Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

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  1. Singh G
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1977 Dec;32(2):152-6.
    PMID: 614483
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain/physiopathology*
  2. Bhardwaj A, Nagandla K
    Postgrad Med J, 2014 Aug;90(1066):450-60.
    PMID: 24904047 DOI: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2013-132377
    Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal symptom in pregnancy that can present as lumbar pain or pelvic girdle pain, with significant physical and psychosocial implications. Pelvic girdle pain is more prevalent and results in greater disability than lumbar pain. It is possible to distinguish between these two conditions from a detailed history based on the site of the pain, its intensity, disability and pain provocation tests. Management of low back pain in pregnancy is conservative, with physical exercise for lumbar pain and minimising activities that exacerbate pain, analgesics and bed rest for pelvic girdle pain, as well as avoiding abduction beyond the pain-free zone in labour. There is evidence that stabilising exercises in patients with pelvic girdle pain postpartum have a beneficial effect. Other treatment modalities that have been shown to be safe and effective include pelvic belts, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture and complementary therapy with yoga. Other orthopaedic complications in pregnancy such as carpal tunnel syndrome, pubic symphysis rupture, transient osteoporosis and osteonecrosis are usually self-limiting with a satisfactory outcome. However, a lack of awareness and failure to recognise these complications can result in long-term morbidity. Knowledge of the preoperative diagnostic investigations, surgical approaches and intraoperative positioning of the mother to avoid gravid uterus compression is vital in orthopaedic emergencies such as lumbar disc herniation, cauda equina syndrome, fractures and acute compartment syndrome of the lower limb to ensure a safe maternal and fetal outcome and to prevent serious disability. Pregnancy is not contraindicated in women with pre-existing orthopaedic complications such as kyphoscoliosis and total hip arthroplasty as there is no evidence to suggest increased maternal or fetal risks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain/physiopathology; Pelvic Girdle Pain/physiopathology
  3. Mohd Sallehuddin S, Mohamad Nor NS, Ambak R, Abdul Aziz NS, Mohd Zaki NA, Omar MA, et al.
    BMC Womens Health, 2018 07 19;18(Suppl 1):101.
    PMID: 30066647 DOI: 10.1186/s12905-018-0597-x
    BACKGROUND: Obesity leads to the increase of pain at different parts of the body and it is a potential marker for complications of chronic diseases. This paper aims to assess changes in the body pain among overweight and obese housewives who participated in the My Body is Fit and Fabulous at home (MyBFF@home) study.

    METHODS: Housewives aged 18 to 59 years old from the MyBFF@home study were selected and pain was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire. VAS measured the pain intensity at different parts of the body (score of 0-10). Data were collected at base line, 3 months and 6 months among the housewives in both the control and intervention group. Pain scores and other variables (age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference) were analysed using SPSS version 22.

    RESULTS: A total of 328 housewives completed the VAS questionnaires at baseline, while 185 (56.4%) of housewives completed the VAS at 3 months and 6 months. A decreasing trend of mean pain score in both groups after 6 months was observed. However, the intervention group showed a consistent decreasing trend of pain score mainly for back pain. In the control group, there was a slight increment of score in back pain from baseline towards the 6 months period. Older housewives in both groups (aged 50 years and above) had a higher mean score of leg pain (2.86, SD: 2.82) compared to the other age group. Higher BMI was significantly associated with pain score in both groups.

    CONCLUSION: There were some changes in the level of body pain among the housewives before and after the intervention. Older obese women had a higher pain score compared to younger obese women. Pain was associated with BMI and change in BMI appears to be beneficial in reducing body pain among overweight and obese individuals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chronic Pain/physiopathology*; Musculoskeletal Pain/physiopathology*
  4. Ismail AH, Bau R, Sidi H, Guan NC, Naing L, Nik Jaafar NR, et al.
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S34-7.
    PMID: 23375262 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2012.12.028
    This study compared the components of sexual responses between Malaysian women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and those without the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain/physiopathology
  5. Chan CK, Lee HY, Choi WC, Cho JY, Lee SH
    Eur Spine J, 2011 Jul;20 Suppl 2:S217-21.
    PMID: 20938789 DOI: 10.1007/s00586-010-1585-5
    Sciatica-like leg pain can be the main presenting symptom in patients with cervical cord compression. It is a false localizing presentation, which may lead to missed or delayed diagnosis, resulting in the wrong plan of management, especially in the presence of concurrent lumbar lesions. Medical history, physical findings and the results of imaging studies were reviewed in two cases of cervical cord compressions, which presented with sciatica-like leg pain. There was multi-level cervical spondylosis with cord compression in the first patient and the second patient had two levels of cervical disc herniation with cord compression. In both cases, there were co-existing lumbar lesions, which could be responsible for the presentation of the leg pain. Cervical blocks were diagnostic in identifying the level responsible for the leg pain and it was confirmed so after cervical decompressive surgery in both cases, which brought significant pain relief. Funicular leg pain is a rare presentation of cervical cord compression. It is a referred pain due to the irritation of the ascending spinothalamic tract. Cervical blocks were successful in identifying the cause of funicular pain in our cases and this may pave the way for further studies to establish the role of cervical blocks as a diagnostic tool for funicular pain caused by cord compression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain/physiopathology
  6. Leonard JH, Kok KS, Ayiesha R, Das S, Roslizawati N, Vikram M, et al.
    Clin Ter, 2010;161(1):29-33.
    PMID: 20393675
    Work related musculoskeletal disorders represent a serious public health problem as it is a leading cause for disability and absenteeism in workers. The main purpose of the present quasi-experimental study was to compare the muscle activity of the upper trapezius in subjects with neck pain and compare it to those of normal subjects.

    Study site: Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
    Matched MeSH terms: Neck Pain/physiopathology
  7. Boey CC, Omar A, Arul Phillips J
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2003 Jul;39(5):352-7.
    PMID: 12887665
    OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the extent to which recurrent abdominal pain and other factors were associated with academic achievement among Year-6 (12 years of age) schoolchildren.

    METHODS: The present study was a cross-sectional survey conducted from September to November 2001. Schoolchildren were recruited from primary schools that were selected randomly from a list of all primary schools in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, using random sampling numbers. Information concerning recurrent abdominal pain, socio-economic status, life events, demographic and other details was obtained using a combination of questionnaires and interviews. Academic achievement was assessed using a score based on the Malaysian Primary School Achievement Examination. An overall score at or above the mean was taken to indicate high academic achievement while a score below the mean indicated poor academic achievement.

    RESULTS: A total of 1971 children were studied (958 boys and 1013 girls: 1047 Malays, 513 Chinese and 411 Indians). Of these children, 456 (23.1%) fulfilled the criteria for recurrent abdominal pain. Using the method of binary logistic regression analysis, the following factors were found to be independently associated with poor academic performance: a low socio-economic status (odds ratio (OR) 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.35); male sex (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.26-2.05); the death of a close relative (OR 2.22; 95% CI 1.73-2.85); the divorce or separation of parents (OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.73-5.40); the commencement of work by the mother (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.02-1.76); hospitalization of the child in the 12 months prior to the study (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.12-3.01); lack of health-care consultation (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.36-2.36); missing breakfast (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.07-2.02); and lack of kindergarten education (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.04-1.75).

    CONCLUSIONS: Many factors, such as socio-economic status and recent life events, were associated with poor academic performance. Recurrent abdominal pain did not correlate directly to academic performance. Stress may be a means by which various factors cause children to struggle academically.

    Matched MeSH terms: Abdominal Pain/physiopathology
  8. Jaafar N, Razak IA, Zain RB
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 1989 Sep;18(5):553-5.
    PMID: 2619246
    The aim of this study is to determine the social impact of oral and facial pain in a sample involving an industrial population. Out of a total of 355 subjects interviewed, nearly one-half claimed to have oral and facial pain in the previous one month prior to the survey. The most common type of pain was that related to hot or cold fluids or sweet things followed by toothache. On the average, the pain lasted for 4.2 days (SD = 4.9) per person in the past one-month. About one in five persons with pain reported that it was severe enough to disrupt sleep. About one in ten persons reporting pain had to take sick leave because of the pain. However, only one in four persons with pain consulted a doctor or dentist. More than one-third tried to cope with the pain and did nothing while the rest tried various means of self-cure. It is therefore postulated that in this population, pain per se is a poor predictor of utilisation of dental services. Further research into pain coping behaviour and how this affects of pattern of utilisation of dental services is indicated in order to formulate a strategy to encourage the habit of seeking prompt dental care by the target population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain/physiopathology
  9. Ng ES, Ting JR, Foo SL, Akram SA, Fadzlina AA, Alywiah JS, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2006 Dec;61 Suppl B:23-6.
    PMID: 17600989
    The conventional upper arm tourniquet used for hand and wrist operations may cause significant discomfort to patient when the procedure is performed under local anaesthesia. Forearm tourniquet causes less muscle ischeamia and pain. The discomfort experienced while using a forearm and upper arm tourniquet was assessed in 96 healthy subjects. Tourniquet placed on both sides was inflated sequentially to 250mmhg for five minutes on different hand. The discomfort level was assessed using a small visual analogue scale and complications were recorded. In the upper arm tourniquet, 24.9% had mild, 60.5% had moderate and 14.6% had severe pain whereas with forearm tourniquet, 99% had mild pain and only 1% had moderate pain. Seventy-nine percent of the subjects tested with forearm tourniquet had no discomfort at all. The average discomfort level for upper arm and forearm tourniquet was 4.72 and 0.39 respectively, which is statistically significant. Complications that were observed only in upper arm tourniquet included prolonged tingling, burning sensation and discomfort and stiffness of the upper limb. We concluded that forearm tourniquet was safe and well tolerated and should be used more often when indicated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain/physiopathology
  10. Chua YP, Tan WJ, Yahya TS, Saw A
    Singapore Med J, 2013 Nov;54(11):630-3.
    PMID: 24276099
    INTRODUCTION: Foot pain is a common problem, especially in women, and studies have shown that it is related to footwear. This study was conducted to establish the prevalence of nontraumatic foot pain and its contributing factors in young working Malaysian women in an urban setting.

    METHODS: The survey was conducted on a group of working women (age range 21-40 years) selected using convenience sampling. Data on foot problems was collected through an investigator-directed questionnaire and during clinical inspection of the foot.

    RESULTS: A total of 400 women, with a mean age of 29.4 years, were recruited. Half (n = 200) of the women had experienced recurrent nontraumatic foot pain in the past one year. Subjective assessments of foot pain using the Numeric Intensity Scale gave an average score of 4.89 ± 1.78 (range 2-10), with most episodes occurring at the heel. There was no statistically significant association between foot pain and age, ethnicity or body mass index. However, there was a higher incidence of foot pain in women wearing high-heeled footwear than those wearing non-high-heeled footwear (p = 0.027, odds ratio 1.591).

    CONCLUSION: Nontraumatic foot pain is common among young working women in our society. More than half (68.4%) of the women with foot pain in our study attributed the pain to footwear. Wearing high-heeled shoes to work was a significant contributing factor. Increased public awareness on the importance of proper footwear may help to reduce the prevalence of nontraumatic foot pain in working women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain/physiopathology
  11. Hariharan M, Sindhu R, Vijean V, Yazid H, Nadarajaw T, Yaacob S, et al.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2018 Mar;155:39-51.
    PMID: 29512503 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2017.11.021
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Infant cry signal carries several levels of information about the reason for crying (hunger, pain, sleepiness and discomfort) or the pathological status (asphyxia, deaf, jaundice, premature condition and autism, etc.) of an infant and therefore suited for early diagnosis. In this work, combination of wavelet packet based features and Improved Binary Dragonfly Optimization based feature selection method was proposed to classify the different types of infant cry signals.

    METHODS: Cry signals from 2 different databases were utilized. First database contains 507 cry samples of normal (N), 340 cry samples of asphyxia (A), 879 cry samples of deaf (D), 350 cry samples of hungry (H) and 192 cry samples of pain (P). Second database contains 513 cry samples of jaundice (J), 531 samples of premature (Prem) and 45 samples of normal (N). Wavelet packet transform based energy and non-linear entropies (496 features), Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) based cepstral features (56 features), Mel-frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) were extracted (16 features). The combined feature set consists of 568 features. To overcome the curse of dimensionality issue, improved binary dragonfly optimization algorithm (IBDFO) was proposed to select the most salient attributes or features. Finally, Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) kernel classifier was used to classify the different types of infant cry signals using all the features and highly informative features as well.

    RESULTS: Several experiments of two-class and multi-class classification of cry signals were conducted. In binary or two-class experiments, maximum accuracy of 90.18% for H Vs P, 100% for A Vs N, 100% for D Vs N and 97.61% J Vs Prem was achieved using the features selected (only 204 features out of 568) by IBDFO. For the classification of multiple cry signals (multi-class problem), the selected features could differentiate between three classes (N, A & D) with the accuracy of 100% and seven classes with the accuracy of 97.62%.

    CONCLUSION: The experimental results indicated that the proposed combination of feature extraction and selection method offers suitable classification accuracy and may be employed to detect the subtle changes in the cry signals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pain/physiopathology
  12. Kadir ZS, Sidi H, Kumar J, Das S, Midin M, Baharuddin N
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(8):916-926.
    PMID: 28228081 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170222153908
    Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-5), it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis. The etiology of vaginismus is complex: through multiple biopsycho- social processes, involving bidirectional connections between pelvic-genital (local) and higher mental function (central regulation). It has robust neural and psychological-cognitive loop feedback involvement. The internal neural circuit involves an inter-play of at least two-pathway systems, i.e. both "quick threat assessment" of occipital-limbic-occipital-prefrontal-pelvic-genital; and the chronic pain pathways through the genito-spinothalamic-parietal-pre-frontal system, respectively. In this review, a neurobiology root of vaginismus is deliberated with the central role of an emotional-regulating amygdala, and other neural loop, i.e. hippocampus and neo-cortex in the core psychopathology of fear, disgust, and sexual avoidance. Many therapists view vaginismus as a neglected art-and-science which demands a better and deeper understanding on the clinico-pathological correlation to enhance an effective model for the bio-psycho-social treatment. As vaginismus has a strong presentation in psychopathology, i.e. fear of penetration, phobic avoidance, disgust, and anticipatory anxiety, we highlighted a practical psychiatric approach to the clinical management of vaginismus, based on the current core knowledge in the perspective of neuroscience.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chronic Pain/physiopathology
  13. Shan CL, Bin Adon MY, Rahman AB, Hassan ST, Ismail KB
    Glob J Health Sci, 2012 Jan;4(1):94-104.
    PMID: 22980103 DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v4n1p94
    Rubber tapping processes posed potential risk of various health problems among rubber workers. It ranges from simple musculoskeletal aches to more serious and complicated structural damage to bone, muscles, tendons and nerves of musculoskeletal system. These health problems might be linked directly to the arduous demands of farm labor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neck Pain/physiopathology
  14. Yam MF, Ang LF, Ameer OZ, Salman IM, Aziz HA, Asmawi MZ
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud, 2009 Dec;2(4):280-7.
    PMID: 20633503 DOI: 10.1016/S2005-2901(09)60069-8
    Elephantopus tomentosus is widely used in Asia, especially in Malaysia, for the treatment of pain and inflammation. In the present study, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a 95% ethanol extract of E. tomentosus were investigated in different experimental models. In the anti-inflammation study, 1000 mg/kg of extract significantly reduced carrageenan-induced hind paw edema (p < 0.05) and inhibited abdominal permeability compared with control (p < 0.01). The analgesic activity was assayed in several experimental models in mice: (1) hot plate, (2) tail flick, (3) writhing test; and rats: carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold test. However, at the doses tested, no significant activity was found in the hot plate test and the tail flick test. E. tomentosus ethanol extract at 1000 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.05) increased hyperalgesia pain threshold and inhibited writhing activity. The results suggest that E. tomentosus ethanol extract at 1000 mg/kg dose is effective in anti-inflammatory and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug type anti-nociception activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain/physiopathology
  15. Dhillon HK, Singh HJ, Ghaffar NA
    Maturitas, 2005 Nov-Dec;52(3-4):256-63.
    PMID: 15894440 DOI: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2005.03.014
    The aim of the study was to document sexual function in Kelantanese postmenopausal women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain/physiopathology
  16. Zainal AA, Oommen G, Chew LG, Yusha AW
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2000 Mar;55(1):29-32.
    PMID: 11072487 MyJurnal
    A prospective study of patients with acute aortic occlusion (AAO) admitted to the Vascular Unit, Hospital Kuala Lumpur was carried out over a 12 month period. There were a total of 11 patients admitted with a clinical diagnosis of AAO. There was a male preponderance with 10 patients. The median age was 58 years (40-70 years). Hypertension was the commonest underlying medical illness (n = 7). All patients had painful lower limb paraparesis or paraplegia with bilateral absent limb pulses from the groin downwards on admission to the vascular unit. The majority of patients (10 patients) were referred from other hospitals, of which 6 patients came from outside the Klang Valley. Only eight (8) patients underwent an operative procedure with seven (7) having an initial bilateral balloon catheter thromboembolectomy. There was one (1) aorta-bifemoral bypass after failed embolectomy. An aneurysectomy with inlay-graft was done as the initial procedure in one (1) patient. Mortality was 82% (9/11). The two survivors were in the group that had vascular reconstructive surgery. Acute aortic occlusion is an uncommon but catastrophic event with a high mortality. Clinicians must have a high index of suspicion in patients who present with painful paresis or paraplegia. Clinical examination of peripheral pulses in these patients is mandatory. Early diagnosis and treatment is important to improve the outcome of this disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain/physiopathology
  17. Harun MH, Yaacob I, Mohd Kassim Z
    Singapore Med J, 1993 Apr;34(2):150-2.
    PMID: 8266158
    Twenty-nine patients (16 males, 13 females) with spontaneous pneumothorax admitted into Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, from September 1984 to September 1990 were reviewed. Their ages ranged from newborn to 75 years. The commonest chief presenting symptom was dyspnoea (69%), followed by chest pain (35%). Four patients had chronic obstructive airway disease, 7 had pneumonia, 2 had pulmonary tuberculosis, one patient had emphysema while 4 patients had multiple underlying lung disorders. The left and right lungs were involved with equal frequency. Bilateral pneumothorax occurred in one patient. Most patients had a single episode of pneumothorax but recurrent pneumothoraces occurred in 3 patients (10%). Six patients were observed conservatively, 20 patients required chest tube insertion alone and 3 patients also required pleurodesis. Death occurred in 8 patients (28%) mainly due to coexisting infection and respiratory failure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chest Pain/physiopathology
  18. Yam MF, Loh YC, Tan CS, Khadijah Adam S, Abdul Manan N, Basir R
    Int J Mol Sci, 2018 Jul 24;19(8).
    PMID: 30042373 DOI: 10.3390/ijms19082164
    Pain has been considered as a concept of sensation that we feel as a reaction to the stimulus of our surrounding, putting us in harm's way and acting as a form of defense mechanism that our body has permanently installed into its system. However, pain leads to a huge chunk of finances within the healthcare system with continuous rehabilitation of patients with adverse pain sensations, which might reduce not only their quality of life but also their productivity at work setting back the pace of our economy. It may not look like a huge deal but factor in pain as an issue for majority of us, it becomes an economical burden. Although pain has been researched into and understood by numerous researches, from its definition, mechanism of action to its inhibition in hopes of finding an absolute solution for victims of pain, the pathways of pain sensation, neurotransmitters involved in producing such a sensation are not comprehensively reviewed. Therefore, this review article aims to put in place a thorough understanding of major pain conditions that we experience-nociceptive, inflammatory and physiologically dysfunction, such as neuropathic pain and its modulation and feedback systems. Moreover, the complete mechanism of conduction is compiled within this article, elucidating understandings from various researches and breakthroughs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nociceptive Pain/physiopathology*
  19. Gunduz OH, Sencan S, Ercalik T, Suhaimi A
    Pain Med, 2017 08 01;18(8):1594-1597.
    PMID: 28087843 DOI: 10.1093/pm/pnw303
    Matched MeSH terms: Back Pain/physiopathology
  20. Ming-Tatt L, Khalivulla SI, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Perimal EK, Khalid MH, et al.
    Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2012 Mar;110(3):275-82.
    PMID: 21967232 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2011.00804.x
    This study investigated the potential antinociceptive efficacy of a novel synthetic curcuminoid analogue, 2,6-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone (BHMC), using chemical- and thermal-induced nociception test models in mice. BHMC (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) administered via intraperitoneal route (i.p.) produced significant dose-related inhibition in the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test in mice with an ID(50) of 0.15 (0.13-0.18) mg/kg. It was also demonstrated that BHMC produced significant inhibition in both neurogenic (first phase) and inflammatory phases (second phase) of the formalin-induced paw licking test with an ID(50) of 0.35 (0.27-0.46) mg/kg and 0.07 (0.06-0.08) mg/kg, respectively. Similarly, BHMC also exerted significant increase in the response latency period in the hot-plate test. Moreover, the antinociceptive effect of the BHMC in the formalin-induced paw licking test and the hot-plate test was antagonized by pre-treatment with the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. Together, these results indicate that the compound acts both centrally and peripherally. In addition, administration of BHMC exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic nociception induced by intraplantar injections of glutamate and capsaicin with ID(50) of 0.66 (0.41-1.07) mg/kg and 0.42 (0.38-0.51) mg/kg, respectively. Finally, it was also shown that BHMC-induced antinociception was devoid of toxic effects and its antinociceptive effect was associated with neither muscle relaxant nor sedative action. In conclusion, BHMC at all doses investigated did not cause any toxic and sedative effects and produced pronounced central and peripheral antinociceptive activities. The central antinociceptive activity of BHMC was possibly mediated through activation of the opioid system as well as inhibition of the glutamatergic system and TRPV1 receptors, while the peripheral antinociceptive activity was perhaps mediated through inhibition of various inflammatory mediators.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain/physiopathology
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