Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 52 in total

  1. Cheng WK, Oon CE
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2018 Jul;103:1246-1252.
    PMID: 29864905 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.04.119
    Glycosylation is an enzymatic process in which a carbohydrate is attached to a functional group from another molecule. Glycosylation is a crucial post translational process in protein modification. The tumor microenvironment produces altered glycans that contribute to cancer progression and aggressiveness. Abnormal glycosylation is widely observed in tumor angiogenesis. Despite many attempts to decipher the role of glycosylation in different aspects of cancer, little is known regarding the roles of glycans in angiogenesis. The blood vessels in tumors are often used to transport oxygen and nutrients for tumor progression and metastasis. The crosstalk within the tumor microenvironment can induce angiogenesis by manipulating these glycans to hijack the normal angiogenesis process, thus promoting tumor growth. Abnormal glycosylation has been shown to promote tumor angiogenesis by degrading the extracellular matrix to activate the angiogenic signaling pathways. This review highlights the latest update on how glycosylation can contribute to tumor angiogenesis that may affect treatment outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism*; Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology
  2. Saeed BA, Lim V, Yusof NA, Khor KZ, Rahman HS, Abdul Samad N
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2019;14:5135-5146.
    PMID: 31371952 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S199974
    Nanoparticles appear to be one of the most promising agents that offer efficacy in angiogenesis-related disease therapy. The objective of this research is to systematically review studies that have probed into the effect of nanoparticles on angiogenesis. Selected inclusion criteria were used to extract articles, references that were cited in the initial search were sought to identify more potential articles, and articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria and duplicates were discarded. The spherical shape was shown to be the most common shape employed to investigate the role of nanoparticles in angiogenesis therapy. The size of nanoparticles appears to play a crucial role for efficacy on angiogenesis, in which 20 nm emerged as the preferred size. Gold nanoparticles exhibit the most promise as an antiangiogenesis agent, and the toxicity was adjustable based on the dosages applied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic
  3. Chong ZX, Yeap SK, Ho WY
    Arch Biochem Biophys, 2020 11 30;695:108583.
    PMID: 32956633 DOI: 10.1016/j.abb.2020.108583
    miRNAs are short non-coding RNA molecules that regulate the expression of mRNA post-transcriptionally. MiRNAs that are secreted into the circulation, also termed circulating miRNAs, have been studied extensively for their roles in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of human breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most prevalent female cancer and is associated with key cancer hallmarks including sustained proliferation, evasion of apoptosis, increased invasion, enhanced metastases, initation of inflammation, induction of angiogenesis, metabolic derangement and immune dysregulation. This review aimed to explore the relationships between circulating miRNAs and different breast cancer hallmarks. Besides, the advantages, challenges and clinical application of using circulating miRNAs in human breast cancer management were also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic/blood*; Neovascularization, Pathologic/immunology; Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology; Neovascularization, Pathologic/therapy
  4. Chellappan DK, Chellian J, Ng ZY, Sim YJ, Theng CW, Ling J, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2017 Dec;96:768-781.
    PMID: 29054093 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.10.058
    Pazopanib is a relatively new compound to be introduced into the chemotherapy field. It is thought to have decent anti-angiogenic properties, which gives an additional hope for the treatment of certain types of cancers. A systematic review solely discussing about pazopanib and its anti-angiogenic effect is yet to be published to date, despite several relevant clinical trials being conducted over the recent years. In this review, we aim to investigate the mechanism of pazopanib's anti-angiogenic effect and its effectiveness in treating several cancers. We have included, in this study, findings from electronically searchable data from randomized clinical trials, clinical studies, cohort studies and other relevant articles. A total of 352 studies were included in this review. From the studies, the effect of pazopanib in various cancers or models was observed and recorded. Study quality is indefinite, with a few decent quality articles. The most elaborately studied cancers include renal cell carcinoma, solid tumors, advanced solid tumors, soft tissue sarcoma, breast cancer and gynecological cancers. In addition, several less commonly studied cancers are included in the studies as well. Pazopanib had demonstrated its anti-angiogenic effect based on favorable results observed in cancers, which are caused by angiogenesis-related mechanisms, such as renal cell carcinoma, solid tumors, advanced solid tumors and soft tissue sarcoma. This review was conducted to study, analyze and review the anti-angiogenic properties of pazopanib in various cancers. The results obtained can provide a decent reference when considering treatment options for angiogenesis-related malignancies. Furthermore, the definite observations of the anti-angiogenic effects of pazopanib could provide newer insights leading to the future development of drugs of the same mechanism with increased efficiency and reduced adverse effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy*
  5. Khalid EB, Ayman EE, Rahman H, Abdelkarim G, Najda A
    Tumour Biol., 2016 Nov;37(11):14513-14536.
    PMID: 27651162
    The process of angiogenesis is quite well-known nowadays. Some medicines and extracts affecting this process are already used routinely in supporting the conventional treatment of many diseases that are considered angiogenic such as cancer. However, we must be aware that the area of currently used drugs of this type is much narrower than the theoretical possibilities existing in therapeutic angiogenesis. Plant substances are a large and diverse group of compounds that are found naturally in fruits, vegetables, spices, and medicinal plants. They also have different anticancer properties. The aim of this literature review article is to present the current state of knowledge concerning the molecular targets of tumor angiogenesis and the active substances (polyphenols, alkaloids, phytohormones, carbohydrates, and terpenes) derived from natural sources, whose activity against cancer angiogenesis has been confirmed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy*; Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology
  6. Chellappan DK, Leng KH, Jia LJ, Aziz NABA, Hoong WC, Qian YC, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2018 Jun;102:1127-1144.
    PMID: 29710531 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.03.061
    OBJECTIVE: The study aims to analyze the effectiveness of bevacizumab in addressing the complications associated with gynecological cancers and evaluates effective treatments for various gynecological cancers.

    METHODS: The study follows a systematic review approach that has been implemented to analyze the qualitative published data from previous studies. Studies related with the trials of angiogenesis and bevacizumab were selected in the review.

    RESULTS: In general, the management of gynecological cancers include chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy. Results suggest bevacizumab as an effective treatment modality for cervical and several other cancers. Overall, bevacizumab showed promising results in improving the overall survival rate of gynecological cancer patients through the combination of bevacizumab with other chemotherapeutic agents.

    CONCLUSION: Bevacizumab possess less documented adverse effects when compared to other chemotherapeutic agents. The manifestation and severity of adverse effects reported varied according to the chemotherapeutic agent(s) that were used with bevacizumab in combination therapy. Overall, bevacizumab effectively improved the survival rate in patients with several gynaecological cancers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy*; Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology
  7. Langford-Smith AWW, Hasan A, Weston R, Edwards N, Jones AM, Boulton AJM, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 02 19;9(1):2309.
    PMID: 30783159 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-38921-z
    Endothelial colony forming progenitor cell (ECFC) function is compromised in diabetes, leading to poor vascular endothelial repair, which contributes to impaired diabetic foot ulcer healing. We have generated novel glycomimetic drugs with protective effects against endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the effect of glycomimetic C3 on the functional capacity of diabetic ECFCs. ECFCs were isolated from healthy controls and patients with diabetes with neuroischaemic (NI) or neuropathic (NP) foot ulcers. Functionally, diabetic ECFCs demonstrated delayed colony formation (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism; Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology
  8. Khor ES, Noor SM, Wong PF
    Life Sci, 2016 Apr 1;150:67-75.
    PMID: 26916825 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2016.02.076
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are vital in modulating lifespan and various biological processes including vascular function. The pivotal roles of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in regulating senescence and angiogenesis have been extensively described. However, the roles of its orthologue, zebrafish target of rapamycin (zTOR) in senescence and angiogenesis remain to be unravelled. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of zTOR and identify miRNAs associated with senescence and angiogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic
  9. Costa H, Xu X, Overbeek G, Vasaikar S, Patro CP, Kostopoulou ON, et al.
    Oncotarget, 2016 Jul 26;7(30):47221-47231.
    PMID: 27363017 DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.9722
    BACKGROUND: Both arginase (ARG2) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) have been implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the role of ARG2 in the pathogenesis of glioblastoma (GBM) and the HCMV effects on ARG2 are unknown. We hypothesize that HCMV may contribute to tumorigenesis by increasing ARG2 expression.

    RESULTS: ARG2 promotes tumorigenesis by increasing cellular proliferation, migration, invasion and vasculogenic mimicry in GBM cells, at least in part due to overexpression of MMP2/9. The nor-NOHA significantly reduced migration and tube formation of ARG2-overexpressing cells. HCMV immediate-early proteins (IE1/2) or its downstream pathways upregulated the expression of ARG2 in U-251 MG cells. Immunostaining of GBM tissue sections confirmed the overexpression of ARG2, consistent with data from subsets of Gene Expression Omnibus. Moreover, higher levels of ARG2 expression tended to be associated with poorer survival in GBM patient by analyzing data from TCGA.

    METHODS: The role of ARG2 in tumorigenesis was examined by proliferation-, migration-, invasion-, wound healing- and tube formation assays using an ARG2-overexpressing cell line and ARG inhibitor, N (omega)-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) and siRNA against ARG2 coupled with functional assays measuring MMP2/9 activity, VEGF levels and nitric oxide synthase activity. Association between HCMV and ARG2 were examined in vitro with 3 different GBM cell lines, and ex vivo with immunostaining on GBM tissue sections. The viral mechanism mediating ARG2 induction was examined by siRNA approach. Correlation between ARG2 expression and patient survival was extrapolated from bioinformatics analysis on data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).

    CONCLUSIONS: ARG2 promotes tumorigenesis, and HCMV may contribute to GBM pathogenesis by upregulating ARG2.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic/enzymology; Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology; Neovascularization, Pathologic/virology
  10. Soliman AM, Das S, Abd Ghafar N, Teoh SL
    Front Genet, 2018;9:38.
    PMID: 29491883 DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2018.00038
    Wound healing is a complex biological process that is generally composed of four phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. The proliferation phase is crucial for effective healing compared to other phases. Many critical events occur during this phase, i.e., migration of fibroblasts, re-epithelialization, angiogenesis and wound contraction. Chronic wounds are common and are considered a major public health problem. Therefore, there is the increasing need to discover new therapeutic strategies. MicroRNA (miRNA) research in the field of wound healing is in its early phase, but the knowledge of the recent discoveries is essential for developing effective therapies for the treatment of chronic wounds. In this review, we focused on recently discovered miRNAs which are involved in the proliferation phase of wound healing in the past few years and their role in wound healing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic
  11. Md Noh UK, Ahem A, Mustapha M
    Acta Med Iran, 2013;51(9):657-60.
    PMID: 24338200
    Uncontrolled hypertension is well- known to give rise to systemic complications involving multiple central organs. Artherosclerosis leads to damage of the retinal vessels wall, contributing to venous stasis, thrombosis and finally, occlusion. Retinal vein occlusions compromise vision through development of ischaemic maculopathy, macular oedema, and rubeotic glaucoma. Laser photocoagulation remains the definitive treatment for ischaemic vein occlusion with secondary neovascularization. Timely treatment with anti- vascular endothelial growth factor prevents development of rubeotic glaucoma. We hereby report an unusual case of bilateral retinal vein occlusion complicated by rubeosis irides, which was successfully managed to improve vision and prevent rubeotic glaucoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy
  12. Hassan SS, Bong DB, Premsenthil M
    J Digit Imaging, 2012 Jun;25(3):437-44.
    PMID: 21901535 DOI: 10.1007/s10278-011-9418-6
    Diabetic retinopathy has become an increasingly important cause of blindness. Nevertheless, vision loss can be prevented from early detection of diabetic retinopathy and monitor with regular examination. Common automatic detection of retinal abnormalities is for microaneurysms, hemorrhages, hard exudates, and cotton wool spot. However, there is a worse case of retinal abnormality, but not much research was done to detect it. It is neovascularization where new blood vessels grow due to extensive lack of oxygen in the retinal capillaries. This paper shows that various combination of techniques such as image normalization, compactness classifier, morphology-based operator, Gaussian filtering, and thresholding techniques were used in developing of neovascularization detection. A function matrix box was added in order to classify the neovascularization from natural blood vessel. A region-based neovascularization classification was attempted as a diagnostic accuracy. The developed method was tested on images from different database sources with varying quality and image resolution. It shows that specificity and sensitivity results were 89.4% and 63.9%, respectively. The proposed approach yield encouraging results for future development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic/diagnosis*
  13. Ch'ng ES, Tuan Sharif SE, Jaafar H
    Virchows Arch., 2013 Mar;462(3):257-67.
    PMID: 23283409 DOI: 10.1007/s00428-012-1362-4
    Tumor-associated macrophages play a crucial role in breast cancer progression and tumor angiogenesis. However, evaluation of tumor-associated macrophages incorporating their histological locations is lacking. The aim of this study was to clarify whether macrophages in tumor stroma and macrophages in tumor cell nests have distinctive properties in relation to pertinent breast cancer clinicopathological parameters and tumor angiogenesis. In 94 human invasive breast ductal carcinomas, tumor-associated macrophages were immunostained with anti-CD68 antibody and counted or graded according to these histological locations. Microvessels were immunostained with anti-CD34 antibody and counted for microvessel density. We found that the presence of tumor stromal and tumor nest macrophages was closely correlated (p = 0.001). Both tumor stromal and tumor nest macrophages were associated with mitotic count (p = 0.001 and p = 0.037, respectively). However, only higher tumor stromal macrophage grades were associated with higher tumor grades (p = 0.004) and negative estrogen receptor status (p = 0.007). Multivariate analysis showed that tumors with a high mitotic count score (score 3 vs. scores 1 and 2) had a higher tumor stromal macrophage density (Grades III and IV) when adjusted for tumor size, tubule formation, and estrogen receptor status (odds ratio 3.41, p = 0.010). The tumor nest macrophage count significantly correlated with the microvessel density (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology*
  14. Okuda KS, Lee HM, Velaithan V, Ng MF, Patel V
    Microcirculation, 2016 08;23(6):389-405.
    PMID: 27177346 DOI: 10.1111/micc.12289
    Cancer metastasis which predominantly occurs through blood and lymphatic vessels, is the leading cause of death in cancer patients. Consequently, several anti-angiogenic agents have been approved as therapeutic agents for human cancers such as metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Also, anti-lymphangiogenic drugs such as monoclonal antibodies VGX-100 and IMC-3C5 have undergone phase I clinical trials for advanced and metastatic solid tumors. Although anti-tumor-associated angiogenesis has proven to be a promising therapeutic strategy for human cancers, this approach is fraught with toxicities and development of drug resistance. This emphasizes the need for alternative anti-(lymph)angiogenic drugs. The use of zebrafish has become accepted as an established model for high-throughput screening, vascular biology, and cancer research. Importantly, various zebrafish transgenic lines have now been generated that can readily discriminate different vascular compartments. This now enables detailed in vivo studies that are relevant to both human physiological and tumor (lymph)angiogenesis to be conducted in zebrafish. This review highlights recent advancements in the zebrafish anti-vascular screening platform and showcases promising new anti-(lymph)angiogenic compounds that have been derived from this model. In addition, this review discusses the promises and challenges of the zebrafish model in the context of anti-(lymph)angiogenic compound discovery for cancer treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy
  15. Hu Z, Brooks SA, Dormoy V, Hsu CW, Hsu HY, Lin LT, et al.
    Carcinogenesis, 2015 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S184-202.
    PMID: 26106137 DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgv036
    One of the important 'hallmarks' of cancer is angiogenesis, which is the process of formation of new blood vessels that are necessary for tumor expansion, invasion and metastasis. Under normal physiological conditions, angiogenesis is well balanced and controlled by endogenous proangiogenic factors and antiangiogenic factors. However, factors produced by cancer cells, cancer stem cells and other cell types in the tumor stroma can disrupt the balance so that the tumor microenvironment favors tumor angiogenesis. These factors include vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial tissue factor and other membrane bound receptors that mediate multiple intracellular signaling pathways that contribute to tumor angiogenesis. Though environmental exposures to certain chemicals have been found to initiate and promote tumor development, the role of these exposures (particularly to low doses of multiple substances), is largely unknown in relation to tumor angiogenesis. This review summarizes the evidence of the role of environmental chemical bioactivity and exposure in tumor angiogenesis and carcinogenesis. We identify a number of ubiquitous (prototypical) chemicals with disruptive potential that may warrant further investigation given their selectivity for high-throughput screening assay targets associated with proangiogenic pathways. We also consider the cross-hallmark relationships of a number of important angiogenic pathway targets with other cancer hallmarks and we make recommendations for future research. Understanding of the role of low-dose exposure of chemicals with disruptive potential could help us refine our approach to cancer risk assessment, and may ultimately aid in preventing cancer by reducing or eliminating exposures to synergistic mixtures of chemicals with carcinogenic potential.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic/chemically induced*
  16. Abdallah Q, Al-Deeb I, Bader A, Hamam F, Saleh K, Abdulmajid A
    Mol Med Rep, 2018 Aug;18(2):2441-2448.
    PMID: 29901194 DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2018.9155
    Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in malignant tumor progression and development. The present study aimed to identify lead plants with selective anti-angiogenic properties. A total of 26 methanolic extracts obtained from 18 plants growing in Saudi Arabia and Jordan that belong to the Lamiaceae family were screened for their cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic activities using MTT and rat aortic ring assays, respectively. Four novel extracts of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav., Phlomis viscosa Poir, Salvia samuelssonii Rech.f., and Premna resinosa (Hochst.) Schauer were identified for their selective anti-angiogenic effects. These extracts did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on human endothelial cells (EA.hy926) indicating the involvement of indirect anti-angiogenic mechanisms. The active extracts are potential candidates for further phytochemical and mechanistic studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy*; Neovascularization, Pathologic/epidemiology
  17. Mohd Nafi SN, Idris F, Jaafar H
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2017 Dec 28;18(12):3231-3238.
    PMID: 29281877
    Background: Angiogenic activity has been considered to reflect important molecular events during breast tumour
    development. The present study concerned cellular and molecular changes of MNU-induced breast tumours subjected
    to promotion and suppression of angiogenesis. Methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats at the age of 21 days received
    MNU at the dose 70 mg/kg of body weight by intraperitoneal injection. Three months post-carcinogen initiation,
    mammary tumours were palpated and their growth was monitored. When the tumour diameter reached 1.0 ± 0.05 cm,
    rats were given bFGF or PF4 intratumourally at a dose of 10 μg/tumour. Entire palpable tumour were subsequently
    excised and subjected to histology examination, IHC staining, and RT-PCR. Results: No critical morphological changes
    were observed between pro-angiogenic factor, bFGF, and control groups. However, increase of tumour size with more
    necrotic and diffuse areas was notable in tumours after anti-angiogenic PF4 intervention. ER and PR mRNA expression
    was significantly up- and down-regulated in bFGF and PF4 groups, respectively. The trends were significantly associated
    with peri- and intratumoural MVD counts. However, irrespective of whether we promoted or inhibited angiogenesis,
    the expression of EGFR and ERBB2 continued to be significantly increased but this was not significantly associated
    with the MVD score. No significant differences in E-cadherin and LR gene expression were noted between intervention
    and control groups. Conclusion: ER and PR receptor expression shows consistent responses when tumour angiogenesis
    is manipulated either positively or negatively. Our study adds to current understanding that not only do we need to
    target hormonal receptors, as presently practiced, but we also need to target endothelial receptors to successfully treat
    breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology; Neovascularization, Pathologic/prevention & control*
  18. Wen Jun L, Pit Foong C, Abd Hamid R
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2019 Oct;118:109221.
    PMID: 31545225 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109221
    Ardisia crispa Thunb. A. DC. (Primulaceae) has been used extensively as folk-lore medicine in South East Asia including China and Japan to treat various inflammatory related diseases. Ardisia crispa root hexane fraction (ACRH) has been thoroughly studied by our group and it has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperalgesic, anti-arthritic, anti-ulcer, chemoprevention and suppression against inflammation-induced angiogenesis in various animal model. Nevertheless, its effect against human endothelial cells in vitro has not been reported yet. Hence, the aim of the study is to investigate the potential antiangiogenic property of ACRH in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and zebrafish embryo model. ACRH was separated from the crude ethanolic extract of the plant's root in prior to experimental studies. MTT assay revealed that ACRH exerted a concentration-dependent antiproliferative effect on HUVEC with the IC50 of 2.49 ± 0.04 μg/mL. At higher concentration (10 μg/mL), apoptosis was induced without affecting the cell cycle distribution. Angiogenic properties including migration, invasion and differentiation of HUVECs, evaluated via wound healing, trans-well invasion and tube formation assay respectively, were significantly suppressed by ACRH in a concentration-dependent manner. Noteworthily, significant antiangiogenic effects were observed even at the lowest concentration used (0.1 μg/mL). Expression of proMMP-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, VEGF-D, Angiopoietin-2, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1, FGF-2, Follistatin, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were significantly reduced in various degrees by ACRH. The ISV formation in zebrafish embryo was significantly suppressed by ACRH at the concentration of 5 μg/mL. These findings revealed the potential of ACRH as antiangiogenic agent by suppressing multiple proangiogenic proteins. Thus, it can be further verified via the transcription of these proteins from their respective DNA, in elucidating their exact pathways.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy*; Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology
  19. Oon CE, Bridges E, Sheldon H, Sainson RCA, Jubb A, Turley H, et al.
    Oncotarget, 2017 Jun 20;8(25):40115-40131.
    PMID: 28445154 DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.16969
    Delta-like 4 (DLL4) and Jagged1 (JAG1) are two key Notch ligands implicated in tumour angiogenesis. They were shown to have opposite effects on mouse retinal and adult regenerative angiogenesis. In tumours, both ligands are upregulated but their relative effects and interactions in tumour biology, particularly in tumour response to therapeutic intervention are unclear. Here we demonstrate that DLL4 and JAG1 displayed equal potency in stimulating Notch target genes in HMEC-1 endothelial cells but had opposing effects on sprouting angiogenesis in vitro. Mouse DLL4 or JAG1 expressed in glioblastoma cells decreased tumour cell proliferation in vitro but promoted tumour growth in vivo. mDLL4-expressing tumours showed fewer but larger vessels whereas mJAG1-tumours produced more vessels. In both tumour types pericyte coverage was decreased but the vessels were more perfused. Both ligands increased tumour resistance towards anti-VEGF therapy but the resistance was higher in mDLL4-tumours versus mJAG1-tumours. However, their sensitivity to the therapy was restored by blocking Notch signalling with dibenzazepine. Importantly, anti-DLL4 antibody blocked the effect of JAG1 on tumour growth and increased vessel branching in vivo. The mechanism behind the differential responsiveness was due to a positive feedback loop for DLL4-Notch signalling, rendering DLL4 more dominant in activating Notch signalling in the tumour microenvironment. We concluded that DLL4 and JAG1 promote tumour growth by modulating tumour angiogenesis via different mechanisms. JAG1 is not antagonistic but utilises DLL4 in tumour angiogenesis. The results suggest that anti-JAG1 therapy should be explored in conjunction with anti-DLL4 treatment in developing anti-Notch therapies in clinics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic/genetics; Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism*; Neovascularization, Pathologic/prevention & control
  20. Mushawiahti, M., Rokiah, O., Umi, K.M.N., Leow, S.N.
    Medicine & Health, 2014;9(2):134-138.
    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder describing an immature vascularisation
    of a developing retina in low birth weight preterm infants. This condition potentially
    leads to blindness. ROP developed as a response of hypoxia of the eye due to
    incomplete development of the retinal vessels. ROP is commonly reported as
    bilateral disease,a small percentage of infants have asymmetrical changes. We
    report a case of long-term outcome of a asymmetry ROP changes with peripheral
    retinal ablation in a single eye. This particular case demonstrates the possible longterm
    outcome of unilaterally treated ROP which could either be due to the severity
    of the disease itself or the treatment she received. It is important to highlight the
    possibility of unequal development of the eye in asymmetrical presentation of ROP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neovascularization, Pathologic
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