METHODS: HA having nanorods structure were synthetized using ultrasonication with precipitation method. HA nanorods were characterized by TEM for average-size/shape. Following phosphoric acid demineralization, dentine specimens were treated with HA-nanorods with/without subsequent HIFU exposure for 5 s, 10 s and 20 s then stored in artificial saliva for 1-month. Dentine specimens were characterized using different SEM and Raman spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the biochemical stability and HA-nanorods were examined using ATR-FTIR to observe attachment of nanoparticles. Also, surface nanoindentation properties were evaluated using AFM in tapping-mode.
RESULTS: HA-nanorods displayed well-defined, homogenous plate-like nanostructure. TEM revealed intact collagen-fibrils network structure with high density due to obliteration of interfibrillar spaces with clear evidence of remineralization in combined HA/HIFU treatment. With HA-nanorods treatment collagen-network structure was visible, consisting of fibrils interlaced into a compact pattern with evidence of minerals deposition. AFM investigation revealed clear mineral formation with the increase of HIFU exposure time. Bands associated with inorganic phase dominate well in HIFU exposed specimens with PO stretching within dentine mineral identified at 960 cm-1. Characteristic dentine structure for control and HIFU 20 s specimens is reflected as oscillatory mean Amide-I intensity with measurement giving a precise sinusoidal response of polarization angle β within dentinal tissue. Nanoindentation testing showed a gradual significant increase in elastic-modulus with the increase in HIFU exposure time after 1-month storage. FTIR spectrum of the HIFU exposed dentine displayed bands at 1650 cm-1, 1580 cm-1 and 1510 cm-1 that can be attributed to Amide-I, II and III.
SIGNIFICANCE: The synergetic effect of HIFU exposure on remineralization potential of demineralized dentine-matrix following nano-hydroxyapatite treatment was revealed. This synergetic effect is dependent on HIFU exposure time.
METHODOLOGY: The present study investigates the effects of heterogeneous GNR distribution in a typical setup of GNR-PTT. Three cases were considered. Case 1 considered the GNRs at the tumour centre, while Case 2 represents a hypothetical scenario where GNRs are distributed at the tumour periphery; these two cases represent intratumoural accumulation with different degree of GNR spread inside the tumour. Case 3 is achieved when GNRs target the exposed tumoural surface that is invading the bladder wall, when they are delivered by intravesical instillation.
RESULTS: Results indicate that for a laser power of 0.6 W and GNR volume fraction of 0.01%, Case 2 and 3 were successful in achieving complete tumour eradication after 330 and 470 s of laser irradiation, respectively. Case 1 failed to form complete tumour damage when the GNRs are concentrated at the tumour centre but managed to produce complete tumour damage if the spread of GNRs is wider. Results from Case 2 also demonstrated a different heating profile from Case 1, suggesting that thermal ablation during GNR-PTT is dependant on the GNRs distribution inside the tumour. Case 3 shows similar results to Case 2 whereby gradual but uniform heating is observed. Cases 2 and 3 show that uniformly heating the tumour can reduce damage to the surrounding tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: Different GNR distribution associated with the different methods of introducing GNRs to the bladder during GNR-PTT affect the treatment outcome of bladder cancer in mice. Insufficient spreading during intratumoural injection of GNRs can render the treatment ineffective, while administered via intravesical instillation. GNR distribution achieved through intravesical instillation present some advantages over intratumoural injection and is worthy of further exploration.