Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 283 in total

  1. Bulmer JS, Martens J, Kurzepa L, Gizewski T, Egilmez M, Blamire MG, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2014;4:3762.
    PMID: 24446019 DOI: 10.1038/srep03762
    Recent progress with tailored growth and post-process sorting enables carbon nanotube (CNT) assemblies with predominantly metallic or semi-conducting concentrations. Cryogenic and microwave measurements performed here show transport dimensionality and overall order increasing with increasing metallic concentration, even in atmospheric doping conditions. By 120 GHz, the conductivity of predominantly semi-conducting assemblies grew to 400% its DC value at an increasing growth rate, while other concentrations a growth rate that tapered off. A generalized Drude model fits to the different frequency dependent behaviors and yields useful quality control parameters such as plasma frequency, mean free path, and degree of localization. As one of the first demonstrations of waveguides fabricated from this material, sorted CNTs from both as-made and post-process sources were inserted into sections of practical micro-strip. With both sources, sorted CNT micro-strip increasingly outperformed the unsorted with increasing frequency-- illustrating that sorted CNT assemblies will be important for high frequency applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes, Carbon/chemistry*
  2. Ho KC, Teoh YX, Teow YH, Mohammad AW
    J Environ Manage, 2021 Jan 01;277:111434.
    PMID: 33045646 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111434
    This study assessed the environmental impacts of the formulation of graphene oxide (GO)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) conductive membranes and of the process operating parameters of electrically-enhanced palm oil mill effluent (POME) filtration. Two different analyses approaches were employed, cradle-to-gate approach for conductive membrane production and gate-to-gate approach for the POME filtration process. The parameters in conductive-membrane formulation (e.g. the weight ratio of carbon nanomaterials, and concentration of GO/MWCNT nanohybrids) and process operating parameters (e.g. electric field strength and electricity operating mode) were investigated. The findings herein are twofold. Firstly, for the fabrication of GO/MWCNT conductive membranes, the best weight ratio of GO:MWCNTs was found to be 1:9, given its superior membrane electrical conductivity with lower environmental impacts by 8.51% compared to pristine MWCNTs. The most suitable concentration of carbon nanomaterials was found to be 5 wt%, given its lowest impacts on resource depletion, human health, and ecosystems. Secondly, for the electrically-enhanced POME filtration, the optimum process operating parameters were found to be the application of an electric field of 300 V/cm in the continuous mode, given its lower environmental impacts (22.99%-89.30%) secondary to its requirement of the least electricity to produce permeate. The present study has established not only the optimized conditions in membrane formulation but also the operating parameters of electrically-enhanced filtration; such findings enable the use of cleaner production and sustainable approach to minimize fouling for industrial applications, whilst maintaining excellent efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes, Carbon*
  3. Ooi EH, Popov V, Alfano M, Cheong JKK
    Int J Hyperthermia, 2020;37(1):634-650.
    PMID: 32538190 DOI: 10.1080/02656736.2020.1771437
    Background: The thermally-induced urine flow can generate cooling that may alter the treatment outcome during hyperthermic treatments of bladder cancer. This paper investigates the effects of natural convection inside the bladder and at skin surface during gold nanorods (GNR) - assisted photothermal therapy (PTT) of bladder cancer in mice. Methods: 3D models of mouse bladder at orientations corresponding to the mouse positioned on its back, its side and its abdomen were examined. Numerical simulations were carried out for GNR volume fractions of 0.001, 0.005 and 0.01% and laser power of 0.2 and 0.3 W. Results: The obtained results showed that cooling due to natural convection inside the bladder and above the skin depends on the mouse orientation. For a mouse positioned on its back, on its side or on its abdomen, the maximum temperature achieved inside the tumour at 0.001% GNR volume fraction and 0.2 W laser power was 55.2°C, 50.0°C and 52.2°C, respectively compared to 56.8°C when natural convection was not considered. The average thermal gradients when natural convection was considered were also lower, suggesting a more homogenous temperature distribution. Conclusions: Natural convection inside the bladder can be beneficial but also detrimental to GNR-assisted PTT depending on the level of heating. At low levels of heating due to low GNR volume fraction and/or laser power, flow inside the bladder may dissipate heat from the targeted tissue; making the treatment ineffective. At high levels of heating due to high GNR volume fraction and/or laser power, cooling may prevent excessive thermal damage to surrounding tissues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes*
  4. Abidin MNZ, Goh PS, Ismail AF, Othman MHD, Hasbullah H, Said N, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Aug 01;77:572-582.
    PMID: 28532067 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.03.273
    A novel approach in the design of a safe, high performance hemodialysis membrane is of great demand. Despite many advantages, the employment of prodigious nanomaterials in hemodialysis membrane is often restricted by their potential threat to health. Hence, this work focusses on designing a biocompatible polyethersulfone (PES) hemodialysis membrane embedded with poly (citric acid)-grafted-multi walled carbon nanotubes (PCA-g-MWCNTs). Two important elements which could assure the safety of the nanocomposite membrane, i.e. (i) dispersion stability and (ii) leaching of MWCNTs were observed. The results showed the improved dispersion stability of MWCNTs in water and organic solvent due to the enriched ratio of oxygen-rich groups which subsequently enhanced membrane separation features. It was revealed that only 0.17% of MWCNTs was leached out during the membrane fabrication process (phase inversion) while no leaching was detected during permeation. In terms of biocompatibility, PES/PCA-g-MWCNT nanocomposite membrane exhibited lesser C3 and C5 activation (189.13 and 5.29ng/mL) and proteins adsorption (bovine serum albumin=4.5μg/cm2, fibrinogen=15.95μg/cm2) as compared to the neat PES membrane, while keeping a normal blood coagulation time. Hence, the PES/PCA-g-MWCNT nanocomposite membrane is proven to have the prospect of becoming a safe and high performance hemodialysis membrane.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes, Carbon*
  5. Makaremi M, Pasbakhsh P, Cavallaro G, Lazzara G, Aw YK, Lee SM, et al.
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2017 May 24;9(20):17476-17488.
    PMID: 28481104 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b04297
    Pectin bionanocomposite films filled with various concentrations of two different types of halloysite nanotubes were prepared and characterized in this study as potential films for food packaging applications. The two types of halloysite nanotubes were long and thin (patch) (200-30 000 nm length) and short and stubby (Matauri Bay) (50-3000 nm length) with different morphological, physical, and dispersibility properties. Both matrix (pectin) and reinforcer (halloysite nanotubes) used in this study are considered as biocompatible, natural, and low-cost materials. Various characterization tests including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, release kinetics, contact angle, and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed to evaluate the performance of the pectin films. Exceptional thermal, tensile, and contact angle properties have been achieved for films reinforced by patch halloysite nanotubes due to the patchy and lengthy nature of these tubes, which form a bird nest structure in the pectin matrix. Matauri Bay halloysite nanotubes were dispersed uniformly and individually in the matrix in low and even high halloysite nanotube concentrations. Furthermore, salicylic acid as a biocidal agent was encapsulated in the halloysite nanotubes lumen to control its release kinetics. On this basis, halloysite nanotubes/salicylic acid hybrids were dispersed into the pectin matrix to develop functional biofilms with antimicrobial properties that can be extended over time. Results revealed that shorter nanotubes (Matauri Bay) had better ability for the encapsulation of salicylic acid into their lumen, while patchy structure and longer tubes of patch halloysite nanotubes made the encapsulation process more difficult, as they might need more time and energy to be fully loaded by salicylic acid. Moreover, antimicrobial activity of the films against four different strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria indicated the effective antimicrobial properties of pectin/halloysite functionalized films and their potential to be used for food packaging applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes*
  6. Huang Y, Liu S, Zhang J, Syed-Hassan SSA, Hu X, Sun H, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 Jul;307:123192.
    PMID: 32220819 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123192
    This study investigated the interactions between volatile and char during biomass pyrolysis at 400 °C, employing a β-5 lignin dimer and amino-modified graphitized carbon nanotube (CNT-NH2) as their models, respectively. The results demonstrated that both -NH2 and its carrier (CNT) facilitated the conversion of the β-5 dimer, which significantly increased from 9.7% (blank run), to 61.6% (with CNT), and to 96.6% (with CNT-NH2). CNT mainly favored the breakage of C-O bond in the feedstock to produce dimers with a yield of 55.5%, while CNT-NH2 promoted the cleavage of both C-O and C-C bonds to yield monomers with a yield up to 63.4%. Such significant changes in the pyrolysis behaviors of the β-5 lignin dimer after the introduction of CNT-NH2 were considered to be mainly caused by hydrogen-bond formations between -NH2 and the dimeric feedstock/products, in addition to the π-π stacking between CNT and aromatic rings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes, Carbon*
  7. Daood U, Fawzy AS
    Dent Mater, 2020 03;36(3):456-467.
    PMID: 32008748 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2020.01.005
    OBJECTIVE: The aim is to investigate the potential significance of combining minimally invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods treatment for the remineralization of demineralized coronal dentine-matrix.

    METHODS: HA having nanorods structure were synthetized using ultrasonication with precipitation method. HA nanorods were characterized by TEM for average-size/shape. Following phosphoric acid demineralization, dentine specimens were treated with HA-nanorods with/without subsequent HIFU exposure for 5 s, 10 s and 20 s then stored in artificial saliva for 1-month. Dentine specimens were characterized using different SEM and Raman spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the biochemical stability and HA-nanorods were examined using ATR-FTIR to observe attachment of nanoparticles. Also, surface nanoindentation properties were evaluated using AFM in tapping-mode.

    RESULTS: HA-nanorods displayed well-defined, homogenous plate-like nanostructure. TEM revealed intact collagen-fibrils network structure with high density due to obliteration of interfibrillar spaces with clear evidence of remineralization in combined HA/HIFU treatment. With HA-nanorods treatment collagen-network structure was visible, consisting of fibrils interlaced into a compact pattern with evidence of minerals deposition. AFM investigation revealed clear mineral formation with the increase of HIFU exposure time. Bands associated with inorganic phase dominate well in HIFU exposed specimens with PO stretching within dentine mineral identified at 960 cm-1. Characteristic dentine structure for control and HIFU 20 s specimens is reflected as oscillatory mean Amide-I intensity with measurement giving a precise sinusoidal response of polarization angle β within dentinal tissue. Nanoindentation testing showed a gradual significant increase in elastic-modulus with the increase in HIFU exposure time after 1-month storage. FTIR spectrum of the HIFU exposed dentine displayed bands at 1650 cm-1, 1580 cm-1 and 1510 cm-1 that can be attributed to Amide-I, II and III.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The synergetic effect of HIFU exposure on remineralization potential of demineralized dentine-matrix following nano-hydroxyapatite treatment was revealed. This synergetic effect is dependent on HIFU exposure time.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes*
  8. Abdul Manaf SA, Mohamad Fuzi SFZ, Low KO, Hegde G, Abdul Manas NH, Md Illias R, et al.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2021 Nov;105(21-22):8531-8544.
    PMID: 34611725 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-021-11616-0
    Carbon nanomaterials, due to their catalytic activity and high surface area, have potential as cell immobilization supports to increase the production of xylanase. Recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis used for xylanase production was integrated into a polymeric gel network with carbon nanomaterials. Carbon nanomaterials were pretreated before cell immobilization with hydrochloric acid (HCl) treatment and glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinking, which contributes to cell immobilization performance. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) were further screened using a Plackett-Burman experimental design. Cell loading and agar concentration were the most important factors in xylanase production with low cell leakage. Under optimized conditions, xylanase production was increased by more than 400% compared to free cells. Immobilized cell material containing such high cell densities may exhibit new and unexplored beneficial properties because the cells comprise a large fraction of the component. The use of carbon nanomaterials as a cell immobilization support along with the entrapment method successfully enhances the production of xylanase, providing a new route to improved bioprocessing, particularly for the production of enzymes. KEY POINTS: • Carbon nanomaterials (CNTs, GO) have potential as cell immobilization supports. • Entrapment in a polymeric gel network provides space for xylanase production. • Plackett-Burman design screen for the most important factor for cell immobilization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes, Carbon*
  9. Maqsood K, Ali A, Ilyas SU, Garg S, Danish M, Abdulrahman A, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan;286(Pt 2):131690.
    PMID: 34352553 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131690
    The experimental determination of thermophysical properties of nanofluid (NF) is time-consuming and costly, leading to the use of soft computing methods such as response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate these properties. The present study involves modelling and optimization of thermal conductivity and viscosity of NF, which comprises multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and thermal oil. The modelling is performed to predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of NF by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Both models were tested and validated, which showed promising results. In addition, a detailed optimization study was conducted to investigate the optimum thermal conductivity and viscosity by varying temperature and NF weight per cent. Four case studies were explored using different objective functions based on NF application in various industries. The first case study aimed to maximize thermal conductivity (0.15985 W/m oC) while minimizing viscosity (0.03501 Pa s) obtained at 57.86 °C and 0.85 NF wt%. The goal of the second case study was to minimize thermal conductivity (0.13949 W/m °C) and viscosity (0.02526 Pa s) obtained at 55.88 °C and 0.15 NF wt%. The third case study targeted maximizing thermal conductivity (0.15797 W/m °C) and viscosity (0.07611 Pa s), and the optimum temperature and NF wt% were 30.64 °C and 0.0.85,' respectively. The last case study explored the minimum thermal conductivity (0.13735) and maximum viscosity (0.05263 Pa s) obtained at 30.64 °C and 0.15 NF wt%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes, Carbon*
  10. Mohamed Haneef INH, Mohd Shaffiar N, Buys YF, Syed Shaharuddin SI, Abdul Hamid AM, Widiyati K
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2022 11;110(11):2574-2588.
    PMID: 35661579 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.35105
    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) have recently been the subject of extensive research as a reinforcing filler. HNT is a natural nanoclay, non-toxic and biocompatible, hence, applicable in biomedical fields. This review focuses on the mechanical, thermal, and functional properties of polymer nanocomposites with HNT as a reinforcing agent from an experimental and theoretical perspective. In addition, this review also highlights the recent applications of polymer/HNT nanocomposites in the biomedical fields.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes*
  11. Arifin SNH, Radin Mohamed RMS, Al-Gheethi AA, Wei LC, Yashni G, Fitriani N, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan;287(Pt 3):132278.
    PMID: 34826939 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132278
    The study explored the characteristics and effectiveness of modified TiO2 nanotubes with zeolite as a composite photocatalyst (MTNZC) for the degradation of triclocarban (TCC) from the aqueous solution. MTNZC samples have been produced via electrochemical anodisation (ECA) followed by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Three independent factors selected include MTNZC size (0.5-1 cm2), pH (3-10), and irradiation time (10-60 min). The observation revealed that the surface of Ti substrate by the 40 V of anodisation and 3 h of calcination was covered with the array ordered, smooth and optimum elongated nanotubes with average tube length was approximately 5.1 μm. EDS analysis proved the presence of Si, Mg, Al, and Na on MTNZC due to the chemical composition present in the zeolite. The average crystallite size of TiO₂ nanotubes increased from 2.07 to 3.95 nm by increasing anodisation voltage (10, 40, and 60 V) followed by 450 °C of calcination for 1, 3, and 6 h, respectively. The optimisation by RSM shows the F-value (36.12), the p-value of all responses were less than 0.0001, and the 95% confidence level of the model by all the responses indicated the model was significant. The R2 in the range of 0.9433-0.9906 showed the suitability of the model to represent the actual relationship among the parameters. The photocatalytic degradation rate of TCC from the first and the fifth cycles were 94.2 and 77.4%, indicating the applicability of MTNZC to be used for several cycles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes*
  12. Santos JS, Fereidooni M, Marquez V, Arumugam M, Tahir M, Praserthdam S, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Feb;289:133170.
    PMID: 34875298 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.133170
    This study investigates the facile fabrication of interfacial defects assisted amorphous TiO2 nanotubes arrays (am-TNTA) for promoting gas-phase CO2 photoreduction to methane. The am-TNTA catalyst was fabricated via a one-step synthesis, without heat treatment, by anodization of Titanium in Ethylene glycol-based electrolyte in a shorter anodizing time. The samples presented a TiO2 nanostructured array with a nanotubular diameter of 100 ± 10 nm, a wall thickness of 26 ± 5 nm, and length of 3.7 ± 0.3 μm, resulting in a specific surface of 0.75 m2 g. The am-TNTA presented prolonged chemical stability, a high exposed surface area, and a large number of surface traps that can reduce the recombination of the charge carriers. The am-TNTA showed promising photoactivity when tested in the CO2 reduction reaction with water under UV irradiation with a methane production rate of 14.0 μmol gcat-1 h-1 for a pure TiO2 material without any modification procedure. This enhanced photocatalytic activity can be explained in terms of surface defects of the amorphous structure, mainly OH groups that can act as electron traps for increasing the electron lifetime. The CO2 interacts directly with those traps, forming carbonate species, which favors the catalytic conversion to methane. The am-TNTA also exhibited a high stability during six reaction cycles. The photocatalytic activity, the significantly reduced time for synthesis, and high stability for continuous CH4 production make this nanomaterial a potential candidate for a sustainable CO2 reduction process and can be employed for other energy applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes*
  13. Muthu BR, Pushpa EP, Dhandapani V, Jayaraman K, Vasanthakumar H, Oh WC, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2021 Dec 22;22(1).
    PMID: 35009576 DOI: 10.3390/s22010033
    Aerospace equipages encounter potential radiation footprints through which soft errors occur in the memories onboard. Hence, robustness against radiation with reliability in memory cells is a crucial factor in aerospace electronic systems. This work proposes a novel Carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) in designing a robust memory cell to overcome these soft errors. Further, a petite driver circuit to test the SRAM cells which serve the purpose of precharge and sense amplifier, and has a reduction in threefold of transistor count is recommended. Additionally, analysis of robustness against radiation in varying memory cells is carried out using standard GPDK 90 nm, GPDK 45 nm, and 14 nm CNTFET. The reliability of memory cells depends on the critical charge of a device, and it is tested by striking an equivalent current charge of the cosmic ray's linear energy transfer (LET) level. Also, the robustness of the memory cell is tested against the variation in process, voltage and temperature. Though CNTFET surges with high power consumption, it exhibits better noise margin and depleted access time. GPDK 45 nm has an average of 40% increase in SNM and 93% reduction of power compared to the 14 nm CNTFET with 96% of surge in write access time. Thus, the conventional MOSFET's 45 nm node outperforms all the configurations in terms of static noise margin, power, and read delay which swaps with increased write access time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes, Carbon*
  14. Yunus MA, Ramli MM, Osman NH, Mohamed R
    Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz), 2021 Jul 29;69(1):20.
    PMID: 34327598 DOI: 10.1007/s00005-021-00625-6
    Sole nanomaterials or nanomaterials bound to specific biomolecules have been proposed to regulate the immune system. These materials have now emerged as new tools for eliciting immune-based therapies to treat various cancers. Graphene, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO (rGO) are the latest nanomaterials among other carbon nanotubes that have attracted wide interest among medical industry players due to their extraordinary properties, inert-state, non-toxic and stable dispersion in a various solvent. Currently, GO and rGO are utilized in various biomedical application including cancer immunotherapy. This review will highlight studies that have been carried out in elucidating the stimulation of GO and rGO on selected innate and adaptive immune cells and their effect on cancer progression to shed some insights for researchers in the development of various GO- and rGO-based immune therapies against various cancers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes, Carbon*
  15. Kumar R, Singh L, Wahid ZA, Mahapatra DM, Liu H
    Bioresour Technol, 2018 Apr;254:1-6.
    PMID: 29413909 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.01.053
    The aim of this work was to evaluate the comparative performance of hybrid metal oxide nanorods i.e. MnCo2O4 nanorods (MCON) and single metal oxide nanorods i.e. Co3O4 nanorods (CON) as oxygen reduction catalyst in microbial fuel cells (MFC). Compared to the single metal oxide, the hybrid MCON exhibited a higher BET surface area and provided additional positively charged ions, i.e., Co2+/Co3+ and Mn3+/Mn4+ on its surfaces, which increased the electro-conductivity of the cathode and improved the oxygen reduction kinetics significantly, achieved an io of 6.01 A/m2 that was 12.4% higher than CON. Moreover, the porous architecture of MCON facilitated the diffusion of electrolyte, reactants and electrons during the oxygen reduction, suggested by lower diffusion (Rd), activation (Ract) and ohmic resistance (Rohm) values. This enhanced oxygen reduction by MCON boosted the power generation in MFC, achieving a maximum power density of 587 mW/m2 that was ∼29% higher than CON.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes*
  16. Cheong JK, Ooi EH, Chiew YS, Menichetti L, Armanetti P, Franchini MC, et al.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2023 Mar;230:107363.
    PMID: 36720181 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2023.107363
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gold nanorod-assisted photothermal therapy (GNR-PTT) is a cancer treatment whereby GNRs incorporated into the tumour act as photo-absorbers to elevate the thermal destruction effect. In the case of bladder, there are few possible routes to target the tumour with GNRs, namely peri/intra-tumoural injection and intravesical instillation of GNRs. These two approaches lead to different GNR distribution inside the tumour and can affect the treatment outcome.

    METHODOLOGY: The present study investigates the effects of heterogeneous GNR distribution in a typical setup of GNR-PTT. Three cases were considered. Case 1 considered the GNRs at the tumour centre, while Case 2 represents a hypothetical scenario where GNRs are distributed at the tumour periphery; these two cases represent intratumoural accumulation with different degree of GNR spread inside the tumour. Case 3 is achieved when GNRs target the exposed tumoural surface that is invading the bladder wall, when they are delivered by intravesical instillation.

    RESULTS: Results indicate that for a laser power of 0.6 W and GNR volume fraction of 0.01%, Case 2 and 3 were successful in achieving complete tumour eradication after 330 and 470 s of laser irradiation, respectively. Case 1 failed to form complete tumour damage when the GNRs are concentrated at the tumour centre but managed to produce complete tumour damage if the spread of GNRs is wider. Results from Case 2 also demonstrated a different heating profile from Case 1, suggesting that thermal ablation during GNR-PTT is dependant on the GNRs distribution inside the tumour. Case 3 shows similar results to Case 2 whereby gradual but uniform heating is observed. Cases 2 and 3 show that uniformly heating the tumour can reduce damage to the surrounding tissues.

    CONCLUSIONS: Different GNR distribution associated with the different methods of introducing GNRs to the bladder during GNR-PTT affect the treatment outcome of bladder cancer in mice. Insufficient spreading during intratumoural injection of GNRs can render the treatment ineffective, while administered via intravesical instillation. GNR distribution achieved through intravesical instillation present some advantages over intratumoural injection and is worthy of further exploration.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes*
  17. Afandi NS, Mohammadi M, Ichikawa S, Mohamed AR
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Dec;27(34):43011-43027.
    PMID: 32725565 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10269-2
    Several multi-walled carbon nanotubes supported Ni-Ce catalysts were synthesized, and their performance in carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CDRM) for syngas production was evaluated. The attachment of Ni-Ce nanoparticles to the functionalized carbon nanotube (fCNT) support was carried out using four synthesis routes, i.e., impregnation (I), sol-gel (S), co-precipitation (C), and hydrothermal (H) methods. Results indicated that synthesis method influences the properties of the NiCe/fCNT catalysts in terms of homogeneity of metal dispersion, size of crystallites, and metal-support interaction. The activity of the catalysts followed the order of NiCe/fCNT(H) > NiCe/fCNT(S) > NiCe/fCNT(C) > NiCe/fCNT(I). The NiCe/fCNT(H) catalyst exhibited the highest catalytic activity with CH4 and CO2 conversions of 92 and 96%, respectively, and resulted in syngas product with consistent H2/CO ratio of 0.91 at reaction temperature of 800 °C without notable deactivation up to 30 h of reaction. Moreover, the growth of carbon on the spent catalyst was only 2% with deposition rate of 4.08 mg/gcat·h; this was plausibly due to the well-dispersed distribution of nanoparticles on fCNT surface and abundant presence of oxygenated groups on the catalyst surface.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes, Carbon*
  18. Sharma N, Zahoor I, Sachdeva M, Subramaniyan V, Fuloria S, Fuloria NK, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Nov;28(43):60459-60476.
    PMID: 34545518 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-16570-y
    Meningitis is an inflammation of the protective membranes called meninges and fluid adjacent the brain and spinal cord. The inflammatory progression expands all through subarachnoid space of the brain and spinal cord and occupies the ventricles. The pathogens like bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites are main sources of infection causing meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening health problem that which needs instantaneous apprehension and treatment. Nesseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus flu are major widespread factors causing bacterial meningitis. The conventional drug delivery approaches encounter difficulty in crossing this blood-brain barrier (BBB) and therefore are insufficient to elicit the desired pharmacological effect as required for treatment of meningitis. Therefore, application of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems has become imperative for successful dealing with this deadly disease. The nanoparticles have ability to across BBB via four important transport mechanisms, i.e., paracellular transport, transcellular (transcytosis), endocytosis (adsorptive transcytosis), and receptor-mediated transcytosis. In this review, we reminisce distinctive symptoms of meningitis, and provide an overview of various types of bacterial meningitis, with a focus on its epidemiology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology. This review describes conventional therapeutic approaches for treatment of meningitis and the problems encountered by them while transmitting across tight junctions of BBB. The nanotechnology approaches like functionalized polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carrier, nanoemulsion, liposomes, transferosomes, and carbon nanotubes which have been recently evaluated for treatment or detection of bacterial meningitis have been focused. This review has also briefly summarized the recent patents and clinical status of therapeutic modalities for meningitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes, Carbon*
  19. Saleemi MA, Hosseini Fouladi M, Yong PVC, Chinna K, Palanisamy NK, Wong EH
    Chem Res Toxicol, 2021 01 18;34(1):24-46.
    PMID: 33319996 DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.0c00172
    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are the most studied allotropic form of carbon. They can be used in various biomedical applications due to their novel physicochemical properties. In particular, the small size of CNTs, with a large surface area per unit volume, has a considerable impact on their toxicity. Despite of the use of CNTs in various applications, toxicity is a big problem that requires more research. In this Review, we discuss the toxicity of CNTs and the associated mechanisms. Physicochemical factors, such as metal impurities, length, size, solubilizing agents, CNTs functionalization, and agglomeration, that may lead to oxidative stress, toxic signaling pathways, and potential ways to control these mechanisms are also discussed. Moreover, with the latest mechanistic evidence described in this Review, we expect to give new insights into CNTs' toxicological effects at the molecular level and provide new clues for the mitigation of harmful effects emerging from exposure to CNTs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes, Carbon/adverse effects*; Nanotubes, Carbon/chemistry
  20. Ong CB, Annuar MSM
    J Food Biochem, 2021 10;45(10):e13924.
    PMID: 34490635 DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.13924
    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-tannase composite was investigated as an immobilized biocatalyst on the basis of its facile preparation, low cost, and excellent aqueous dispersibility. Cross-linked tannase enzymes, obtained in the presence of glutaraldehyde, were composited with MWCNT via physical adsorption. Multiple techniques were applied to investigate, and corroborate the successful adsorption of cross-linked tannase onto the MWCNT structure. Green tea infusion extract post-treatment using the composite preparation showed elevated radical scavenging activities relative to the control. Green tea infusion extract exhibited a markedly reduced EC50 value on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals following its treatment with the enzyme composite, which represents 20%-34% enhancement in its free radical scavenging capacity. Stoichiometry and number of reduced DPPH were determined and compared. The antioxidative potential of a widely consumed, health-beneficial green tea is elevated by the treatment with MWCNT-tannase composite. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Cross-linked tannase enzymes were composited with pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes via simple physical adsorption. The composite presents key advantages such as low specific volume compared to other well-known immobilization media, inert, facile enzyme composition, and ease of recovery for repeated use. The work demonstrated carbon nanotube prosthetic utility in the biotransformation of food-based health commodity sought after for its nutritional benefits. The approach is of both industrial- and agricultural importance, and is a promising and viable strategy to obtain a natural, functional food supplement for the multi-billion dollar well-being and health-related industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotubes, Carbon*
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links