(2) = +0.328) was observed between the online formative test scores and summative assessment scores of group E. The proportionate increase of performance in group E was found to be almost double than group C.
    CONCLUSION: The use of computer based formative test with automated feedback improved the performance of the students with better academic background in the summative assessment. Computer-based formative test can be explored as an optional addition to the curriculum of pre-clinical integrated medical program to improve the performance of the students with higher academic ability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musculoskeletal System
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