METHODS: ALK gene rearrangement was detected by immunostaining of ALK protein and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) targeting at the 2p23 region.
RESULTS: The expression of ALK protein was detected in 24/34 (71%) of the cases, and it was significantly higher in childhood cases (100%) when compared to adult cases (47%). The analyses by FISH were consistent with the results from immunostaining of ALK protein, but the analyses were only successful in 15/34 (44%) cases. FISH analyses detected extra copies of ALK gene in three cases, including one case that expressed ALK protein and showed 2p23 rearrangement.
CONCLUSIONS: The current series revealed a high frequency of ALK gene rearrangement, especially in the children. Immunostaining of ALK protein is a reliable indication of ALK gene rearrangement, and is superior to FISH. However, FISH analysis is useful in detecting other genetic aberrations that are not related to ALK gene rearrangement.
Material and Methods: A total of 5 ml of unstimulated saliva was collected from each subject (10 non-orthodontic patients and 15 post-orthodontic patients with 6-months retention phase). Samples were then subjected to LC-MS analysis. The expressed proteins were identified and compared between groups. Incisor irregularity for both maxilla and mandible were determined with Little's Irregularity Index at 6-months retention phase.
Results: 146 proteins and 135 proteins were expressed in control and 6-months retention phase group respectively. 15 proteins were identified to be co-expressed between groups. Immune system process was only detected in 6-months retention phase group. Detected protein in immune system process was identified as Tyrosine-protein kinase Tec. Statistical significant of incisor irregularity was only found in mandible at 6-months retention phase.
Conclusions: Our study suggests that immune system process protein which is Tyrosine-protein kinase Tec could be used as biomarker for prediction of stability during retention phase of post-orthodontic treatment. Key words:Orthodontics, proteomics, retention, LC-MS, saliva.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The EGFR intron 1 polymorphism was analysed in three distinct healthy Asian subjects, namely, Chinese (N = 96), Malays (N = 98) and Indians (N = 100). Comparative genomic hybridisation was performed to investigate for changes in DNA copy number in relation to the polymorphic CA dinucleotide repeats in breast tumor tissues (N = 22).
RESULTS: The frequency of short alleles with 14 and 15 CA repeats were most common in the Asian populations and significantly higher than those reported for Caucasians. The frequency of 20 CA repeats was 5%, almost 13-fold lower than previous reports. EGFR amplifications were detected in 23% and 11% of breast tumor tissues harboring short and long CA repeats, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Our results show that the frequency of alleles encoding for short CA dinucleotide repeats is common in Asian populations. EGFR expression and amplification levels were also higher in Asian breast tumor tissues with short CA dinucleotide repeats. These findings suggest that the EGFR intron 1 polymorphism may influence response to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in breast cancer patients and further studies are warranted.