Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 109 in total

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  1. Hossain MA, Rana MM, Kimura Y, Roslan HA
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:232969.
    PMID: 25136564 DOI: 10.1155/2014/232969
    As a part of the study to explore the possible strategy for enhancing the shelf life of mango fruits, we investigated the changes in biochemical parameters and activities of ripening associated enzymes of Ashwina hybrid mangoes at 4-day regular intervals during storage at -10°C, 4°C, and 30 ± 1°C. Titratable acidity, vitamin C, starch content, and reducing sugar were higher at unripe state and gradually decreased with the increasing of storage time at all storage temperatures while phenol content, total soluble solid, total sugar, and nonreducing sugar contents gradually increased. The activities of amylase, α-mannosidase, α-glucosidase, and invertase increased sharply within first few days and decreased significantly in the later stage of ripening at 30 ± 1°C. Meanwhile polyphenol oxidase, β-galactosidase, and β-hexosaminidase predominantly increased significantly with the increasing days of storage till later stage of ripening. At -10°C and 4°C, the enzymes as well as carbohydrate contents of storage mango changed slightly up to 4 days and thereafter the enzyme became fully dormant. The results indicated that increase in storage temperature and time correlated with changes in biochemical parameters and activities of glycosidases suggested the suppression of β-galactosidase and β-hexosaminidase might enhance the shelf life of mango fruits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism*
  2. Chakraborty S, Salekdeh GH, Yang P, Woo SH, Chin CF, Gehring C, et al.
    J Proteome Res, 2015 Jul 2;14(7):2723-44.
    PMID: 26035454 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00211
    In the rapidly growing economies of Asia and Oceania, food security has become a primary concern. With the rising population, growing more food at affordable prices is becoming even more important. In addition, the predicted climate change will lead to drastic changes in global surface temperature and changes in rainfall patterns that in turn will pose a serious threat to plant vegetation worldwide. As a result, understanding how plants will survive in a changing climate will be increasingly important. Such challenges require integrated approaches to increase agricultural production and cope with environmental threats. Proteomics can play a role in unraveling the underlying mechanisms for food production to address the growing demand for food. In this review, the current status of food crop proteomics is discussed, especially in regard to the Asia and Oceania regions. Furthermore, the future perspective in relation to proteomic techniques for the important food crops is highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism*
  3. Jahangirian H, Azizi S, Rafiee-Moghaddam R, Baratvand B, Webster TJ
    Biomolecules, 2019 10 17;9(10).
    PMID: 31627453 DOI: 10.3390/biom9100619
    In recent decades, regenerative medicine has merited substantial attention from scientific and research communities. One of the essential requirements for this new strategy in medicine is the production of biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds with desirable geometric structures and mechanical properties. Despite such promise, it appears that regenerative medicine is the last field to embrace green, or environmentally-friendly, processes, as many traditional tissue engineering materials employ toxic solvents and polymers that are clearly not environmentally friendly. Scaffolds fabricated from plant proteins (for example, zein, soy protein, and wheat gluten), possess proper mechanical properties, remarkable biocompatibility and aqueous stability which make them appropriate green biomaterials for regenerative medicine applications. The use of plant-derived proteins in regenerative medicine has been especially inspired by green medicine, which is the use of environmentally friendly materials in medicine. In the current review paper, the literature is reviewed and summarized for the applicability of plant proteins as biopolymer materials for several green regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism*
  4. Le VT, Sarpan N, Huynh K, Ooi SE, Napis S, Ho CL, et al.
    Mol Biotechnol, 2011 Jun;48(2):156-64.
    PMID: 21153717 DOI: 10.1007/s12033-010-9356-4
    In this study, we report the molecular characterization of clone Eg707 isolated from cell suspension culture of the oil palm. The deduced polypeptide of clone Eg707 is highly similar to an unknown protein from Arabidopsis thaliana. The presence of an Ald-Xan-dh-C2 superfamily domain in the deduced protein sequence suggested that Eg707 protein might be involved in abscisic acid biosynthesis. Eg707 might be present as a single copy gene in the oil palm genome. This gene is highly expressed in tissue cultured materials compared to vegetative and reproductive tissues, suggesting a role of this gene during oil palm somatic embryogenesis or at the early stages of embryo development. Expression analysis of Eg707 by RNA in situ hybridization showed that Eg707 transcripts were present throughout somatic embryo development starting from proembryo formation at the embryogenic callus stages till the maturing embryo stages. Since proembryo formation within the embryogenic callus is one of the first key factors in oil palm somatic embryo development, it is suggested that Eg707 could be used as a reliable molecular marker for detecting early stage of oil palm somatic embryogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism
  5. Lau BYC, Othman A, Ramli US
    Protein J, 2018 12;37(6):473-499.
    PMID: 30367348 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-018-9802-x
    Proteomics technologies were first applied in the oil palm research back in 2008. Since proteins are the gene products that are directly correspond to phenotypic traits, proteomic tools hold a strong advantage above other molecular tools to comprehend the biological and molecular mechanisms in the oil palm system. These emerging technologies have been used as non-overlapping tools to link genome-wide transcriptomics and metabolomics-based studies to enhance the oil palm yield and quality through sustainable plant breeding. Many efforts have also been made using the proteomics technologies to address the oil palm's Ganoderma disease; the cause and management. At present, the high-throughput screening technologies are being applied to identify potential biomarkers involved in metabolism and cellular development through determination of protein expression changes that correlate with oil production and disease. This review highlights key elements in proteomics pipeline, challenges and some examples of their implementations in plant studies in the context of oil palm in particular. We foresee that the proteomics technologies will play more significant role to address diverse issues related to the oil palm in the effort to improve the oil crop.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism*
  6. Hussain H, Mustafa Kamal M, Al-Obaidi JR, Hamdin NE, Ngaini Z, Mohd-Yusuf Y
    Protein J, 2020 02;39(1):62-72.
    PMID: 31863255 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-019-09878-9
    Metroxylon sagu Rottb. or locally known as sago palm is a tropical starch crop grown for starch production in commercial plantations in Malaysia, especially in Sarawak, East Malaysia. This plant species accumulate the highest amount of edible starch compared to other starch-producing crops. However, the non-trunking phenomenon has been observed to be one of the major issues restricting the yield of sago palm starch. In this study, proteomics approach was utilised to discover differences between trunking and non-trunking proteomes in sago palm leaf tissues. Total protein from 16 years old trunking and non-trunking sago palm leaves from deep peat area were extracted with PEG fractionation extraction method and subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE). Differential protein spots were subjected to MALDI-ToF/ToF MS/MS. Proteomic analysis has identified 34 differentially expressed proteins between trunking and non-trunking sago samples. From these protein spots, all 19 proteins representing different enzymes and proteins have significantly increased in abundance in non-trunking sago plant when subjected to mass spectrometry. The identified proteins mostly function in metabolic pathways including photosynthesis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis, carbon utilization and oxidative stress. The current study indicated that the several proteins identified through differentially expressed proteome contributed to physical differences in trunking and non-trunking sago palm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism*
  7. Wan Zakaria WNA, Aizat WM, Goh HH, Mohd Noor N
    J Plant Res, 2019 Sep;132(5):681-694.
    PMID: 31422552 DOI: 10.1007/s10265-019-01130-w
    Carnivorous plants capture and digest insects for nutrients, allowing them to survive in soil deprived of nitrogenous nutrients. Plants from the genus Nepenthes produce unique pitchers containing secretory glands, which secrete enzymes into the digestive fluid. We performed RNA-seq analysis on the pitcher tissues and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis on the pitcher fluids of Nepenthes × ventrata to study protein expression in this carnivory organ during early days of pitcher opening. This transcriptome provides a sequence database for pitcher fluid protein identification. A total of 32 proteins of diverse functions were successfully identified in which 19 proteins can be quantified based on label-free quantitative proteomics (SWATH-MS) analysis while 16 proteins were not reported previously. Our findings show that certain proteins in the pitcher fluid were continuously secreted or replenished after pitcher opening, even without any prey or chitin induction. We also discovered a new aspartic proteinase, Nep6, secreted into pitcher fluid. This is the first SWATH-MS analysis of protein expression in Nepenthes pitcher fluid using a species-specific reference transcriptome. Taken together, our study using a gel-free shotgun proteomics informed by transcriptomics (PIT) approach showed the dynamics of endogenous protein secretion in the digestive organ of N. × ventrata and provides insights on protein regulation during early pitcher opening prior to prey capture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism
  8. Peramuna A, Bae H, Quiñonero López C, Fromberg A, Petersen B, Simonsen HT
    PLoS One, 2020;15(12):e0243620.
    PMID: 33284858 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0243620
    Plant-derived terpenoids are extensively used in perfume, food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, and several attempts are being made to produce terpenes in heterologous hosts. Native hosts have evolved to accumulate large quantities of terpenes in specialized cells. However, heterologous cells lack the capacity needed to produce and store high amounts of non-native terpenes, leading to reduced growth and loss of volatile terpenes by evaporation. Here, we describe how to direct the sesquiterpene patchoulol production into cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) in Physcomitrium patens (syn. Physcomitrella patens), by attaching patchoulol synthase (PTS) to proteins linked to plant LD biogenesis. Three different LD-proteins: Oleosin (PpOLE1), Lipid Droplet Associated Protein (AtLDAP1) and Seipin (PpSeipin325) were tested as anchors. Ectopic expression of PTS increased the number and size of LDs, implying an unknown mechanism between heterologous terpene production and LD biogenesis. The expression of PTS physically linked to Seipin increased the LD size and the retention of patchoulol in the cell. Overall, the expression of PTS was lower in the anchored mutants than in the control, but when normalized to the expression the production of patchoulol was higher in the seipin-linked mutants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism
  9. Sahebi M, Hanafi MM, Mohidin H, Rafii MY, Azizi P, Idris AS, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2018;2018:1494157.
    PMID: 29721500 DOI: 10.1155/2018/1494157
    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) is one of the major sources of edible oil. Reducing the effect of Ganoderma, main cause of basal stem rot (BSR) on oil palm, is the main propose of this study. Understanding the oil palm defense mechanism against Ganoderma infection through monitoring changes in the secondary metabolite compounds levels before/after infection by Ganoderma under different fertilizing treatment is required. Oil palm requires macro- and microelements for growth and yield. Manipulating the nutrient for oil palm is a method to control the disease. The 3-4-month-old oil palm seedlings were given different macronutrient treatments to evaluate induction of defense related enzymes and production of secondary metabolite compounds in response to G. boninense inoculation. The observed trend of changes in the infected and uninfected seedlings was a slightly higher activity for β-1,3-glucanases, chitinase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase during the process of pathogenesis. It was found that PR proteins gave positive response to the interaction between oil palm seedlings and Ganoderma infection. Although the responses were activated systematically, they were short-lasting as the changes in enzymes activities appeared before the occurrence of visible symptoms. Effect of different nutrients doses was obviously observed among the results of the secondary metabolite compounds. Many identified/unidentified metabolite compounds were presented, of which some were involved in plant cell defense mechanism against pathogens, mostly belonging to alkaloids with bitter-tasting nitrogenous-compounds, and some had the potential to be used as new markers to detect basal stem rot at the initial step of disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism*
  10. Jamil NAM, Rahmad N, Rosli NHM, Al-Obaidi JR
    Electrophoresis, 2018 12;39(23):2954-2964.
    PMID: 30074628 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201800185
    Wax apple is one of the underutilized fruits that is considered a good source of fibers, vitamins, minerals as well as antioxidants. In this study, a comparative analysis of the developments of wax fruit ripening at the proteomic and metabolomic level was reported. 2D electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF was used to compare the proteome profile from three developmental stages named immature, young, and mature fruits. In general, the protein expression profile and the identified proteins function were discussed for their potential roles in fruit physiological development and ripening processes. The metabolomic investigation was also performed on the same samples using quadrupole LC-MS (LC-QTOF/MS). Roles of some of the differentially expressed proteins and metabolites are discussed in relation to wax apple ripening during the development. This is the first study investigating the changes in the proteins and metabolites in wax apple at different developmental stages. The information obtained from this research will be helpful in developing biomarkers for breeders and help the plant researchers to avoid wax apple cultivation problems such as fruit cracking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism
  11. Patil RV, Hadawale KN, Ramli ANM, Wadkar SS, Bhuyar P
    Mol Biotechnol, 2023 Jun;65(6):833-848.
    PMID: 36544065 DOI: 10.1007/s12033-022-00633-7
    In plant development, flowering is the most widely studied process. Floral forms show large diversity in different species due to simple variations in basic architecture. To determine the floral gene expression during the past decade, MADS-box genes have identified as key regulators in both reproductive and vegetative plant development. Traditional genetics and functional genomics tools are now available to elucidate the expression and function of this complex gene family on a much larger scale. Moreover, comparative analysis of the MADS-box genes in diverse flowering and non-flowering plants, boosted by various molecular technologies such as ChIP and next-generation DNA sequencing, contributes to our understanding of how this important gene family has expanded during the evolution of land plants. Likewise, the big data analysis revealed combined activity of transcriptional regulators and floral organ identity factors regulate the flower developmental programs. Thus, with the help of cutting-edge technologies like RNA-Sequencing, sex determination is now better understood in few non-model plants Therefore, the recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) should enable researchers to identify the full range of floral gene functions, which will significantly help to understand plant development and evolution. This review summarizes the floral homeotic genes in model and non-model species to understand the flower development genes and dioecy evolution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism
  12. Khairul-Anuar MA, Mazumdar P, Othman RY, Harikrishna JA
    Ann Bot, 2022 Sep 26;130(4):579-594.
    PMID: 35980362 DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcac103
    BACKGROUND: Flower pigment and shape are determined by the coordinated expression of a set of structural genes during flower development. R2R3-MYB transcription factors are known regulators of structural gene expression. The current study focused on two members of this large family of transcription factors that were predicted to have roles in pigment biosynthesis and organ shape development in orchids.

    METHODS: Phylogenetic analysis was used to identify candidate Dendrobium catenatum R2R3-MYB (DcaMYB) sequences associated with pigment and cell shape development. Gene silencing of candidate DhMYBs in Dendrobium hybrid by direct application of dsRNA to developing flowers was followed by observation of gene expression level and flower phenotypes. Silencing of the structural gene chalcone synthase was used as a comparative control.

    KEY RESULTS: Ten candidate flower-associated DcaMYBs were identified. Flowers treated with dsRNA of DhMYB22 and DhMYB60 sequences were less pigmented and had relatively low expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (F3'H and DFR), lower total anthocyanin concentration and markedly lower levels of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. Petals of DhMYB22-treated flowers and sepals of DhMYB60-treated flowers showed the greatest colour difference relative to the same organs in untreated flowers. DhMYB22-treated flowers had relatively narrow and constricted lips, while DhMYB60-treated flowers had narrow and constricted sepals. No significant difference in shape was observed for DhCHS-treated or untreated flowers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that DhMYB22 and DhMYB60 regulate pigment intensity and floral organ shape in Dendrobium. This is a first report of MYB regulation of floral organ shape in orchids.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism
  13. Goh HH, Sloan J, Malinowski R, Fleming A
    J Plant Physiol, 2014 Feb 15;171(3-4):329-39.
    PMID: 24144490 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2013.09.009
    Expansins have long been implicated in the control of cell wall extensibility. However, despite ample evidence supporting a role for these proteins in the endogenous mechanism of plant growth, there are also examples in the literature where the outcome of altered expansin gene expression is difficult to reconcile with a simplistic causal linkage to growth promotion. To investigate this problem, we report on the analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis plants in which a heterologous cucumber expansin can be inducibly overexpressed. Our results indicate that the effects of expansin expression on growth depend on the degree of induction of expansin expression and the developmental pattern of organ growth. They support the role of expansin in directional cell expansion. They are also consistent with the idea that excess expansin might itself impede normal activities of cell wall modifications, culminating in both growth promotion and repression depending on the degree of expression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism
  14. Alhusayni S, Roswanjaya YP, Rutten L, Huisman R, Bertram S, Sharma T, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol, 2023 Nov 24;23(1):587.
    PMID: 37996841 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-023-04594-0
    BACKGROUND: Nitrogen-fixing nodules occur in ten related taxonomic lineages interspersed with lineages of non-nodulating plant species. Nodules result from an endosymbiosis between plants and diazotrophic bacteria; rhizobia in the case of legumes and Parasponia and Frankia in the case of actinorhizal species. Nodulating plants share a conserved set of symbiosis genes, whereas related non-nodulating sister species show pseudogenization of several key nodulation-specific genes. Signalling and cellular mechanisms critical for nodulation have been co-opted from the more ancient plant-fungal arbuscular endomycorrhizal symbiosis. Studies in legumes and actinorhizal plants uncovered a key component in symbiotic signalling, the LRR-type SYMBIOSIS RECEPTOR KINASE (SYMRK). SYMRK is essential for nodulation and arbuscular endomycorrhizal symbiosis. To our surprise, however, despite its arbuscular endomycorrhizal symbiosis capacities, we observed a seemingly critical mutation in a donor splice site in the SYMRK gene of Trema orientalis, the non-nodulating sister species of Parasponia. This led us to investigate the symbiotic functioning of SYMRK in the Trema-Parasponia lineage and to address the question of to what extent a single nucleotide polymorphism in a donor splice site affects the symbiotic functioning of SYMRK.

    RESULTS: We show that SYMRK is essential for nodulation and endomycorrhization in Parasponia andersonii. Subsequently, it is revealed that the 5'-intron donor splice site of SYMRK intron 12 is variable and, in most dicotyledon species, doesn't contain the canonical dinucleotide 'GT' signature but the much less common motif 'GC'. Strikingly, in T. orientalis, this motif is converted into a rare non-canonical 5'-intron donor splice site 'GA'. This SYMRK allele, however, is fully functional and spreads in the T. orientalis population of Malaysian Borneo. A further investigation into the occurrence of the non-canonical GA-AG splice sites confirmed that these are extremely rare.

    CONCLUSION: SYMRK functioning is highly conserved in legumes, actinorhizal plants, and Parasponia. The gene possesses a non-common 5'-intron GC donor splice site in intron 12, which is converted into a GA in T. orientalis accessions of Malaysian Borneo. The discovery of this functional GA-AG splice site in SYMRK highlights a gap in our understanding of splice donor sites.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism
  15. Ng ZX, Chua KH, Kuppusamy UR
    Food Chem, 2014 Apr 1;148:155-61.
    PMID: 24262540 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.025
    This study aimed to investigate the changes in the proteome of bitter gourd prior to and after subjecting to boiling and microwaving. A comparative analysis of the proteome profiles of raw and thermally treated bitter gourds was performed using 2D-DIGE. The protein content and number of protein spots in raw sample was higher when compared to the cooked samples. Qualitative analysis revealed that 103 (boiled sample) and 110 (microwaved sample) protein spots were up regulated whereas 120 (boiled sample) and 107 (microwaved sample) protein spots were down regulated. Ten protein spots with the highest significant fold change in the cooked samples were involved in carbohydrate/energy metabolisms and stress responses. Small heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, quinone oxidoreductase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglycerate kinase play a role in heat-stress-mediated protection of bitter gourd. This study suggests that appropriate heat treatment (cooking methods) can lead to induction of selected proteins in bitter gourd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism
  16. Nezhadahmadi A, Prodhan ZH, Faruq G
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:610721.
    PMID: 24319376 DOI: 10.1155/2013/610721
    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism*
  17. Sahebi M, Hanafi MM, Abdullah SN, Rafii MY, Azizi P, Nejat N, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:971985.
    PMID: 24516858 DOI: 10.1155/2014/971985
    Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in soil after oxygen. It is not an essential element for plant growth and formation but plays an important role in increasing plant tolerance towards different kinds of abiotic and biotic stresses. The molecular mechanism of Si absorption and accumulation may differ between plants, such as monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Silicon absorption and accumulation in mangrove plants are affected indirectly by some proteins rich in serine and proline amino acids. The expression level of the genes responsible for Si absorption varies in different parts of plants. In this study, Si is mainly observed in the epidermal roots' cell walls of mangrove plants compared to other parts. The present work was carried out to discover further information on Si stress responsive genes in Rhizophora apiculata, using the suppression subtractive hybridization technique. To construct the cDNA library, two-month-old seedlings were exposed to 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mM SiO2 for 15 hrs and for 1 to 6 days resulting in a total of 360 high quality ESTs gained. Further examination by RT-PCR and real-time qRT-PCR showed the expression of a candidate gene of serine-rich protein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism
  18. Ling AP, Ung YC, Hussein S, Harun AR, Tanaka A, Yoshihiro H
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2013 Dec;14(12):1132-43.
    PMID: 24302713 DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B1200126
    Heavy ion beam, which has emerged as a new mutagen in the mutation breeding of crops and ornamental plants, is expected to result in the induction of novel mutations. This study investigates the morphological and biochemical responses of Oryza sativa toward different doses of carbon ion beam irradiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism*
  19. Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZ
    Molecules, 2012;17(5):5195-211.
    PMID: 22628041 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17055195
    A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch), secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, TF; total phenolics, TP), phenylalanine lyase (PAL) activity (EC 4.3.1.5), protein and antioxidant activity (FRAP) of three progenies of oil palm seedlings, namely Deli AVROS, Deli Yangambi and Deli URT, under three levels of CO₂ enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) for 15 weeks of exposure. During the study, the treatment effects were solely contributed by CO₂ enrichment levels; no progenies and interaction effects were observed. As CO₂ levels increased from 400 to 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹, the production of carbohydrate increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar. The production of total flavonoids and phenolics contents, were the highest under 1,200 and lowest at 400 μmol·mol⁻¹. It was found that PAL activity was peaked under 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹ followed by 800 μmol·mol⁻¹ and 400 μmol·mol⁻¹. However, soluble protein was highest under 400 μmol·mol⁻¹ and lowest under 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹. The sucrose/starch ratio, i.e., the indication of sucrose phosphate synthase actvity (EC 2.4.1.14) was found to be lowest as CO₂ concentration increased from 400 > 800 > 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹. The antioxidant activity, as determined by the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity, increased with increasing CO₂ levels, and was significantly lower than vitamin C and α-tocopherol but higher than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Correlation analysis revealed that nitrogen has a significant negative correlation with carbohydrate, secondary metabolites and FRAP activity indicating up-regulation of production of carbohydrate, secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of oil palm seedling under elevated CO₂ was due to reduction in nitrogen content in oil palm seedling expose to high CO₂ levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism
  20. Mehrnoush A, Mustafa S, Yazid AM
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(3):2939-50.
    PMID: 22489134 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13032939
    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/metabolism
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