Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 103 in total

  1. Azer SA
    Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 2009 Mar;25(3):109-15.
    PMID: 19419915 DOI: 10.1016/S1607-551X(09)70049-X
    Lectures are of great value to students. However, with the introduction of hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) curricula into most medical schools, the emphasis on lectures has decreased. This paper discusses how lectures can be used in a PBL curriculum, what makes a great lecture, and how to deliver a lecture that fits with these changes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning*
  2. Ruslai NH, Salam A
    Pak J Med Sci, 2016 Mar-Apr;32(2):324-8.
    PMID: 27182232 DOI: 10.12669/pjms.322.9248
    Foundational elements of problem based learning (PBL) are triggers, tutors and students. Ineffective triggers are important issues for students' inability to generate appropriate learning issues. The objective of this study was to evaluate PBL triggers and to determine similarities of students' generated learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning
  3. Win NN, Nadarajah VD, Win DK
    PMID: 25961676 DOI: 10.3352/jeehp.2015.12.17
    PURPOSE: Problem-based learning (PBL) is usually conducted in small-group learning sessions with approximately eight students per facilitator. In this study, we implemented a modified version of PBL involving collaborative groups in an undergraduate chiropractic program and assessed its pedagogical effectiveness.
    METHODS: This study was conducted at the International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and involved the 2012 chiropractic student cohort. Six PBL cases were provided to chiropractic students, consisting of three PBL cases for which learning resources were provided and another three PBL cases for which learning resources were not provided. Group discussions were not continuously supervised, since only one facilitator was present. The students' perceptions of PBL in collaborative groups were assessed with a questionnaire that was divided into three domains: motivation, cognitive skills, and perceived pressure to work.
    RESULTS: Thirty of the 31 students (97%) participated in the study. PBL in collaborative groups was significantly associated with positive responses regarding students' motivation, cognitive skills, and perceived pressure to work (P<0.05). The students felt that PBL with learning resources increased motivation and cognitive skills (P<0.001).
    CONCLUSION: The new PBL implementation described in this study does not require additional instructors or any additional funding. When implemented in a classroom setting, it has pedagogical benefits equivalent to those of small-group sessions. Our findings also suggest that students rely significantly on available learning resources.
    KEYWORDS: Chiropractic; Learning; Motivation; Perception; Problem-based learning
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning*
  4. Kukkamalla A, Lakshminarayana SK
    Med Educ, 2011 Nov;45(11):1152-3.
    PMID: 21936865 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04107.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*; Problem-Based Learning/organization & administration*
  5. Prashanti E, Ramnarayan K
    Adv Physiol Educ, 2019 Jun 01;43(2):99-102.
    PMID: 30835147 DOI: 10.1152/advan.00173.2018
    In an era that is seemingly saturated with standardized tests of all hues and stripes, it is easy to forget that assessments not only measure the performance of students, but also consolidate and enhance their learning. Assessment for learning is best elucidated as a process by which the assessment information can be used by teachers to modify their teaching strategies while students adjust and alter their learning approaches. Effectively implemented, formative assessments can convert classroom culture to one that resonates with the triumph of learning. In this paper, we present 10 maxims that show ways that formative assessments can be better understood, appreciated, and implemented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*; Problem-Based Learning/trends
  6. Azer SA
    Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 2009 May;25(5):240-9.
    PMID: 19502144 DOI: 10.1016/S1607-551X(09)70068-3
    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an excellent opportunity for students to take responsibility for their learning and to develop a number of cognitive skills. These include identifying problems in the trigger, generating hypotheses, constructing mechanisms, developing an enquiry plan, ranking their hypotheses on the basis of available evidence, interpreting clinical and laboratory findings, identifying their learning needs, and dealing with uncertainty. Students also need to work collaboratively in their group, communicate effectively, and take active roles in the tutorials. Therefore, interaction in the group between students and their tutor is vital to ensure deep learning and successful outcomes. The aims of this paper are to discuss the key principles for successful interaction in PBL tutorials and to highlight the major symptoms of superficial learning and poor interactions. This comprises a wide range of symptoms for different group problems, including superficial learning. By early detection of such problems, tutors will be able to explore actions with the group and negotiate changes that can foster group dynamics and enforce deep learning.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning*
  7. Azila NM, Sim SM, Atiya AS
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2001 Jul;30(4):375-8.
    PMID: 11503543
    INTRODUCTION: Encouraging teaching practices such as problem-based learning (PBL) amongst undergraduate students within a lecture-based, system-based integrated curriculum is a challenge. Students are apprehensive about developing an organised framework for acquiring knowledge while lecturers are required to reframe their views on the educational process and their role as educators.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lecturers and students in the Phase (Year) II programme were asked to fill questionnaires following the second and fourth PBL cases. The two sets of survey responses were compared to see whether the students' and teachers' perceptions had changed over the 5-month period.

    RESULTS: Students' responses from both surveys (1 and 2) were similar in that a majority agreed that the PBL tutorials had encouraged the seeking of information (66% and 67%, respectively), had improved understanding (57% and 56%), integration (65% and 70%) and application (50% and 64%) of knowledge. However, the views given in the form of written comments, following their positive responses, were somewhat contradictory. A large number of students (38% and 40%) faced difficulties in getting involved in discussions during the PBL tutorial and a majority (73% and 82%) preferred the normal subject-based tutorials. The reasons given by approximately 20% of the students were that the subject-based tutorials were more efficient for obtaining information and/or that the information had been pre-selected by the lecturers. More than 80% of the lecturers (in both surveys) perceived that the students had identified the appropriate learning objectives and covered the subject matter. The percentage of lecturers who agreed that PBL tutorials encouraged rapport and teamwork amongst students had increased in the second survey, from 70% to 92% and 55% to 83% respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Implementing PBL is not simply a matter of developing new teaching materials and new effective ways of presenting them. It requires a paradigm shift, a change in the roles of students and teachers, and time.

    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning*
  8. Azila NM
    Med J Malaysia, 2002 Dec;57 Suppl E:52-7.
    PMID: 12733194
    This paper outlines issues related to curricular reforms, and strategies to be considered for planning and implementation so as to ensure that the change is institutionalised. In Malaysia, in general, some imminent curricular changes have been carried out to prepare graduates for future changes in the practice environment. Change of reform requires planning, with consideration of the directions in which the change is needed, and the possible educational approaches to be utilized. To ensure change can occur and be maintained there should be effort to induce a paradigm shift amongst teachers and administrators at all levels, there must be transparency and dissemination of information of the required change and why, there must be involvement of teachers in decision making to ensure better compliance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  9. Majumder MA, Rahim AF, Rahman S
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2004 Jun;52(6):1038-9.
    PMID: 15161490
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning*
  10. Nitce Isa Medina Machmudi Isa, Mai Shihah Hj Abdullah
    Selaras dengan ledakan pengetahuan berasaskan komputer dan teknologi pada abad ke-21, kaedah Pembelajaran Berasaskan Projek (PBP) atau Project Based Learning (PBL) telah diperkenalkan oleh Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia (KPM) pada tahun 2006. Pada awalnya, implementasi kaedah PBP telah dimulakan di sekolah-sekolah bestari perdana. Ini merupakan tinjauan literatur yang membincangkan takrifan dan teori yang digunapakai dalam kaedah PBP. Selain itu, perbandingan kaedah PBP dengan kaedah Pembelajaran Berasaskan Masalah (PBM) atau Problem Based Learning (PBL) turut dibincangkan memandangkan kedua-dua kaedah ini menggunakan akronim yang sama dalam bahasa Inggeris. Berdasarkan tinjauan literatur ini, didapati bahawa kaedah PBP mempunyai kelebihan dan kelemahan yang tersendiri, maka terpulang kepada budi bicara guru yang mengajar untuk mengaplikasikan kaedah ini dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran (P dan P) bersesuaian dengan kebolehan murid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning
  11. Azer, Samy A.
    Medical Health Reviews, 2008;2008(1):81-95.
    With the introduction of problem-based learning (PBL) in medical and health professionals’ undergraduate courses, self-directed learning (also known as self-regulated learning) becomes an integral component of the learning process. There may be slight variations in how educators and students perceive self-directed learnin .However, self-directed learning provides an opportunity for collaborative discussion of the new information collected and allows learners to construct new knowledge as they address their learning issues. Therefore, self-directed learning is not just about researching for new knowledge or finding answers for questions; self-directed learning is about developing competencies, skills and attitudes that foster the learning processes. Interestingly, not all learners will be able to adapt this approach of learning once they enroll in a PBL course. The process will develop gradually and require a number of actions from the learner, including: (i) Realising the need to change their learning style to suite the needs of the medical curriculum, (ii) constructing a plan that accommodates the new learning objectives, (iii) Practicing self-directed learning and sharing their experiences with peers, and (iv) Continuing evaluation of their self-directed learning approach and improving their learning style. Therefore, the aims of this manuscript are: (i) discuss the meaning of self-directed learning in the context of PBL, and review the research outcomes in this area, (ii) understand the different factors that may affect student’s self-directed learning strategies, and (iii) briefly explore the meaning of construction of knowledge and how it can enforce students’ self-directed learning, integration of knowledge and deeper understanding of topics learnt.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning
  12. Achike FI, Kwan DCY
    JUMMEC, 1997;2:89-93.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning
  13. Khoo EJ, Chua SH, Kutzsche S
    Arch Argent Pediatr, 2019 04 01;117(2):e181-e187.
    PMID: 30869503 DOI: 10.5546/aap.2019.eng.e181
    The Neonatal Resuscitation Programme is a good example of an effective educational intervention that has improved perinatal mortality rates in many countries. This paper shares our experience of planning an undergraduate Neonatal Resuscitation Programme using basic principles of education theory of spiral curriculum, Bloom's taxonomy in planning learning outcomes, Kolb's learning model and Miller's model of clinical assessment. Engaging clinicians in pedagogical theories may not be well aligned with how clinicians traditionally thought they learnt best, yet it is key to improving learning concept and educational intervention outcomes in the healthcare professions. This article aims to illustrate the application of such educational theories into one example of practice. We structured this paper in the scope of content, delivery and assessment when planning a psychomotor learning activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning
  14. Mohd Said N, Rogayah J, Hafizah A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2009 Oct;16(4):15-24.
    PMID: 22135508 MyJurnal
    In a nursing programme, the main objective is to produce nursing graduates who can provide comprehensive care and treatment to the community. A good approach to the systematic design of a learning environment can lead to positive outcomes for graduates. The learning environment is more than student-teacher interaction, teaching and learning activities. Good physical structures and facilities provided by the university are important, too. Furthermore, the university must also be concerned about meeting students' psychosocial and emotional needs. The aim of this study is to measure the learning environment by administering the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) questionnaire to students across the four years of the Bachelor of Nursing programme at the Faculty of Nursing, IIUM, and to identify areas for change that may contribute to a more meaningful student learning experience.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning
  15. Mala-Maung, Abdullah A, Abas ZW
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Dec;66(5):435-9.
    PMID: 22390096 MyJurnal
    This cross-sectional study determined the appreciation of the learning environment and development of higher-order learning skills among students attending the Medical Curriculum at the International Medical University, Malaysia which provides traditional and e-learning resources with an emphasis on problem based learning (PBL) and self-directed learning. Of the 708 participants, the majority preferred traditional to e-resources. Students who highly appreciated PBL demonstrated a higher appreciation of e-resources. Appreciation of PBL is positively and significantly correlated with higher-order learning skills, reflecting the inculcation of self-directed learning traits. Implementers must be sensitive to the progress of learners adapting to the higher education environment and innovations, and to address limitations as relevant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning*
  16. Azer SA
    Med Educ, 2011 May;45(5):510.
    PMID: 21486331 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.03952.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  17. Ciraj AM, Vinod P, Ramnarayan K
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2010 Oct-Dec;53(4):729-33.
    PMID: 21045402 DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.72058
    Case-based learning (CBL) is an interactive student-centered exploration of real life situations. This paper describes the use of CBL as an educational strategy for promoting active learning in microbiology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  18. Prakash ES
    Adv Physiol Educ, 2010 Jun;34(2):93-6.
    PMID: 20522904 DOI: 10.1152/advan.00025.2010
    This study tested the possibility that interactive lectures explicitly based on activating learners' prior knowledge and driven by a series of logical questions might enhance the effectiveness of lectures. A class of 54 students doing the respiratory system course in the second year of the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery program in my university was randomized to two groups to receive one of two types of lectures, "typical" lectures (n = 28, 18 women and 10 men) or "constructivist" lectures (n = 26, 19 women and 7 men), on the same topic: the regulation of respiration. Student pretest scores in the two groups were comparable (P > 0.1). Students that received the constructivist lectures did much better in the posttest conducted immediately after the lectures (6.8 +/- 3.4 for constructivist lectures vs. 4.2 +/- 2.3 for typical lectures, means +/- SD, P = 0.004). Although both types of lectures were well received, students that received the constructivist lectures appeared to have been more satisfied with their learning experience. However, on a posttest conducted 4 mo later, scores obtained by students in the two groups were not any different (6.9 +/- 3 for constructivist lectures vs. 6.9 +/- 3.7 for typical lectures, P = 0.94). This study adds to the increasing body of evidence that there is a case for the use of interactive lectures that make the construction of knowledge and understanding explicit, easy, and enjoyable to learners.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  19. Azer SA, Frauman AG
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2008 Mar;37(3):204-9.
    PMID: 18392299
    For about 50 years, clinical pharmacology and therapeutics have been taught in the medical schools via traditional lectures and practical classes. During this time, significant changes have occurred in our understanding of medicine and basic sciences. Also the needs for our community have changed dramatically. The explosion of scientific discoveries, the use of new technologies in disease diagnosis, the availability of a wide range of therapeutic options, and the availability of knowledge to everyone via the Internet have necessitated new approaches for teaching medical and other health professional students. Finding information related to a topic has not become a priority in teaching, what has become more important is to teach undergraduate students how to think in addition to what to think. Applying information learnt and assessing its significance in real life situations has become mandatory. The aims of this paper were: (i) to discuss the model we used in introducing clinical pharmacology and therapeutics teaching in the undergraduate course at the University of Melbourne and the educational principles behind the model, and (ii) to discuss the new tools of assessment used in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning*
  20. Azer SA
    Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 2008 Jul;24(7):361-6.
    PMID: 18805751 DOI: 10.1016/S1607-551X(08)70133-5
    Portfolios have been used in the medical curriculum to evaluate difficult-to-assess areas such as students' attitudes, professionalism and teamwork. However, their use early in a problem-based learning (PBL) course to foster deep learning and enhance students' self-directed learning has not been adequately studied. The aims of this paper are to: (1) understand the uses of portfolios and the rationale for using reflection in the early years of a PBL curriculum; (2) discuss how to introduce portfolios and encourage students' critical thinking skills, not just reflection; and (3) provide students with tips that could enhance their skills in constructing good portfolios.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning*
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