Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 36 in total

  1. Karim AA, Azlan A
    Molecules, 2012 Oct 10;17(10):11931-46.
    PMID: 23052712 DOI: 10.3390/molecules171011931
    Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and chemopreventive effects are associated with these fruit pod extracts. Besides polyphenolics, other compounds such as xanthones, carotenoids and saponins also exhibit health effects and can be potential sources of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical components. In this review, information on fruit pods or pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, Ceratonia siliqua, Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Sapindus rarak and Prosopis cineraria is presented and discussed with regard to their biological activity of the major compounds existing in them. The fruit pods of other ethno- botanical plants have also been reviewed. It can be concluded that although fruit pods are considered as being of no practical use and are often being thrown away, they nevertheless contain compounds that might be useful sources of nutraceutical and other pharmaceutical components.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry*
  2. Wong TW
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2008 Apr;5(2):77-84.
    PMID: 18393808
    Microwave has received a widespread application in pharmaceuticals and food processing, microbial sterilization, biomedical therapy, scientific and biomedical analysis, as well as, drug synthesis. This paper reviews the basis of application of microwave to prepare pharmaceutical dosage forms such as agglomerates, gel beads, microspheres, nanomatrix, solid dispersion, tablets and film coat. The microwave could induce drying, polymeric crosslinkages as well as drug-polymer interaction, and modify the structure of drug crystallites via its effects of heating and/or electromagnetic field on the dosage forms. The use of microwave opens a new approach to control the physicochemical properties and drug delivery profiles of pharmaceutical dosage forms without the need for excessive heat, lengthy process or toxic reactants. Alternatively, the microwave can be utilized to process excipients prior to their use in the formulation of drug delivery systems. The intended release characteristics of drugs in dosage forms can be met through modifying the physicochemical properties of excipients using the microwave.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry*
  3. Rehman FU, Shah KU, Shah SU, Khan IU, Khan GM, Khan A
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2017 Nov;14(11):1325-1340.
    PMID: 27485144 DOI: 10.1080/17425247.2016.1218462
    INTRODUCTION: Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) are the most promising technique to formulate the poorly water soluble drugs. Nanotechnology strongly influences the therapeutic performance of hydrophobic drugs and has become an essential approach in drug delivery research. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) are a vital strategy that combines benefits of LBDDS and nanotechnology. SNEDDS are now preferred to improve the formulation of drugs with poor aqueous solubility. Areas covered: The review in its first part shortly describes the LBDDS, nanoemulsions and clarifies the ambiguity between nanoemulsions and microemulsions. In the second part, the review discusses SNEDDS and elaborates on the current developments and modifications in this area without discussing their associated preparation techniques and excipient properties. Expert opinion: SNEDDS have exhibit the potential to increase the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. The stability of SNEDDS is further increased by solidification. Controlled release and supersaturation can be achieved, and are associated with increased patient compliance and improved drug loads, respectively. Presence of biodegradable ingredients and ease of large-scale manufacturing combined with a lot of 'drug-targeting opportunities' give SNEDDS a clear distinction and prominence over other solubility enhancement techniques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry
  4. Meka VS, Sing MKG, Pichika MR, Nali SR, Kolapalli VRM, Kesharwani P
    Drug Discov Today, 2017 11;22(11):1697-1706.
    PMID: 28683256 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2017.06.008
    Global research on polyelectrolytes at a fundamental and applied level is intensifying because the advantages of sustainability are being accepted in academia and industrial research settings. During recent decades, polyelectrolytes became one of the most attractive subjects of scientific research owing to their great potential in the areas of advanced technologies. Polyelectrolytes are a type of polymer that have multitudinous ionizable functional groups. Ionized polyelectrolytes in solution can form a complex with oppositely charged polyelectrolytes - a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC). The present article provides a comprehensive review on PECs and their classification, theory and characterization, as well as a critical analysis of the current research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry*
  5. Choudhury H, Gorain B, Chatterjee B, Mandal UK, Sengupta P, Tekade RK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(17):2504-2531.
    PMID: 27908273 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161201143600
    BACKGROUND: Most of the active pharmaceutical ingredients discovered recently in pharmaceutical field exhibits poor aqueous solubility that pose major problem in their oral administration. The oral administration of these drugs gets further complicated due to their short bioavailability, inconsistent absorption and inter/intra subject variability.

    METHODS: Pharmaceutical emulsion holds a significant place as a primary choice of oral drug delivery system for lipophilic drugs used in pediatric and geriatric patients. Pharmacokinetic studies on nanoemulsion mediated drugs delivery approach indicates practical feasibility in regards to their clinical translation and commercialization.

    RESULTS: This review article is to provide an updated understanding on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of nanoemulsion delivered via oral, intravenous, topical and nasal route.

    CONCLUSION: The article is of huge interest to formulation scientists working on range of lipophilic drug molecules intended to be administered through oral, intravenous, topical and nasal routes for vivid medical benefits.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry*
  6. Edueng K, Mahlin D, Gråsjö J, Nylander O, Thakrani M, Bergström CAS
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 27;24(15).
    PMID: 31357587 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24152731
    This study explores the effect of physical aging and/or crystallization on the supersaturation potential and crystallization kinetics of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Spray-dried, fully amorphous indapamide, metolazone, glibenclamide, hydrocortisone, hydrochlorothiazide, ketoconazole, and sulfathiazole were used as model APIs. The parameters used to assess the supersaturation potential and crystallization kinetics were the maximum supersaturation concentration (Cmax,app), the area under the curve (AUC), and the crystallization rate constant (k). These were compared for freshly spray-dried and aged/crystallized samples. Aged samples were stored at 75% relative humidity for 168 days (6 months) or until they were completely crystallized, whichever came first. The solid-state changes were monitored with differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. Supersaturation potential and crystallization kinetics were investigated using a tenfold supersaturation ratio compared to the thermodynamic solubility using the µDISS Profiler. The physically aged indapamide and metolazone and the minimally crystallized glibenclamide and hydrocortisone did not show significant differences in their Cmax,app and AUC when compared to the freshly spray-dried samples. Ketoconazole, with a crystalline content of 23%, reduced its Cmax,app and AUC by 50%, with Cmax,app being the same as the crystalline solubility. The AUC of aged metolazone, one of the two compounds that remained completely amorphous after storage, significantly improved as the crystallization kinetics significantly decreased. Glibenclamide improved the most in its supersaturation potential from amorphization. The study also revealed that, besides solid-state crystallization during storage, crystallization during dissolution and its corresponding pathway may significantly compromise the supersaturation potential of fully amorphous APIs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry*
  7. Ibrahim WAW, Wahib SMA, Hermawan D, Sanagi MM
    Methods Mol Biol, 2019;1985:407-416.
    PMID: 31069749 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9438-0_24
    Particular attention has been paid to capillary electrophoresis as versatile and environmentally friendly approach for enantioseparations of a wide spectrum of compounds. Cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) is a method of choice to provide effective separation toward hydrophobic and uncharged stereoisomers. The chiral discrimination of the solutes relies upon the partitioning between a given CD in the aqueous phase and micelles formed from a surfactant. Synergistic combinations of chiral selectors, surfactant, and modifier contribute to successful enantioseparations of the enantiomers. In this chapter, an application of CD-MEKC for the enantioseparation of selected imidazole drugs employing a dual CDs system is described.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry
  8. Suah FB, Ahmad M, Heng LY
    PMID: 25748985 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2015.02.068
    A novel approach for the determination of Al(3+) from aqueous samples was developed using an optode membrane produced by physical inclusion of Al(3+) selective reagent, which is morin into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride). The inclusion of Triton X-100 was found to be valuable and useful for enhancing the sorption of Al(3+) ions from liquid phase into the membrane phase, thus increasing the intensity of optode's absorption. The optode showed a linear increase in the absorbance at λ(max)=425 nm over the concentration range of 1.85×10(-6)-1.1×10(-4) mol L(-1) (0.05-3 μg mL(-1)) of Al(3+) ions in aqueous solution after 5 min. The limit of detection was determined to be 1.04×10(-6) mol L(-1) (0.028 μg mL(-1)). The optode developed in the present work was easily prepared and found to be stable, has good mechanical strength, sensitive and reusable. In addition, the optode was tested for Al(3+) determination in lake water, river water and pharmaceutical samples, which the result was satisfactory.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry
  9. Ahmed A, Abdo A, Salim N
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:410914.
    PMID: 22623895 DOI: 10.1100/2012/410914
    Many of the similarity-based virtual screening approaches assume that molecular fragments that are not related to the biological activity carry the same weight as the important ones. This was the reason that led to the use of Bayesian networks as an alternative to existing tools for similarity-based virtual screening. In our recent work, the retrieval performance of the Bayesian inference network (BIN) was observed to improve significantly when molecular fragments were reweighted using the relevance feedback information. In this paper, a set of active reference structures were used to reweight the fragments in the reference structure. In this approach, higher weights were assigned to those fragments that occur more frequently in the set of active reference structures while others were penalized. Simulated virtual screening experiments with MDL Drug Data Report datasets showed that the proposed approach significantly improved the retrieval effectiveness of ligand-based virtual screening, especially when the active molecules being sought had a high degree of structural heterogeneity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry
  10. Aziz HA, Tan YT, Peh KK
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2012 Mar;13(1):35-45.
    PMID: 22101965 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-011-9707-x
    Microencapsulation of water-soluble drugs using coacervation-phase separation method is very challenging, as these drugs partitioned into the aqueous polymeric solution, resulting in poor drug entrapment. For evaluating the effect of ovalbumin on the microencapsulation of drugs with different solubility, pseudoephedrine HCl, verapamil HCl, propranolol HCl, paracetamol, and curcuminoid were used. In addition, drug mixtures comprising of paracetamol and pseudoephedrine HCl were also studied. The morphology, encapsulation efficiency, particle size, and in vitro release profile were investigated. The results showed that the solubility of the drug determined the ratio of ovalbumin to be used for successful microencapsulation. The optimum ratios of drug, ovalbumin, and gelatin for water-soluble (pseudoephedrine HCl, verapamil HCl, and propranolol HCl), sparingly water-soluble (paracetamol), and water-insoluble (curcuminoid) drugs were found to be 1:1:2, 2:3:5, and 1:3:4. As for the drug mixture, the optimum ratio of drug, ovalbumin, and gelatin was 2:3:5. Encapsulated particles prepared at the optimum ratios showed high yield, drug loading, entrapment efficiency, and sustained release profiles. The solubility of drug affected the particle size of the encapsulated particle. Highly soluble drugs resulted in smaller particle size. In conclusion, addition of ovalbumin circumvented the partitioning effect, leading to the successful microencapsulation of water-soluble drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry*
  11. Al Azzam KM, Saad B, Tat CY, Mat I, Aboul-Enein HY
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2011 Dec 15;56(5):937-43.
    PMID: 21873014 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2011.08.007
    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the determination of sumatriptan succinate in pharmaceutical formulations was developed. The effects of several factors such as pH, surfactant and buffer concentration, applied voltage, capillary temperature, and injection time were investigated. Separation took about 5 min using phenobarbital as internal standard. The separation was carried out in reversed polarity mode at 20 °C, 26 kV and using hydrodynamic injection for 10s. Separation was achieved using a bare fused-silica capillary 50 μm×40 cm and background electrolyte of 25 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate-adjusted with concentrated phosphoric acid to pH 2.2, containing 125 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and detection was at 226 nm. The method was validated with respect to linearity, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and selectivity. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 100-2000 μg mL(-1). The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day precision for migration time, peak area, corrected peak area, ratio of corrected peak area and ratio of peak area were less than 0.68, 3.48, 3.28, 2.97 and 2.83% and 2.01, 5.50, 4.46, 4.92 and 4.07%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determinations of the analyte in tablet. Forced degradation studies were conducted by introducing a sample of sumatriptan succinate standard solution to different forced degradation conditions using neutral (water), basic (0.1 M NaOH), acidic (0.1 M HCl), oxidative (10% H(2)O(2)) and photolytic (exposure to UV light at 254 nm for 2 h). It is concluded that the stability-indicating method for sumatriptan succinate can be used for the analysis of the drug in various samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry*
  12. Tamilvanan S, Kumar BA, Senthilkumar SR, Baskar R, Sekharan TR
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2010 Jun;11(2):904-9.
    PMID: 20496017 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-010-9455-3
    The objectives of the present work were to prepare castor oil-based nano-sized emulsion containing cationic droplets stabilized by poloxamer-chitosan emulgator film and to assess the kinetic stability of the prepared cationic emulsion after subjecting it to thermal processing and freeze-thaw cycling. Presence of cryoprotectants (5%, w/w, sucrose +5%, w/w, sorbitol) improved the stability of emulsions to droplet aggregation during freeze-thaw cycling. After storing the emulsion at 4 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 37 degrees C over a period of up to 6 months, no significant change was noted in mean diameter of the dispersed oil droplets. However, the emulsion stored at the highest temperature did show a progressive decrease in the pH and zeta potential values, whereas the emulsion kept at the lowest temperatures did not. This indicates that at 37 degrees C, free fatty acids were formed from the castor oil, and consequently, the liberated free fatty acids were responsible for the reduction in the emulsion pH and zeta potential values. Thus, the injectable castor oil-based nano-sized emulsion could be useful for incorporating various active pharmaceutical ingredients that are in size from small molecular drugs to large macromolecules such as oligonucleotides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry*
  13. See KL, Elbashir AA, Saad B, Ali AS, Aboul-Enein HY
    Biomed Chromatogr, 2009 Dec;23(12):1283-90.
    PMID: 19488980 DOI: 10.1002/bmc.1251
    A simple, rapid and validated capillary electrophoretic method has been developed for the separation and determination of ofloxacin and ornidazole in pharmaceutical formulations with detection at 230 nm. Optimal conditions for the quantitative separations were investigated. Analysis times shorter than 4 min were obtained using a background electrolyte solution consisting of 25 mmol/L phosphoric acid adjusted with 1 M Tris buffer to pH 8.5, with hydrodynamic injection of 5 s and 20 kV separation voltage. The validation criteria for accuracy, precision, linearity and limits of detection and quantitation were examined and discussed. An excellent linearity was obtained in concentration range 25-250 microg/mL. The detection limits for ofloxacin and ornidazole were 1.03 +/- 0.11 and 1.80 +/- 0.06 microg/mL, respectively. The proposed method has been applied for the analysis of ofloxacin and ornidazole both individually and in a combined dosage tablet formulation. The proposed validated method showed recoveries between 96.16 and 105.23% of the nominal contents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry*
  14. Sheshala R, Kok YY, Ng JM, Thakur RR, Dua K
    Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul, 2015;9(3):237-48.
    PMID: 26205681
    Ophthalmic drug delivery system is very interesting and challenging due to the normal physiologically factor of eyes which reduces the bioavailability of ocular products. The development of new ophthalmic dosage forms for existing drugs to improve efficacy and bioavailability, patient compliance and convenience has become one of the main trend in the pharmaceuticals industry. The present review encompasses various conventional and novel ocular drug delivery systems, methods of preparation, characterization and recent research in this area. Furthermore, the information on various commercially available in situ gel preparations and the existing patents of in situ drug delivery systems i.e. in situ gel formation of pectin, in situ gel for therapeutic use, medical uses of in situ formed gels and in situ gelling systems as sustained delivery for front of eye are also covered in this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry
  15. Wui WT
    PMID: 25966873
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry*
  16. Sultana S, Hossain MAM, Naquiah NNA, Ali ME
    PMID: 30028648 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2018.1500719
    Gelatin is widely used in pharmaceuticals as a protective coating, such as soft and hard capsule shells. However, the animal source of gelatin is a sensitive issue because certain gelatins such as porcine and bovine gelatins are not welcome in Halal, Kosher and Hindus' consumer goods. Recently, we have documented DNA barcoding and multiplex PCR platforms for discriminating porcine, bovine and fish gelatins in various fish and confectionary products; but those assays were not self-authenticating and also not tested in highly refined pharmaceutical products. To address this knowledge gap, here we report a self-authenticating multiplex PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay to identify animal sources of various gelatin in pharmaceutical capsules. Three different restriction enzymes, BsaAI, Hpy188I and BcoDI were used to yield distinctive RFLP patterns for gelatin-based bovine (26, 94 bp), fish (97, 198 bp) and porcine (17, 70 bp) DNA in control experiments. The specificity was cross-tested against 16 non-target species and the optimised assay was used to screen gelatin sources in 30 halal-branded pharmaceuticals capsule shells. Bovine and porcine DNA was found in 27 and 3 of the 30 different capsules products. The assay was suitable for detecting 0.1 to 0.01 ng total DNA extracted from pure and mixed gelatins. The study might be useful to authenticate and monitor halal, kosher, vegetarian and Hindu compliant pharmaceuticals, foods and cosmetics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry*
  17. Sabbagh F, Muhamad II, Nazari Z, Mobini P, Taraghdari SB
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2018 Nov 01;92:20-25.
    PMID: 30184743 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.06.022
    This study conducted on the structure of modified acrylamide-based hydrogel by synthesizing the nano composites. The hydrogels employed in this study were provided through a combination of acrylamide monomers, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) and magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles by crosslinking polymerization. N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine and ammonium persulfate as the initiator was applied in the structure of the polymer. Findings of the study considered the nano composites consisting of MgO have the highest swelling ratio compared to pure Aam hydrogels. Thus, MgO is an appropriate nanoparticle to be used in the nano composites. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design (CCD Design) was applied to optimize the preparation variables of a hydrogel consisted of MgO, NaCMC. With the swelling ratio for acrylamide-based hydrogel as the response, the effects of two variables, i.e. MgO and NaCMC were investigated. The effects of pH, temperature, MgO, and NaCMC on the drug release were investigated using the CCD design. The predicted appropriate drug release conditions for the hydrogel at the highest rate of temperature (37.50 °C) and pH: 4.10, is at its highest value, while the lower drug release is at temperature 38 °C and pH 3.50. With the desired value of MgO (0.01 g) and amount of NaCMC (0.1 g).
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry*
  18. Carr AC, Piunova VA, Maarof H, Rice JE, Swope WC
    J Phys Chem B, 2018 05 31;122(21):5356-5367.
    PMID: 29385796 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b10539
    We present an all-atom molecular dynamics study of the effect of a range of organic solvents (dichloromethane, diethyl ether, toluene, methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and tetrahydrofuran) on the conformations of a nanogel star polymeric nanoparticle with solvophobic and solvophilic structural elements. These nanoparticles are of particular interest for drug delivery applications. As drug loading generally takes place in an organic solvent, this work serves to provide insight into the factors controlling the early steps of that process. Our work suggests that nanoparticle conformational structure is highly sensitive to the choice of solvent, providing avenues for further study as well as predictions for both computational and experimental explorations of the drug-loading process. Our findings suggest that when used in the drug-loading process, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, and toluene allow for a more extensive and increased drug-loading into the interior of nanogel star polymers of the composition studied here. In contrast, methanol is more likely to support shallow or surface loading and, consequently, faster drug release rates. Finally, diethyl ether should not work in a formulation process since none of the regions of the nanogel star polymer appear to be sufficiently solvated by it.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry*
  19. Zeeshan F, Tabbassum M, Kesharwani P
    Protein J, 2019 10;38(5):551-564.
    PMID: 31054037 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-019-09837-4
    Protein drugs are important therapeutic agents however; they may degrade during formulation processing. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between secondary structure alterations and the retentions of biological activity of protein upon the application of thermal stress. Catalase, horseradish peroxidase and α- chymotrypsin were employed as model proteins. Each protein was heated in a solid and solution state at a temperature of 70 °C for 1 h. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography and biological activity assay were performed. Results showed that heat-exposure of protein solids at 70 °C caused minimum changes in secondary structure and biological activity was almost retained. However, thermal exposure of protein aqueous solution induced significant changes in the secondary structure indicated by area overlap values and caused considerable reduction in the biological activity. The changes in secondary structures were found to be in full alignment with the loss of biological activity for both protein solids as well as aqueous solutions. Catalase lost entire biological activity upon heating in the solution state. In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicate a direct correlation between protein secondary structure alterations and the retention of biological activity which can be taken into account during the development and delivery of protein drugs formulations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry
  20. Begum SZ, Nizam NSM, Muhamad A, Saiman MI, Crouse KA, Abdul Rahman MB
    PLoS One, 2020;15(11):e0238147.
    PMID: 33147237 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0238147
    Laccases, oxidative copper-enzymes found in fungi and bacteria were used as the basis in the design of nona- and tetrapeptides. Laccases are known to be excellent catalysts for the degradation of phenolic xenobiotic waste. However, since solvent extraction of laccases is environmentally-unfriendly and yields obtained are low, they are less preferred compared to synthetic catalysts. The histidine rich peptides were designed based on the active site of laccase extracted from Trametes versicolor through RCSB Protein Data Bank, LOMETS and PyMol software. The peptides were synthesized using Fmoc-solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) with 30-40% yield. These peptides were purified and characterized using LC-MS (purities >75%), FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. Synthesized copper(II)-peptides were crystallized and then analyzed spectroscopically. Their structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR. Standards (o,m,p-cresol, 2,4-dichlorophenol) catalysed using laccase from Trametes versicolor (0.66 U/mg) were screened under different temperatures and stirring rate conditions. After optimizing the degradation of the standards with the best reaction conditions reported herein, medications with phenolic and aromatic structures such as ibuprofen, paracetamol (acetaminophen), salbutamol, erythromycin and insulin were screened using laccase (positive control), apo-peptides and copper-peptides. Their activities evaluated using GC-MS, were compared with those of peptide and copper-peptide catalysts. The tetrapeptide was found to have the higher degradation activity towards salbutamol (96.8%) compared with laccase at 42.8%. Ibuprofen (35.1%), salbutamol (52.9%) and erythromycin (49.7%) were reported to have the highest degradation activities using Cu-tetrapeptide as catalyst when compared with the other medications. Consequently, o-cresol (84%) was oxidized by Tp-Cu while the apo-peptides failed to oxidize the cresols. Copper(II)-peptides were observed to have higher catalytic activity compared to their parent peptides and the enzyme laccase for xenobiotic degradation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry
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