Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 95 in total

  1. Kwan TK, Thambyrajah V
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1978 Mar;32(3):236-41.
    PMID: 683049
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/isolation & purification; Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism*
  2. Aziz S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1983 Jun;38(2):153-7.
    PMID: 6621447
    This communication describes the quantitative and qualitative analysis of oestrogen receptors in breast tumour biopsies of Malaysian patients. This preliminary investigation establishes certain rigid criteria that makes possible the classification of patients most likely to respond to hormonal therapy. 20 percent of the patients had oestrogen receptor positive tumours while 60 percent were oestrogen receptor negative.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/analysis*
  3. Yip CH, Rhodes A
    Future Oncol, 2014 Nov;10(14):2293-301.
    PMID: 25471040 DOI: 10.2217/fon.14.110
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. The majority of breast cancers show overexpression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs). The development of drugs to target these hormone receptors, such as tamoxifen, has brought about significant improvement in survival for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancers. Since information about ER and PR is vital for patient management, quality assurance is important to ensure accurate testing. In recent guidelines, the recommended definition of ER and PR positivity is 1% or more of cells that stain positive. Semiquantitative assessment of ER and PR is important for prognosis and, hence, management. Even with the development of genomic tests, hormone receptor status remains the most significant predictive and prognostic biomarker.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/genetics; Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism*
  4. Kamil M, Khalid I, Hashim H, Biswas M, Kaur G, Islam R
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2010 Apr;20(4):250-2.
    PMID: 20392401 DOI: 04.2010/JCPSP.250252
    To determine the association between histological grade of tumour and estrogen progesterone receptors (ER/PR) expression in unselected invasive carcinoma of breast in Malaysian patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/biosynthesis*; Receptors, Estrogen/genetics
  5. Horne HN, Beena Devi CR, Sung H, Tang TS, Rosenberg PS, Hewitt SM, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 2015 Jan;149(1):285-91.
    PMID: 25537643 DOI: 10.1007/s10549-014-3243-9
    Hormone receptor (HR) negative breast cancers are relatively more common in low-risk than high-risk countries and/or populations. However, the absolute variations between these different populations are not well established given the limited number of cancer registries with incidence rate data by breast cancer subtype. We, therefore, used two unique population-based resources with molecular data to compare incidence rates for the 'intrinsic' breast cancer subtypes between a low-risk Asian population in Malaysia and high-risk non-Hispanic white population in the National Cancer Institute's surveillance, epidemiology, and end results 18 registries database (SEER 18). The intrinsic breast cancer subtypes were recapitulated with the joint expression of the HRs (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Invasive breast cancer incidence rates overall were fivefold greater in SEER 18 than in Malaysia. The majority of breast cancers were HR-positive in SEER 18 and HR-negative in Malaysia. Notwithstanding the greater relative distribution for HR-negative cancers in Malaysia, there was a greater absolute risk for all subtypes in SEER 18; incidence rates were nearly 7-fold higher for HR-positive and 2-fold higher for HR-negative cancers in SEER 18. Despite the well-established relative breast cancer differences between low-risk and high-risk countries and/or populations, there was a greater absolute risk for HR-positive and HR-negative subtypes in the US than Malaysia. Additional analytical studies are sorely needed to determine the factors responsible for the elevated risk of all subtypes of breast cancer in high-risk countries like the United States.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/biosynthesis; Receptors, Estrogen/genetics*
  6. Alfatih, P., Munirah, M.I., Ainaen, M., Wenda, L., Sharifa Ezzat, W.P., Reena Rahayu, M.Z.
    Medicine & Health, 2015;10(1):10-16.
    Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) immunohistochemistry are important markers in the management of patient with breast carcinoma. In this study, we determine the concordance rate of ER, PR and HER2 immunohistochemistry markers between core needle biopsy (CNB) and excisional biopsy (EB) of breast carcinoma in patients of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) from January 2002 until December 2012. A total of 93 female patients with CNB and subsequent EB were included in this retrospective descriptive study. Immunohistochemistry is used to determine ER, PR and HER2. ER and PR was graded using Allred score (0 to 8) while HER2 was scored from 0 to 3+. The markers between these two biopsies were compared to determine the concordance rate. In ER and PR, 93 samples were compared. ER was concordant in 80 cases (86.0%) and 13 cases (14.0%) was discordant. PR was concordant in 82 cases (88.2%) and discordant in 11 cases (11.8%). In HER2, 87 samples were compared and 62 cases (71.3%) were concordant while 25 cases (28.7%) were discordant. Concordance between CNB and EB was high for ER and PR. However, concordance rate for HER2 immunohistochemistry was less consistent. Overall, immunohistochemical analyses of CNB reflect the tumour marker status of the excised specimen.
    Keywords: breast carcinoma, core needle biopsy, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen
  7. Emaus MJ, Peeters PH, Bakker MF, Overvad K, Tjønneland A, Olsen A, et al.
    Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2016 Jan;103(1):168-77.
    PMID: 26607934 DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.114.101436
    BACKGROUND: The recent literature indicates that a high vegetable intake and not a high fruit intake could be associated with decreased steroid hormone receptor-negative breast cancer risk.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between vegetable and fruit intake and steroid hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk.

    DESIGN: A total of 335,054 female participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort were included in this study (mean ± SD age: 50.8 ± 9.8 y). Vegetable and fruit intake was measured by country-specific questionnaires filled out at recruitment between 1992 and 2000 with the use of standardized procedures. Cox proportional hazards models were stratified by age at recruitment and study center and were adjusted for breast cancer risk factors.

    RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 11.5 y (IQR: 10.1-12.3 y), 10,197 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed [3479 estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER+PR+); 1021 ER and PR negative (ER-PR-)]. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of vegetable intake was associated with a lower risk of overall breast cancer (HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94). Although the inverse association was most apparent for ER-PR- breast cancer (ER-PR-: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.96; P-trend = 0.03; ER+PR+: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.05; P-trend = 0.14), the test for heterogeneity by hormone receptor status was not significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.09). Fruit intake was not significantly associated with total and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk.

    CONCLUSION: This study supports evidence that a high vegetable intake is associated with lower (mainly hormone receptor-negative) breast cancer risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism*
  8. Devi CR, Tang TS, Corbex M
    Int. J. Cancer, 2012 Dec 15;131(12):2869-77.
    PMID: 22407763 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.27527
    We determined the incidences of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) subtypes among breast cancer cases in Sarawak, Malaysia and their correlation with various risk factors in the three ethnic groups: Chinese, Malay and native. Subtype status was ascertained for 1,034 cases of female breast cancer (93% of all cases diagnosed since 2003), and the age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of each subtype were inferred. Case-case comparisons across subtypes were performed for reproductive risk factors. We found 48% luminal A (ER+/PR+/HER2-), 29% triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-), 12% triple-positive (ER+/PR+/HER2+) and 11% HER2-overexpressing (ER-/PR-/HER2+) subtypes, with ASRs of 10.6, 6.0, 2.8 and 2.8 per 100,000, respectively. The proportions of subtypes and ASRs differed significantly by ethnic groups: HER2-positive cases were more frequent in Malays (29%; 95% CI [23;35]) than Chinese (22%; [19;26] and natives (21%; [16;26]); triple-negative cases were less frequent among Chinese (23%; [20;27]) than Malays (33%; [27;39]) and natives (37%; [31;43]). The results of the case-case comparison were in accordance with those observed in western case series. Some uncommon associations, such as between triple-negative subtype and older age at menopause (OR, 1.59; p < 0.05), were found. The triple-negative and HER2+ subtypes predominate in our region, with significant differences among ethnic groups. Our results support the idea that the risk factors for different subtypes vary markedly. Westernized populations are more likely to have factors that increase the risk for the luminal A type, while risk factors for the triple-negative type are more frequent in local populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism
  9. Yip CH, Bhoo-Pathy N, Uiterwaal CS, Taib NA, Tan GH, Mun KS, et al.
    Breast, 2011 Apr;20 Suppl 2:S60-4.
    PMID: 21349715 DOI: 10.1016/j.breast.2011.02.004
    Estrogen receptor (ER) positive rates in breast cancer may be influenced by grade, stage, age and race. This study reviews the ER positive rates over a 15-year period at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data on ER status of 3557 patients from 1994 to 2008 was analyzed. ER status was determined by immunohistochemistry with a cut-off point of 10%. ER positivity increased by about 2% for every 5-year cohort, from 54.5% in 1994-1998 to 58.4% in 2004-2008. Ethnicity and grade were significantly associated with ER positivity rates: Malay women were found to have a higher risk of ER negative tumors compared with Chinese women. Grade 1 cancers were nine times more likely to be ER positive compared with grade 3 cancers. In summary, the proportion of ER positive cancers increased with each time period, and ethnicity and grade were independent factors that influenced ER positive rates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/analysis*
  10. Khalid BA, Nurshireen A, Rashidah M, Zainal BY, Roslan BA, Mahamooth Z
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1990 Jun;45(2):148-53.
    PMID: 1725553
    One hundred and six prostatic tissue samples obtained from transurethral resection were analysed for androgen and estrogen receptors. In 62 of these, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors were also assayed. Steroid receptors were assayed using single saturation dose 3H-labelled ligand assays. Ninety percent of the 97 prostatic hyperplasia tissues and six of the nine prostatic carcinoma tissues were positive for androgen receptors. Estrogen receptors were only present in 19% and 33% respectively. Progesterone receptors were present in 70% of the tissues, but glucocorticoid receptors were present in only 16% of prostatic hyperplasia and none in prostatic carcinoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/analysis*
  11. Jayaram G, Elsayed EM
    Acta Cytol., 2005 Nov-Dec;49(6):605-10.
    PMID: 16450899
    To type breast carcinomaon on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material and correlate the results with histologic typing, to grade breast carcinoma on FNAC material and correlate the findings with Bloom-Richardson histologic grading, and to determine the estrogen receptor (ER) status in cases of breast carcinoma by immunocytochemical (ICC) staining of FNA cytologic material and correlate the findings with ER status, as determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of tissue sections.

    STUDY DESIGN: Seventy-seven cases of breast carcinoma diagnosed on FNAC formed the basis of this study. Typing was done in all cases on the basis of cytologic features and grading in 62. (Fifteen cases were special types of breast carcinoma). In all cases, ER status was determined by immunostaining of cytologic smears. Results of tumor typing, grading and ER status on cytologic material were compared with the results of histologic typing, grading and immunostaining of histologic material obtained from mastectomy or wide excision specimens.

    RESULTS: Tumor typing was accurate in 73 of 77 cases (94.8%). Fifteen of 18 cases that were cytologically grade 3 were confirmed on histology, while 3 proved to be grade 2. Of 40 cytologic grade 2 cases, 26 were confirmed on histology, while 14 cases were grade 3. Three of 4 cytologically grade 1 cases were confirmed on histology while 1 was grade 2. The overall accuracy for cytologic grading was 71% (44 of 62 cases). Thirty-seven of 40 ER-positive cases (92.5%) were labeled ER positive on ICC. One case was ER negative on cytology, while in 2 cases the cellularity of the cytologic smear was insufficient to assess ER expression. Thirty-seven cases were negativefor ER on IHC. Nine of these showed ER positivity on ICC, 26 were negative, and 2 had cellularity that was inadequate for assessment of ER. Sensitivity and specificity rates for ER detection on ICC were 97.4% and 74.3%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Tumor typing, grading and evaluation of ER status on FNA C material in breast carcinomas are simple, quick and moderately reliable techniques that compare and correlate favorably with histologic typing, grading and ER status on IHC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/analysis*
  12. Looi LM, Cheah PL
    Malays J Pathol, 1998 Jun;20(1):19-23.
    PMID: 10879259
    Eighty-six infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast were studied by the standard avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase method on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, for oestrogen receptor (ER) protein and c-erbB-2 oncoprotein expression. They were categorized according to the modified Bloom and Richardson criteria into three histological grades. 21% tumours were ER positive while 44% were c-erbB-2 positive. Of ER positive tumours, 33.3% were c-erbB-2 positive whereas the c-erbB-2 positivity rate was much higher (47.1%) in ER negative tumours. Only 16% of c-erbB-2 positive tumours were ER positive while 25% of c-erbB-2 negative tumours were ER positive. This negative relationship between ER and c-erbB-2 expression was statistically significant (Mc Nemar's test, p < 0.005). The ER positivity rate did not vary significantly with histological grade. However, c-erbB-2 overexpression was significantly more prevalent in grade III tumours compared with grade I and II tumours (Chi-square test, p < 0.005). Since the c-erbB-2 oncogene has extensive structural homology to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, we expect that c-erbB-2 oncoprotein would share functional similarities with EGFR leading to both loss of oestrogen receptor and poor prognosis in breast cancer. Its overexpression can be expected to relate to more aggressive tumour proliferation and may explain its correlation with high histological grade, a known indicator of aggressive cancer behaviour. As there is no indication that ER protein activity contributes to advancement in histological grade, it would appear that cellular dedifferentiation precedes ER loss during malignant transformation. It has been mooted that ER positive breast cancers which also show c-erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression have a poorer response to hormonal therapy. The use of this parameter in the routine assessment of breast cancer patients may identify subsets of patients for more aggressive therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism*
  13. Looi LM, Yap SF, Cheah PL
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 1997 Nov;26(6):750-3.
    PMID: 9522973
    Fresh frozen neoplastic tissues from 70 infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas were analysed for cytosolic oestrogen receptor (ER) protein content using a solid phase enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method based on a "sandwich" principle (Abbott ER-EIA monoclonal). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from the same carcinomas were examined for nuclear immunoreactivity against a monoclonal antibody for ER protein (Dako) using the standard avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase (IP) method after microwave antigen retrieval. The degree of ER positivity by IP was also scored according to a visual estimation of the percentage of cells expressing immunopositivity and the intensity of staining. Twenty-eight (40%) of the carcinomas were ER-positive by EIA and 34 (48.6%) were positive by IP. Twenty-five (35.7%) were ER-positive and 33 (47.1%) were ER-negative by both methods. Nine (12.9%) were ER-negative by EIA but were positive by IP, this discrepancy being ascribed to sampling inadequacy for EIA. However, 3 (4.3%) tumours were ER-positive by EIA and negative by IP. This discrepancy may be variously due to inadequate antigen retrieval, faulty technique and the possibility that the two methods do not measure identical ER proteins. IP appears to have an advantage over EIA in that it has a higher pick-up rate, does not require fresh tissue and can be applied to archival material. However, to reduce false negative estimations, it may be necessary to run IP staining using more than one ER antibody. Standardisation of the IP method for ER is desirable before this method is to be widely adopted in Malaysian laboratories. Quantitation of ER positivity by IP scoring correlated poorly with actual cytosolic levels. Caution should be exercised in attaching patient management value to visual IP scoring.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/analysis*
  14. Mohamad Hanif EA, Shah SA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2018 Dec 25;19(12):3341-3351.
    PMID: 30583339
    Breast cancer treatments leads to variable responses. Hormonal therapy is beneficial to receptor positive breast cancer
    subtypes and display better clinical outcome than triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) with FEC (5-Fluorouracil,
    Epirubicin and Cyclophosphamide) the mainstay chemotherapy regiment. Owning to their negative expressions of
    estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and HER2 receptors, disease recurrence and metastasis befalls some patients indicating
    resistance to FEC. Involvement of epigenetic silencing through DNA methylation, histone methylation, acetylation and
    sumoylation may be the key player in FEC chemoresistance. Epigenetic and molecular profiling successfully classified
    breast cancer subtypes, indicating potential driver mechanisms to the progression of TNBCs but functional mechanisms
    behind chemoresistance of these molecular markers are not well defined. Several epigenetic inhibitors and drugs have
    been used in the management of cancers but these attempts are mainly beneficial in hematopoietic cancers and not
    specifically favourable in solid tumours. Hypothetically, upon administration of epigenetic drugs, recovery of tumour
    suppressor genes is expected. However, high tendency of switching on global metastatic genes is predicted. Polycomb
    repressive complex (PRC) such as EZH2, SETD1A, DNMT, is known to have repressive effects in gene regulation and
    shown to inhibit cell proliferation and invasion in breast cancers. Individual epigenetic regulators may be an option
    to improve chemo-drug delivery in cancers. This review discussed on molecular signatures of various breast cancer
    subtypes and on-going attempts in understanding underlying molecular mechanisms of epigenetic regulators as well
    as providing insights on possible ways to utilize epigenetic enzymes/inhibitors with responses to chemotherapeutic
    drugs to re-program cellular and biological outcome in TNBCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/genetics
  15. Rivers C, Idris J, Scott H, Rogers M, Lee YB, Gaunt J, et al.
    BMC Biol., 2015 Dec 22;13:111.
    PMID: 26694817 DOI: 10.1186/s12915-015-0220-7
    BACKGROUND: SAFB1 is a RNA binding protein implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular processes such as the regulation of transcription, stress response, DNA repair and RNA processing. To gain further insight into SAFB1 function we used iCLIP and mapped its interaction with RNA on a genome wide level.

    RESULTS: iCLIP analysis found SAFB1 binding was enriched, specifically in exons, ncRNAs, 3' and 5' untranslated regions. SAFB1 was found to recognise a purine-rich GAAGA motif with the highest frequency and it is therefore likely to bind core AGA, GAA, or AAG motifs. Confirmatory RT-PCR experiments showed that the expression of coding and non-coding genes with SAFB1 cross-link sites was altered by SAFB1 knockdown. For example, we found that the isoform-specific expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM1) and ASTN2 was influenced by SAFB1 and that the processing of miR-19a from the miR-17-92 cluster was regulated by SAFB1. These data suggest SAFB1 may influence alternative splicing and, using an NCAM1 minigene, we showed that SAFB1 knockdown altered the expression of two of the three NCAM1 alternative spliced isoforms. However, when the AGA, GAA, and AAG motifs were mutated, SAFB1 knockdown no longer mediated a decrease in the NCAM1 9-10 alternative spliced form. To further investigate the association of SAFB1 with splicing we used exon array analysis and found SAFB1 knockdown mediated the statistically significant up- and downregulation of alternative exons. Further analysis using RNAmotifs to investigate the frequency of association between the motif pairs (AGA followed by AGA, GAA or AAG) and alternative spliced exons found there was a highly significant correlation with downregulated exons. Together, our data suggest SAFB1 will play an important physiological role in the central nervous system regulating synaptic function. We found that SAFB1 regulates dendritic spine density in hippocampal neurons and hence provide empirical evidence supporting this conclusion.

    CONCLUSIONS: iCLIP showed that SAFB1 has previously uncharacterised specific RNA binding properties that help coordinate the isoform-specific expression of coding and non-coding genes. These genes regulate splicing, axonal and synaptic function, and are associated with neuropsychiatric disease, suggesting that SAFB1 is an important regulator of key neuronal processes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/genetics*; Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism
  16. Bong PN, Zakaria Z, Muhammad R, Abdullah N, Ibrahim N, Emran NA, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2010 Dec;32(2):117-22.
    PMID: 21329183 MyJurnal
    The GATA3 gene is a potential tumour marker and putative tumour suppressor gene in breast cancer. Its expression is associated with better prognosis and disease free survival in breast cancer patients. We aimed to evaluate GATA3 transcriptome expression and mutation in breast carcinomas and correlate its expression with oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), lymph node (LN) status, tumour grade and c-erbB-2 expression. Twenty-two breast infiltrating ductal carcinomas and paired normal tissues were used in Branch DNA assay to detect GATA3 mRNA expression. Normalized data for GATA3 mRNA expression were grouped according to the ER, PR and LN status, tumour grade and c-erbB-2 expression of the tumours. Statistical significance was tested using t-test and ANOVA at 95% confidence interval level. Mutational analysis of GATA3 was performed by direct sequencing of the coding regions of GATA3 mRNA. Our findings showed that GATA3 gene were over-expressed and under-expressed by > 2 fold change in 12 and 4 tested samples, respectively. Eighty per cent of ER positive breast carcinomas were GATA3 positive. There was a statistically significant correlation between GATA3 expression and ER at 95% confidence interval level between the study groups. On the contrary, GATA3 expression was not statistically significant with PR, LN, tumour grade and c-erbB-2 expression in our study. In addition, we observed that there was no mutation in mRNA coding region in 16 breast carcinomas that showed GATA3 differential gene expression. Our preliminary results suggested that GATA3 is linked to the ER. This scenario suggests that GATA3 may play a crucial role in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients. Whether GATA3 expression is involved in regulating tumour cell growth in oestrogen responsive breast cancer is a key question that remains to be answered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/biosynthesis; Receptors, Estrogen/genetics
  17. Teoh KH, Looi LM, Sabaratnam S, Cheah PL, Nazarina AR, Mun KS
    Malays J Pathol, 2011 Jun;33(1):35-42.
    PMID: 21874750 MyJurnal
    Predictive biomarkers such as oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors and c-erbB-2 oncoprotein have become a staple in breast cancer reports in the country as they increasingly play an important role in the treatment and prognosis of women with breast cancers. This study reviews the practice of histopathology reporting of these biomarkers in a Malaysian tertiary hospital setting. Retrospective data on demographic, pathological and biomarker profiles of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma who had undergone mastectomy or lumpectomy with axillary node clearance from 2005 to 2006 were retrieved from the Department of Pathology, Penang Hospital and analysed. The prevalence of ER positivity (55.8%), PR positivity (52.5%), c-erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression (24%) and triple negativity (ER negative, PR negative, c-erbB-2 negative) (15%) by immunohistochemistry were comparable with other studies. Notably, c-erbB-2 overexpression was equivocal (2+) in 15% of cases. Since about a quarter of equivocal (2+) cases usually show amplification by FISH, a small but certain percentage of patients would miss the benefit of anti-c-erbB-2 antibody therapy if FISH is not performed. New ASCO/CAP guidelines on the quantitation of ER and PR will probably increase the prevalence of ER/PR positivity, invariably leading to significant ramifications on the management of patients as more patients would be deemed eligible for endocrine therapy, as well as categorisation of triple negative breast cancers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/biosynthesis; Receptors, Estrogen/genetics
  18. Chinigarzadeh A, Karim K, Muniandy S, Salleh N
    J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol., 2017 Apr;31(4).
    PMID: 27891704 DOI: 10.1002/jbt.21878
    We hypothesized that genistein could affect the chloride (Cl(-) ) and bicarbonate (HCO3(-) ) secretory mechanisms in uterus. Ovariectomized female rats were given estradiol or estradiol plus progesterone with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day genistein. Following completion of the treatment, uterine fluid Cl(-) and HCO3(-) concentrations were determined by in vivo uterine perfusion. Uteri were subjected for molecular biological analysis (Western blot, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry) to detect levels of expression of Cystic Fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), Cl(-) /HCO3(-) exchanger (SLC26a6), Na(+) /HCO3(-) cotransporter (SLC4a4), and estrogen receptor (ER)-α and β. Coadministration of genistein resulted in decrease in Cl(-) and HCO3(-) concentrations and expression of CFTR, SLC26a6, SLC4a4, and ER-α and ER-β in the uteri of estradiol-treated rats. In estradiol plus progesterone-treated rats, a significant increase in the above parameters were observed following high-dose genistein treatment except for the SLC24a4 level. In conclusion, genistein-induced changes in the uterus could affect the reproductive processes that might result in infertility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/drug effects; Receptors, Estrogen/genetics
  19. Chinigarzadeh A, Muniandy S, Salleh N
    Steroids, 2016 11;115:47-55.
    PMID: 27521800 DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2016.08.007
    In this study, effects of estradiol, progesterone and genistein on uterine aquaporin (AQP)-1, 2, 5 and 7 expression were investigated in sex-steroid deficient state which could help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying uterine fluid volume changes that were reported under these hormone and hormone-like compound influences.

    METHODS: Uteri from ovariectomized, female Sprague-Dawley rats receiving seven days estradiol, progesterone or genistein (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day) were harvested and levels of AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 proteins and mRNAs were determined by Western blotting and Real-time PCR (qPCR) respectively. Distribution of these proteins in uterus was observed by immunohistochemistry.

    RESULTS: Genistein caused a dose-dependent increase in uterine AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 protein and mRNA expression, however at the levels lower than following estradiol or progesterone stimulations. Effects of genistein were antagonized by estradiol receptor blocker, ICI 182780. Estradiol caused the highest AQP-2 protein and mRNA expression while progesterone caused the highest AQP-1, 5 and 7 protein and mRNA expression in uterus. AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 protein were found to be distributed in the myometrium as well as in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia and endometrial blood vessels. In conclusion, the observed effects of estradiol, progesterone and genistein on uterine AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 expression could help to explain the differences in the amount of fluid accumulated in the uterus under these different conditions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/antagonists & inhibitors; Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism
  20. Looi LM, Azura WW, Cheah PL, Ng MH
    Pathology, 2001 Aug;33(3):283-6.
    PMID: 11523925
    This investigation was carried out to gain insight into the prevalence of pS2 expression in invasive ductal breast carcinoma in the Malaysian population and its correlation with oestrogen receptor (ER) protein expression and tumour aggressiveness. Seventy consecutive infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas treated with mastectomy and axillary lymph node clearance were investigated, using the standard avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase method with microwave antigen retrieval and commercial monoclonal antibodies (Dako), for expression of pS2 and human ER. This was correlated against histological grade (modified Bloom and Richardson) and the presence of axillary lymph node metastasis of these carcinomas. Four (5.7%) were grade 1, 40 (57.1%) grade 2 and 26 (37.1%) grade 3 tumours. A total of 45 (64%) showed histological evidence of axillary lymph node metastasis. Forty (57%) were ER-positive, while 31 (44%) were pS2-positive. There was a statistically significant correlation between pS2 and ER expressions (chi2-test with Yates correction: P<0.005). There was no correlation between pS2 expression and histological grade (P>0.1) and the presence of lymph node metastasis (P>0.1). Our findings support the views that pS2 may be a co-marker of endocrine responsiveness in invasive breast cancer and that it does not influence breast cancer biology in terms of potential for metastatic spread.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Estrogen/analysis; Receptors, Estrogen/biosynthesis*
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