Methods: The in vitro effect of tannins was studied against MRSA reference strain (ATCC 43300) and MRSA clinical strains utilizing antimicrobial assays in conjunction with both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. To reveal the influence of tannins in MRSA protein synthesis disruption, we utilized next-generation sequencing (NGS) to provide further insight into the novel protein synthesis transcriptional response of MRSA exposed to these compounds.
Results: Tannins possessed both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 0.78 and 1.56 mg/mL, respectively, against all tested MRSA. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of MRSA treated with tannins showed decrease in cellular volume, indicating disruption of protein synthesis.
Conclusion: Analysis of a genome-wide transcriptional profile of the reference strain ATCC 43300 MRSA in response to tannins has led to the finding that tannins induced significant modulation in essential ribosome pathways, which caused a reduction in the translation processes that lead to inhibition of protein synthesis and obviation of bacterial growth. These findings highlight the potential of tannins as new promising anti-MRSA agents in clinical application such as body wash and topical cream or ointments.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: ER+ MCF7 and ER- MDA-MB-231 cell lines were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and spots of interest were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of- flight/time- of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis after downregulation of RhoGDIα using short interfering RNA (siRNA) and upregulated using GFP-tagged ORF clone of RhoGDIα.
RESULTS: The results showed a total of 35 proteins that were either up- or down-regulated in these cells. Here we identifed 9 and 15 proteins differentially expressed with silencing of RhoGDIα in MCF-7 and the MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. In addition, 10 proteins were differentially expressed in the upregulation of RhoGDIα in MCF7, while only one protein was identified in the upregulation of RhoGDIα in MDA-MB-231. Based on the biological functions of these proteins, the results revealed that proteins involved in cell migration are more strongly altered with RhoGDI-α activity. Although several of these proteins have been previously indicated in tumorigenesis and invasiveness of breast cancer cells, some ohave not been previously reported to be involved in breast cancer migration. Hence, these proteins may serve as useful candidate biomarkers for tumorigenesis and invasiveness of breast cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Future studies are needed to determine the mechanisms by which these proteins regulate cell migration. The combination of RhoGDIα with other potential biomarkers may be a more promising approach in the inhibition of breast cancer cell migration.