Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 79 in total

  1. Ong HS, Syafiq-Rahim M, Kasim NH, Firdaus-Raih M, Ramlan EI
    J Biotechnol, 2016 Oct 20;236:141-51.
    PMID: 27569553 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2016.08.017
    Fabrication of functional DNA nanostructures operating at a cellular level has been accomplished through molecular programming techniques such as DNA origami and single-stranded tiles (SST). During implementation, restrictive and constraint dependent designs are enforced to ensure conformity is attainable. We propose a concept of DNA polyominoes that promotes flexibility in molecular programming. The fabrication of complex structures is achieved through self-assembly of distinct heterogeneous shapes (i.e., self-organised optimisation among competing DNA basic shapes) with total flexibility during the design and assembly phases. In this study, the plausibility of the approach is validated using the formation of multiple 3×4 DNA network fabricated from five basic DNA shapes with distinct configurations (monomino, tromino and tetrominoes). Computational tools to aid the design of compatible DNA shapes and the structure assembly assessment are presented. The formations of the desired structures were validated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imagery. Five 3×4 DNA networks were successfully constructed using combinatorics of these five distinct DNA heterogeneous shapes. Our findings revealed that the construction of DNA supra-structures could be achieved using a more natural-like orchestration as compared to the rigid and restrictive conventional approaches adopted previously.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  2. Nanda A, Pandey P, Rajinikanth PS, Singh N
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2024 Mar;260(Pt 1):129416.
    PMID: 38224810 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2024.129416
    Zein, a protein-based biopolymer derived from corn, has garnered attention as a promising and eco-friendly choice for packaging food due to its favorable physical attributes. The introduction of electrospinning technology has significantly advanced the production of zein-based nanomaterials. This cutting-edge technique enables the creation of nanofibers with customizable structures, offering high surface area and adjustable mechanical and thermal attributes. Moreover, the electrospinning process allows for integrating various additives, such as antioxidants, antimicrobial agents, and flavoring compounds, into the zein nanofibers, enhancing their functionalities for food preservation. In this comprehensive review, the various electrospinning techniques employed for crafting zein-based nanofibers, and we delve into their enhanced properties. Furthermore, the review illuminates the potential applications of zein nanofibers in active and intelligent packaging materials by incorporating diverse constituents. Altogether, this review highlights the considerable prospects of zein-based nanocomposites in the realm of food packaging, offering sustainable and innovative solutions for food industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods
  3. Gopinath SCB, Ramanathan S, More M, Patil K, Patil SJ, Patil N, et al.
    Curr Med Chem, 2024;31(12):1464-1484.
    PMID: 37702170 DOI: 10.2174/0929867331666230912101634
    The engineering of nanoscale materials has broadened the scope of nanotechnology in a restricted functional system. Today, significant priority is given to immediate health diagnosis and monitoring tools for point-of-care testing and patient care. Graphene, as a one-atom carbon compound, has the potential to detect cancer biomarkers and its derivatives. The atom-wide graphene layer specialises in physicochemical characteristics, such as improved electrical and thermal conductivity, optical transparency, and increased chemical and mechanical strength, thus making it the best material for cancer biomarker detection. The outstanding mechanical, electrical, electrochemical, and optical properties of two-dimensional graphene can fulfil the scientific goal of any biosensor development, which is to develop a more compact and portable point-of-care device for quick and early cancer diagnosis. The bio-functionalisation of recognised biomarkers can be improved by oxygenated graphene layers and their composites. The significance of graphene that gleans its missing data for its high expertise to be evaluated, including the variety in surface modification and analytical reports. This review provides critical insights into graphene to inspire research that would address the current and remaining hurdles in cancer diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods
  4. Khatir NM, Banihashemian SM, Periasamy V, Majid WH, Rahman SA, Shahhosseini F
    Sensors (Basel), 2011;11(7):6719-27.
    PMID: 22163981 DOI: 10.3390/s110706719
    A new patterning method using Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) strands capable of producing nanogaps of less than 100 nm is proposed and investigated in this work. DNA strands from Bosenbergia rotunda were used as the fundamental element in patterning DNA on thin films of aluminium (Al) metal without the need for any lithographic techniques. The DNA strands were applied in buffer solutions onto thin films of Al on silicon (Si) and the chemical interactions between the DNA strands and Al creates nanometer scale arbitrary patterning by direct transfer of the DNA strands onto the substrate. This simple and cost-effective method can be utilized in the fabrication of various components in electronic chips for microelectronics and Nano Electronic Mechanical System (NEMS) applications in general.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  5. Boroumand Moghaddam A, Namvar F, Moniri M, Md Tahir P, Azizi S, Mohamad R
    Molecules, 2015;20(9):16540-65.
    PMID: 26378513 DOI: 10.3390/molecules200916540
    In the field of nanotechnology, the use of various biological units instead of toxic chemicals for the reduction and stabilization of nanoparticles, has received extensive attention. Among the many possible bio resources, biologically active products from fungi and yeast represent excellent scaffolds for this purpose. Since fungi and yeast are very effective secretors of extracellular enzymes and number of species grow fast and therefore culturing and keeping them in the laboratory are very simple. They are able to produce metal nanoparticles and nanostructure via reducing enzyme intracellularly or extracellularly. The focus of this review is the application of fungi and yeast in the green synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. Meanwhile the domain of biosynthesized nanoparticles is somewhat novel; the innovative uses in nano medicine in different areas including the delivery of drug, cancer therapy, antibacterial, biosensors, and MRI and medical imaging are reviewed. The proposed signaling pathways of nanoparticles induced apoptosis in cancerous cells and anti-angiogenesis effects also are reviewed. In this article, we provide a short summary of the present study universally on the utilization of eukaryotes like yeast and fungi in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) and their uses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  6. Khalid K, Tan X, Mohd Zaid HF, Tao Y, Lye Chew C, Chu DT, et al.
    Bioengineered, 2020 12;11(1):328-355.
    PMID: 32138595 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2020.1736240
    With the unique properties such as high surface area to volume ratio, stability, inertness, ease of functionalization, as well as novel optical, electrical, and magnetic behaviors, nanomaterials have a wide range of applications in various fields with the common types including nanotubes, dendrimers, quantum dots, and fullerenes. With the aim of providing useful insights to help future development of efficient and commercially viable technology for large-scale production, this review focused on the science and applications of inorganic and organic nanomaterials, emphasizing on their synthesis, processing, characterization, and applications on different fields. The applications of nanomaterials on imaging, cell and gene delivery, biosensor, cancer treatment, therapy, and others were discussed in depth. Last but not least, the future prospects and challenges in nanoscience and nanotechnology were also explored.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  7. Mat Noor NA, Shafie S, Admon MA
    PLoS One, 2021;16(5):e0250402.
    PMID: 33956793 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0250402
    The heat and mass transfer on time dependent hydrodynamic squeeze flow of Jeffrey nanofluid across two plates over permeable medium in the slip condition with heat generation/absorption, thermal radiation and chemical reaction are investigated. The impacts of Brownian motion and thermophoresis is examined in the Buongiorno's nanofluid model. Conversion of the governing partial differential equations to the ordinary differential equations is conducted via similarity transformation. The dimensionless equations are solved by imposing numerical method of Keller-box. The outputs are compared with previous reported works in the journals for the validation of the present outputs and found in proper agreement. The behavior of velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles concentration profiles by varying the pertinent parameters are examined. Findings portray that the acceleration of the velocity profile and the wall shear stress is due to the squeezing of plates. Furthermore, the velocity, temperature and concentration profile decline with boost in Hartmann number and ratio of relaxation to retardation times. It is discovered that the rate of heat transfer and temperature profile increase when viscous dissipation, thermophoresis and heat source/sink rises. In contrast, the increment of thermal radiation reduces the temperature and enhances the heat transfer rate. Besides, the mass transfer rate decelerates for increasing Brownian motion in nanofluid, while it elevates when chemical reaction and thermophoresis increases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  8. Uddin MJ, Khan WA, Amin NS
    PLoS One, 2014;9(6):e99384.
    PMID: 24927277 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099384
    The unsteady two-dimensional laminar g-Jitter mixed convective boundary layer flow of Cu-water and Al2O3-water nanofluids past a permeable stretching sheet in a Darcian porous is studied by using an implicit finite difference numerical method with quasi-linearization technique. It is assumed that the plate is subjected to velocity and thermal slip boundary conditions. We have considered temperature dependent viscosity. The governing boundary layer equations are converted into non-similar equations using suitable transformations, before being solved numerically. The transport equations have been shown to be controlled by a number of parameters including viscosity parameter, Darcy number, nanoparticle volume fraction, Prandtl number, velocity slip, thermal slip, suction/injection and mixed convection parameters. The dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles as well as friction factor and heat transfer rates are presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the velocity reduces with velocity slip parameter for both nanofluids for fluid with both constant and variable properties. It is further found that the skin friction decreases with both Darcy number and momentum slip parameter while it increases with viscosity variation parameter. The surface temperature increases as the dimensionless time increases for both nanofluids. Nusselt numbers increase with mixed convection parameter and Darcy numbers and decreases with the momentum slip. Excellent agreement is found between the numerical results of the present paper with published results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  9. H P S AK, Saurabh CK, A S A, Nurul Fazita MR, Syakir MI, Davoudpour Y, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 Oct 05;150:216-26.
    PMID: 27312632 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.05.028
    Chitin is one of the most abundant natural polymers in world and it is used for the production of chitosan by deacetylation. Chitosan is antibacterial in nature, non-toxic, and biodegradable thus it can be used for the production of biodegradable film which is a green alternative to commercially available synthetic counterparts. However, their poor mechanical and thermal properties restricted its wide spread applications. Chitosan is highly compatible with other biopolymers thus its blending with cellulose and/or incorporation of nanofiber isolated from cellulose namely cellulose nanofiber and cellulose nanowhiskers are generally useful. Cellulosic fibers in nano scale are attractive reinforcement in chitosan to produce environmental friendly composite films with improved physical properties. Thus chitosan based composites have wide applicability and potential in the field of biomedical, packaging and water treatment. This review summarises properties and preparation procedure of chitosan-cellulose blends and nano size cellulose reinforcement in chitosan bionanocomposites for different applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  10. Choudhury H, Pandey M, Yin TH, Kaur T, Jia GW, Tan SQL, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Aug;101:596-613.
    PMID: 31029353 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.04.005
    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the key barriers in chemotherapy, leading to the generation of insensitive cancer cells towards administered therapy. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of the cells are the consequences of MDR, resulted in drug resistivity, which reflects in impaired delivery of cytotoxic agents to the cancer site. Nanotechnology-based nanocarriers have shown immense shreds of evidence in overcoming these problems, where these promising tools handle desired dosage load of hydrophobic chemotherapeutics to facilitate designing of safe, controlled and effective delivery to specifically at tumor microenvironment. Therefore, encapsulating drugs within the nano-architecture have shown to enhance solubility, bioavailability, drug targeting, where co-administered P-gp inhibitors have additionally combat against developed MDR. Moreover, recent advancement in the stimuli-sensitive delivery of nanocarriers facilitates a tumor-targeted release of the chemotherapeutics to reduce the associated toxicities of chemotherapeutic agents in normal cells. The present article is focused on MDR development strategies in the cancer cell and different nanocarrier-based approaches in circumventing this hurdle to establish an effective therapy against deadliest cancer disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  11. Kian LK, Saba N, Jawaid M, Sultan MTH
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Jan;121:1314-1328.
    PMID: 30208300 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.09.040
    The utilization of nanocellulose has increasingly gained attentions from various research fields, especially the field of polymer nanocomposites owing to the growing environmental hazardous of petroleum based fiber products. Meanwhile, the searching of alternative cellulose sources from different plants has become the interests for producing nanocellulose with varying characterizations that expectedly suit in specific field of applications. In this content the long and strong bast fibers from plant species was gradually getting its remarkable position in the field of nanocellulose extraction and nanocomposites fabrications. This review article intended to present an overview of the chemical structure of cellulose, different types of nanocellulose, bast fibers compositions, structure, polylactic acid (PLA) and the most probable processing techniques on the developments of nanocellulose from different bast fibers especially jute, kenaf, hemp, flax, ramie and roselle and its nanocomposites. This article however more focused on the fabrication of PLA based nanocomposites due to its high firmness, biodegradability and sustainability properties in developed products towards the environment. Along with this it also explored a couple of issues to improve the processing techniques of bast fibers nanocellulose and its reinforcement in the PLA biopolymer as final products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  12. Masanam HB, Perumal G, Krishnan S, Singh SK, Jha NK, Chellappan DK, et al.
    Nanomedicine (Lond), 2022 Oct;17(25):1981-2005.
    PMID: 36695290 DOI: 10.2217/nnm-2021-0427
    The development of rapid, noninvasive diagnostics to detect lung diseases is a great need after the COVID-2019 outbreak. The nanotechnology-based approach has improved imaging and facilitates the early diagnosis of inflammatory lung diseases. The multifunctional properties of nanoprobes enable better spatial-temporal resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio in imaging. Targeted nanoimaging agents have been used to bind specific tissues in inflammatory lungs for early-stage diagnosis. However, nanobased imaging approaches for inflammatory lung diseases are still in their infancy. This review provides a solution-focused approach to exploring medical imaging technologies and nanoprobes for the detection of inflammatory lung diseases. Prospects for the development of contrast agents for lung disease detection are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods
  13. Zamiri R, Zakaria A, Husin MS, Wahab ZA, Nazarpour FK
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:2221-4.
    PMID: 22114485 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S23830
    In the present work, we prepared silver nanoparticles by laser ablation of pure silver plate in ethanol and then irradiated the silver nanoparticles using a 532 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Transmission electron microscopic images of the sample after irradiation clearly showed formation of big structures, such as microrods and microbelts in ethanol. The obtained microbelts had a width of about 0.166 μm and a length of 1.472 μm. The reason for the formation of such a big structure is the tendency of the nanoparticles to aggregate in ethanol before irradiation, which causes fusion of the nanoparticles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  14. Anarjan N, Jafarizadeh-Malmiri H, Nehdi IA, Sbihi HM, Al-Resayes SI, Tan CP
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:1109-18.
    PMID: 25709435 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S72835
    Nanodispersion systems allow incorporation of lipophilic bioactives, such as astaxanthin (a fat soluble carotenoid) into aqueous systems, which can improve their solubility, bioavailability, and stability, and widen their uses in water-based pharmaceutical and food products. In this study, response surface methodology was used to investigate the influences of homogenization time (0.5-20 minutes) and speed (1,000-9,000 rpm) in the formation of astaxanthin nanodispersions via the solvent-diffusion process. The product was characterized for particle size and astaxanthin concentration using laser diffraction particle size analysis and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Relatively high determination coefficients (ranging from 0.896 to 0.969) were obtained for all suggested polynomial regression models. The overall optimal homogenization conditions were determined by multiple response optimization analysis to be 6,000 rpm for 7 minutes. In vitro cellular uptake of astaxanthin from the suggested individual and multiple optimized astaxanthin nanodispersions was also evaluated. The cellular uptake of astaxanthin was found to be considerably increased (by more than five times) as it became incorporated into optimum nanodispersion systems. The lack of a significant difference between predicted and experimental values confirms the suitability of the regression equations connecting the response variables studied to the independent parameters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  15. Afreen S, Muthoosamy K, Manickam S, Hashim U
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2015 Jan 15;63:354-364.
    PMID: 25125029 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2014.07.044
    Designing a biosensor for versatile biomedical applications is a sophisticated task and how dedicatedly functionalized fullerene (C60) can perform on this stage is a challenge for today and tomorrow's nanoscience and nanotechnology. Since the invention of biosensor, many ideas and methods have been invested to upgrade the functionality of biosensors. Due to special physicochemical characteristics, the novel carbon material "fullerene" adds a new dimension to the construction of highly sensitive biosensors. The prominent aspects of fullerene explain its outstanding performance in biosensing devices as a mediator, e.g. fullerene in organic solvents exhibits five stages of reversible oxidation/reduction, and hence fullerene can work either as an electrophile or nucleophile. Fullerene is stable and its spherical structure produces an angle strain which allows it to undergo characteristic reactions of addition to double bonds (hybridization which turns from sp(2) to sp(3)). Research activities are being conducted worldwide to invent a variety of methods of fullerene functionalization with a purpose of incorporating it effectively in biosensor devices. The different types of functionalization methods include modification of fullerene into water soluble derivatives and conjugation with enzymes and/or other biomolecules, e.g. urease, glucose oxidase, hemoglobin, myoglobin (Mb), conjugation with metals e.g. gold (Au), chitosan (CS), ferrocene (Fc), etc. to enhance the sensitivity of biosensors. The state-of-the-art research on fullerene functionalization and its application in sensor devices has proven that fullerene can be implemented successfully in preparing biosensors to detect glucose level in blood serum, urea level in urine solution, hemoglobin, immunoglobulin, glutathione in real sample for pathological purpose, to identify doping abuse, to analyze pharmaceutical preparation and even to detect cancer and tumor cells at an earlier stage. Employing fullerene-metal matrix for the detection of tumor and cancer cells is also possible by the inclusion of fullerene in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) known as peapods as well as in double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs), to augment the effectiveness of biosensors. This review discusses various approaches that have been reported for functionalizing fullerene (C60) derivatives and their application in different types of biosensor fabrication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  16. Sivakumar M, Tang SY, Tan KW
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2014 Nov;21(6):2069-83.
    PMID: 24755340 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2014.03.025
    Novel nanoemulsion-based drug delivery systems (DDS) have been proposed as alternative and effective approach for the delivery of various types of poorly water-soluble drugs in the last decade. This nanoformulation strategy significantly improves the cell uptake and bioavailability of numerous hydrophobic drugs by increasing their solubility and dissolution rate, maintaining drug concentration within the therapeutic range by controlling the drug release rate, and reducing systemic side effects by targeting to specific disease site, thus offering a better patient compliance. To date, cavitation technology has emerged to be an energy-efficient and promising technique to generate such nanoscale emulsions encapsulating a variety of highly potent pharmaceutical agents that are water-insoluble. The micro-turbulent implosions of cavitation bubbles tear-off primary giant oily emulsion droplets to nano-scale, spontaneously leading to the formation of highly uniform drug contained nanodroplets. A substantial body of recent literatures in the field of nanoemulsions suggests that cavitation is a facile, cost-reducing yet safer generation tool, remarkably highlighting its industrial commercial viability in the development of designing novel nanocarriers or enhancing the properties of existing pharmaceutical products. In this review, the fundamentals of nanoemulsion and the principles involved in their formation are presented. The underlying mechanisms in the generation of pharmaceutical nanoemulsion under acoustic field as well as the advantages of using cavitation compared to the conventional techniques are also highlighted. This review focuses on recent nanoemulsion-based DDS development and how cavitation through ultrasound and hydrodynamic means is useful to generate the pharmaceutical grade nanoemulsions including the complex double or submicron multiple emulsions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  17. Akbari E, Buntat Z, Ahmad MH, Enzevaee A, Yousof R, Iqbal SM, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(3):5502-15.
    PMID: 24658617 DOI: 10.3390/s140305502
    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are generally nano-scale tubes comprising a network of carbon atoms in a cylindrical setting that compared with silicon counterparts present outstanding characteristics such as high mechanical strength, high sensing capability and large surface-to-volume ratio. These characteristics, in addition to the fact that CNTs experience changes in their electrical conductance when exposed to different gases, make them appropriate candidates for use in sensing/measuring applications such as gas detection devices. In this research, a model for a Field Effect Transistor (FET)-based structure has been developed as a platform for a gas detection sensor in which the CNT conductance change resulting from the chemical reaction between NH3 and CNT has been employed to model the sensing mechanism with proposed sensing parameters. The research implements the same FET-based structure as in the work of Peng et al. on nanotube-based NH3 gas detection. With respect to this conductance change, the I-V characteristic of the CNT is investigated. Finally, a comparative study shows satisfactory agreement between the proposed model and the experimental data from the mentioned research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  18. Aziz MS, Jukgoljan B, Daud S, Tan TS, Ali J, Yupapin PP
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2013 Jun;41(3):178-83.
    PMID: 22991944 DOI: 10.3109/10731199.2012.715087
    This paper presents the use of a modified add/drop optical filter incorporating with microring resonators known as a PANDA microring resonator system which can fabricate on small chip. By using an optical tweezer, the required molecules can be trapped and moved to the required destinations at the add/drop ports. The novelty is that the stored molecules in the designed chip can transport via the optical waveguide and can also be used to form molecular filter, which is an important technique for drug delivery, drug targeting, and molecular electronics. Results have shown that the multivariable filter can be obtained by tunable trapping control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods
  19. Tang SY, Shridharan P, Sivakumar M
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2013 Jan;20(1):485-97.
    PMID: 22633626 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2012.04.005
    In the present investigation, the operating efficiency of a bench-top air-driven microfluidizer has been compared to that of a bench-top high power ultrasound horn in the production of pharmaceutical grade nanoemulsions using aspirin as a model drug. The influence of important process variables as well as the pre-homogenization and drug loading on the resultant mean droplet diameter and size distribution of emulsion droplets was studied in an oil-in-water nanoemulsion incorporated with a model drug aspirin. Results obtained show that both the emulsification methods were capable of producing very fine nanoemulsions containing aspirin with the minimum droplet size ranging from 150 to 170 nm. In case of using the microfluidizer, it has been observed that the size of the emulsion droplets obtained was almost independent of the applied microfluidization pressure (200-600 bar) and the number of passes (up to 10 passes) while the pre-homogenization and drug loading had a marginal effect in increasing the droplet size. Whereas, in the case of ultrasound emulsification, the droplet size was generally decreased with an increase in sonication amplitude (50-70%) and period of sonication but the resultant emulsion was found to be dependent on the pre-homogenization and drug loading. The STEM microscopic observations illustrated that the optimized formulations obtained using ultrasound cavitation technique are comparable to microfluidized emulsions. These comparative results demonstrated that ultrasound cavitation is a relatively energy-efficient yet promising method of pharmaceutical nanoemulsions as compared to microfluidizer although the means used to generate the nanoemulsions are different.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  20. Zamiri R, Zakaria A, Abbastabar H, Darroudi M, Husin MS, Mahdi MA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:565-8.
    PMID: 21698083 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S16384
    Silver nanoparticles were fabricated by ablation of a pure silver plate immersed in castor oil. A Nd:YAG-pulsed Q-switch laser with 1064-nm wavelength and 10-Hz frequency was used to ablate the plate for 10 minutes. The sample was characterized by ultraviolet-visible, atomic absorption, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopies, and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the fabricated sample showed that the nanoparticles in castor oil were about 5-nm in diameter, well dispersed, and showed stability for a long period of time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods
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