OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between vegetable and fruit intake and steroid hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk.
DESIGN: A total of 335,054 female participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort were included in this study (mean ± SD age: 50.8 ± 9.8 y). Vegetable and fruit intake was measured by country-specific questionnaires filled out at recruitment between 1992 and 2000 with the use of standardized procedures. Cox proportional hazards models were stratified by age at recruitment and study center and were adjusted for breast cancer risk factors.
RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 11.5 y (IQR: 10.1-12.3 y), 10,197 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed [3479 estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER+PR+); 1021 ER and PR negative (ER-PR-)]. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of vegetable intake was associated with a lower risk of overall breast cancer (HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94). Although the inverse association was most apparent for ER-PR- breast cancer (ER-PR-: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.96; P-trend = 0.03; ER+PR+: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.05; P-trend = 0.14), the test for heterogeneity by hormone receptor status was not significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.09). Fruit intake was not significantly associated with total and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk.
CONCLUSION: This study supports evidence that a high vegetable intake is associated with lower (mainly hormone receptor-negative) breast cancer risk.
RESULTS: iCLIP analysis found SAFB1 binding was enriched, specifically in exons, ncRNAs, 3' and 5' untranslated regions. SAFB1 was found to recognise a purine-rich GAAGA motif with the highest frequency and it is therefore likely to bind core AGA, GAA, or AAG motifs. Confirmatory RT-PCR experiments showed that the expression of coding and non-coding genes with SAFB1 cross-link sites was altered by SAFB1 knockdown. For example, we found that the isoform-specific expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM1) and ASTN2 was influenced by SAFB1 and that the processing of miR-19a from the miR-17-92 cluster was regulated by SAFB1. These data suggest SAFB1 may influence alternative splicing and, using an NCAM1 minigene, we showed that SAFB1 knockdown altered the expression of two of the three NCAM1 alternative spliced isoforms. However, when the AGA, GAA, and AAG motifs were mutated, SAFB1 knockdown no longer mediated a decrease in the NCAM1 9-10 alternative spliced form. To further investigate the association of SAFB1 with splicing we used exon array analysis and found SAFB1 knockdown mediated the statistically significant up- and downregulation of alternative exons. Further analysis using RNAmotifs to investigate the frequency of association between the motif pairs (AGA followed by AGA, GAA or AAG) and alternative spliced exons found there was a highly significant correlation with downregulated exons. Together, our data suggest SAFB1 will play an important physiological role in the central nervous system regulating synaptic function. We found that SAFB1 regulates dendritic spine density in hippocampal neurons and hence provide empirical evidence supporting this conclusion.
CONCLUSIONS: iCLIP showed that SAFB1 has previously uncharacterised specific RNA binding properties that help coordinate the isoform-specific expression of coding and non-coding genes. These genes regulate splicing, axonal and synaptic function, and are associated with neuropsychiatric disease, suggesting that SAFB1 is an important regulator of key neuronal processes.
METHODS: Uteri from ovariectomized, female Sprague-Dawley rats receiving seven days estradiol, progesterone or genistein (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day) were harvested and levels of AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 proteins and mRNAs were determined by Western blotting and Real-time PCR (qPCR) respectively. Distribution of these proteins in uterus was observed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Genistein caused a dose-dependent increase in uterine AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 protein and mRNA expression, however at the levels lower than following estradiol or progesterone stimulations. Effects of genistein were antagonized by estradiol receptor blocker, ICI 182780. Estradiol caused the highest AQP-2 protein and mRNA expression while progesterone caused the highest AQP-1, 5 and 7 protein and mRNA expression in uterus. AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 protein were found to be distributed in the myometrium as well as in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia and endometrial blood vessels. In conclusion, the observed effects of estradiol, progesterone and genistein on uterine AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 expression could help to explain the differences in the amount of fluid accumulated in the uterus under these different conditions.