Flourishing is a relatively new concept in positive psychology that considers hedonic and eudaimonic aspects of well-being. The current study aims to identify the prevalence and socio-demographic and health factors associated with flourishing among older Malaysians.
Presently, it remains unclear why the prevalence of lung diseases, namely chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is much lower than other medical comorbidities and the general population among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). If COVID-19 is a respiratory disease, why is COPD not the leading risk factor for contracting COVID-19? The same odd phenomenon was also observed with other pathogenic human coronaviruses causing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), but not other respiratory viral infections such as influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses. One commonly proposed reason for the low COPD rates among COVID-19 patients is the usage of inhaled corticosteroids or bronchodilators that may protect against COVID-19. However, another possible reason not discussed elsewhere is that lungs in a diseased state may not be conducive for the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to establish COVID-19. For one, COPD causes mucous plugging in large and small airways, which may hinder SARS-CoV-2 from reaching deeper parts of the lungs (i.e., alveoli). Thus, SARS-CoV-2 may only localize to the upper respiratory tract of persons with COPD, causing mild or asymptomatic infections requiring no hospital attention. Even if SARS-CoV-2 reaches the alveoli, cells therein are probably under a heavy burden of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and extensively damaged where it may not support efficient viral replication. As a result, limited SARS-CoV-2 virions would be produced in diseased lungs, preventing the development of COVID-19.
Background: In Africa high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found in regions of East Africa (0.3%),
West Africa (0.7%), Central Africa (0.2%), South Africa (3.8%), and North Africa (12.5%).
Aims: This meta-analysis aimed to analyze the prevalence of obesity among young adults, aged 18-25 years
from five African countries.
Methods: The Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines were applied to
search published studies. of the 100 studies published as found in scientific databases from 2010 to 2017, only
five were selected. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)
checklist was used to eliminate other studies.
Outcomes: A total of 22,320 obese young adults were analyzed to be prevalent. The obesity among adults in
SouthAfrica was found to be correlated with less physical activities. In Uganda, the prevalence of obesity is
683 which relates with their sedentary lifestyle and socio-demography. Among 371 young adults in Nigeria, the
prevalence of obesity was 5.1% among male and 10% among female related to diet and other consumptions.
Among 646 adults in Ghana, the prevalence of general obesity was observed to be related to genetics.
Conclusion: Prevalence of the male gender was 9,509 having a p=0.284 (at 95% C.I.±4,440.87845-
8,788.87845) with a mean score of 1,251, and a SD= 61,066. While the prevalence of obesity on females was
10,874 having a p= 0.00019, (at 95% C.I.±3,592.07-6,094.07) with a mean score of 2,174, and SD= 3,375.
Hypertension is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. It is highly prevalent throughout the world. Even in regions liike South-East Asia (SEA) which has been perceived to be less prone to cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence of hypertension has been reported to be around 35% (1). Awareness and control of hypertension in SEA is also low, both being less than 50% each (2).Control of hypertension is an interplay between patients, doctors and system factors. One of the reasons for poor control of hypertension is resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension is defined as blood presure that remains above goal despite being on three concurrent anti-hypertensive medications preferbaly one of which is a diuretic (3).True resistant hypertension should be differiented from secondary hypertension and pseudo-resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension is almost always multi-factorial in aetiology. The exact prevalence of resistant hypertenion even in developed countries is not known It has been estimated that it is as high as 20-30% in clinical trial patients (4)Not many studies about resistant hypertension have been done in SEA but one done in an outpatient clinic in Thailand found it to be 7.82% Another study also done in a primary care clinc in Malaysia on 1217 patients with hypertension found the prevalence of resistant hypertension to be 8.8%. (6) Here it was found that the presence of chronic kidney disease was more likely to be associated with resistant hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56-5.35). Other factors like increasing age, female gender, presence of diabetes, obesity and left ventricular hypertrophyage which have been found to be predictors of resistant hypertension in other studies in the west were not seen in this study. There are various reasons for these findingsBut whatever the factors are that are associated with uncontrolled hypertension, the task is to sort out true resistant hypertension from pseudo-resistant hypertension and secondary casues of hypertension which may be treatable. A concerted effort is needed to reduce the BP in resistant hypertension. Failure to do so would mean a substantal increase in CV risk for the patient.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of torus palatinus (TP) and torus mandibularis (TM) in Malaysian dental patients.
METHODS: Thousand five hundred and thirty-two dental patients were examined for the presence of oral tori at the Faculty of Dentistry outpatient clinic, AIMST University. Factors such as race, age, sex, size, and shape of tori were studied.
RESULTS: The prevalence rates were 12% for TP and 2.8% for TM. A variation in the presence of tori among the three races in Malaysia-Chinese, Malays, and Indians-was noted, where the Chinese significantly had a higher prevalence of TP (17.9%) and TM (4.6%). Predominantly, tori were observed >40 years and older age group, and further both TP and TM were seen more commonly in women. Most TP were of smooth type (52.2%) and >2 cm (67.4%), while all TM were bilateral and nodular, plus most were <2 cm (67.4%).
CONCLUSION: Presence of tori (TP and TM) was detected in 12.5% of the participants. The variations noted in the prevalence and clinical characteristics of tori among people of different races living in the same country reflect its multifactorial etiology. Both genetic and environmental factors are responsible for its occurrence, and particular races are more prone genetically where its expression is enhanced by environmental factors.
KEYWORDS: Tori; torus mandibularis; torus palatinus
Study site: Dental clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, AIMST University
Three urban public primary schools in the district of Petaling, Selangor were surveyed for obesity amongst the schoolchildren and factors related to it. The prevalence of obesity amongst primary schoolchildren, with the mean age of 8.91 years was 9.5%. In addition, it was more prevalent among the boys (p
Norway has achieved a noteworthy reduction in smoking prevalence over the past forty years. In 2015, 13% of Norwegians aged 13-74 smoked daily and a further 9% smoked occasionally. One of the objectives of the Norwegian 2013-16 national strategy for tobacco control is to achieve a reduction in the daily smoking prevalence to < 10% by 2016. This paper aims to estimate how long it will take for Norway to achieve the 10% smoking prevalence.
In the context of global increases in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases, the objective of the present study is to investigate the factors affecting individuals' decisions to use health-promoting goods and services.
In light of the fact that chronic diseases were becoming more prevalent recently, the primary objective of the study was to examine the socio-demographic, health, and lifestyle determinants of the use of preventive medical care in Penang, Malaysia.
The problem of diabetes is large unknown due to lack of good epidemiological studies. The author's own studies showed a prevalence rate, in the Malays, of less than 1.0% in remote rural areas, 3.9% in a village close to Kuala Lumpur, and 3.0% for Malays working in a railway yard in Kuala Lumpur. The prevalence rate for the Chinese was 4.9% in the same survey, and for the Indian it was 16.0%. A survey in GHKL showed that 17.9% of the patients admitted for a month period in 1986 were due to diabetes and its complications. Majority of diabetes in Malaysia are non-insulin-dependent type.
1. Observations on filariasis made during medical travels in the Malay Peninsula are described. 2. The tentative diagnosis of endemic filariasis was made when cases typical of filarial elephantiasis were found in members of the indigenous population who have never resided in a previously known filariasis area, and was confirmed by finding microfilariae of Wuchereria malayi in bloods from that population. 3. Endemic filariasis has previously been reported associated with jungle swamp along the lower reaches of some of the larger rivers, and in certain coastal ricefield areas. It is reported in this paper in undeveloped inland areas of Perak, Pahang and Selangor, far distant from the previously described foci. This data has been summarized in maps and an Appendix. 4. In most inland areas where a search has been made, it has been possible to find evidence of endemic filariasis and sometimes the parasite rate has been over 50%. 5. The geographical distribution of the disease has not yet been defined, but is certainly more extensive than that described in this paper. 6. Infection probably takes place at an altitude of 1,500 feet in mountain valleys in Malaya.
1. Observations have been quoted which mention the existence of goiter in remote inland areas of Malaya. 2. 39.5% of 618 Malays and 40.8% of 710 aborigines from inland areas were found on examination to have visible thyroid glands. A high incidence of thyroid enlargement was found in almost all areas where these observations were made, on a wide range of Geological Formations. 3. In the seaside populations studied, the low incidence of ‘visible’ thyroid glands (2/184) is typical of that of other ‘goiter free’ areas. 4. Iodine estimations have been carried out on seven water samples from rivers draining inland areas where thyroid data have been collected, and gave values of 0.2 to 0.6 parts of iodine per thousand million. The development of goiter is to be expected when the iodine content is so low. 5. High calcium content of waters cannot be important in causing goiter in Malaya. 6. The availability of dried seafoods is thought to be an important factor in goiter prevention in Malaya. Four dried marine foods contained 360 to 1,340 parts of iodine per thousand million.
How many people are affected by tinnitus? Is the risk of developing tinnitus on the rise or has it been declining over time? What modifiable lifestyle factors could help to prevent tinnitus? These population-based questions can be addressed through epidemiological research. Epidemiology refers to the underlying and basic science of public health. It describes the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations and the application of this study to the control of health problems. There are two key concepts in epidemiology: (1) measures of frequency and (2) measures of effect. In this chapter, we introduce the two main measures of frequency, prevalence and incidence. We also introduce the notion of risk factors, critical for understanding measures of effect concerning the risk of developing a health condition. In both sections, we provide illustrative examples from the published literature on tinnitus. We end by offering a critical evaluation of the current status of epidemiological research on tinnitus and point to some promising future directions.