Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 61 in total

  1. Muir CS
    Br. J. Cancer, 1960;14:1-7.
    DOI: 10.1038/bjc.1960.1
    The main morbid anatomical features of the 176 lung, the 2 tracheal, and the 13 laryngeal cancers seen in the 22,997 post-mortems performed by the University and Government Departments of Pathology, Singapore, from 1948-58 inclusive, are described, and are seen to be as elsewhere. About one-tenth of all cancers admitted to hospital, and of all cancers registered by the Registrar-General (Singapore) from 1954-58 inclusive were in the lung. In 15 per cent of all post-mortems on persons with malignant disease, the primary tumour was of pulmonary origin. The crude death rate for cancer of the lung in Singapore for 1954-58 inclusive was 0-065 per 1000 living per annum. More cases of lung cancer are seen before the age of 40 than in the West. The consumption of tobacco in Singapore is noted to be 3-7 lb. (1.7 kg) per person per annum. A portion of the literature on cancer of the lung in South-East Asia and in China is discussed. I wish to thank Professor R. Kirk for kind help and encouragement, my colleagues of the Government and University Departments of Pathology for access to their post-mortem notes and records, Mr. E. J. Phillips and Mr. S. C. Chua of the Department of Statistics, Singapore, and Mr. Lee of the Customs Department, Singapore, for various data, Mr. Ti Teow See for Fig. 1, and Mr. P. A. Samuel who typed the script. This communication forms part of a thesis for the degree of Ph.D. (Malaya). © 1960, The British Empire Cancer Campaign for Research. All rights reserved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System
  2. Suhaimi NF, Jalaludin J
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:962853.
    PMID: 25984536 DOI: 10.1155/2015/962853
    Some of the environmental toxicants from air pollution include particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and ultrafine particles (UFP). Both short- and long-term exposure could result in various degrees of respiratory health outcomes among exposed persons, which rely on the individuals' health status.

    METHODS: In this paper, we highlight a review of the studies that have used biomarkers to understand the association between air particles exposure and the development of respiratory problems resulting from the damage in the respiratory system. Data from previous epidemiological studies relevant to the application of biomarkers in respiratory system damage reported from exposure to air particles are also summarized.

    RESULTS: Based on these analyses, the findings agree with the hypothesis that biomarkers are relevant in linking harmful air particles concentrations to increased respiratory health effects. Biomarkers are used in epidemiological studies to provide an understanding of the mechanisms that follow airborne particles exposure in the airway. However, application of biomarkers in epidemiological studies of health effects caused by air particles in both environmental and occupational health is inchoate.

    CONCLUSION: Biomarkers unravel the complexity of the connection between exposure to air particles and respiratory health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System Abnormalities/blood*; Respiratory System Abnormalities/chemically induced; Respiratory System Abnormalities/physiopathology
  3. Yahaya B, McLachlan G, Collie DD
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:871932.
    PMID: 23533365 DOI: 10.1155/2013/871932
    The response of S-phase cells labelled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in sheep airways undergoing repair in response to endobronchial brush biopsy was investigated in this study. Separate sites within the airway tree of anaesthetised sheep were biopsied at intervals prior to pulse labelling with BrdU, which was administered one hour prior to euthanasia. Both brushed and spatially disparate unbrushed (control) sites were carefully mapped, dissected, and processed to facilitate histological analysis of BrdU labelling. Our study indicated that the number and location of BrdU-labelled cells varied according to the age of the repairing injury. There was little evidence of cell proliferation in either control airway tissues or airway tissues examined six hours after injury. However, by days 1 and 3, BrdU-labelled cells were increased in number in the airway wall, both at the damaged site and in the regions flanking either side of the injury. Thereafter, cell proliferative activity largely declined by day 7 after injury, when consistent evidence of remodelling in the airway wall could be appreciated. This study successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of in vivo pulse labelling in tracking cell proliferation during repair which has a potential value in exploring the therapeutic utility of stem cell approaches in relevant lung disease models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System/cytology; Respiratory System/injuries*; Respiratory System/metabolism
  4. Adlina, S., Narimah, A.H.H., Mazlin, M.M., Nuraliza, A.S., Hakimi, Z.A., Soe, S.A., et al.
    This study was conducted to determine the patterns of disease and treatment at two disaster sites. Studies prior to this have shown that all natural disasters are unique in that each affected region of the world have different social, economic and health backgrounds. However, similarities exist among the health effects of different disasters which if recognized can ensure that health and emergency medical relief and limited resources are well managed. This study found that although Aceh and Balakot were two totally different areas with reference to locality and climate it was noticed that the patterns of disease two months post disaster are similar the commonest being respiratory conditions followed by musculoskeletal conditions and gastrointestinal conditions. For the treatment patterns it was observed that the two areas prescribed almost similar, types of medicine mainly for gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. However in Aceh, there were more skin treatment and in Balakot there was more usage of musculoskeletal drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System
    Med J Malaya, 1961 Dec;16:125-35.
    PMID: 14469124
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System*
  6. Ngeow, W.C.
    Ann Dent, 1999;6(1):-.
    Ludwig's angina is a rare type of facial infection usually reported in adults. This paper presents a case of Ludwig's angina infection occurring in a 3 year-old Malay boy. The dentists must be able to detect such presentation early. Hospitalization for monitoring of airway is essential.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System
  7. Norlijah, O., Abu, M.N., Mohd Nor, A., Yip, C.W.
    Endobronchial tuberculosis is an uncommon manifestation involving the tracheobronchial tree. The clinical presentation is typically non-specific. We report this unusual complication of pulmonary tuberculosis initially diagnosed as foreign body in a 16-month-old child.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System
  8. Foo, Ming Hui
    In this era, most of us are suffering some level of respiratory problem. Respiratory system of our children is even more sensitive compare to adults. As our children spending an average of 8 hours in school, indoor air quality of the classroom become an important element. Many studies have shown that indoor air quality not only affecting the respiratory system of schoolchildren but their performance in academy as well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System
  9. Baseler L, de Wit E, Scott DP, Munster VJ, Feldmann H
    Vet. Pathol., 2015 Jan;52(1):38-45.
    PMID: 25352203 DOI: 10.1177/0300985814556189
    Nipah virus is a paramyxovirus in the genus Henipavirus, which has caused outbreaks in humans in Malaysia, India, Singapore, and Bangladesh. Whereas the human cases in Malaysia were characterized mainly by neurological symptoms and a case fatality rate of ∼40%, cases in Bangladesh also exhibited respiratory disease and had a case fatality rate of ∼70%. Here, we compared the histopathologic changes in the respiratory tract of Syrian hamsters, a well-established small animal disease model for Nipah virus, inoculated oronasally with Nipah virus isolates from human cases in Malaysia and Bangladesh. The Nipah virus isolate from Bangladesh caused slightly more severe rhinitis and bronchointerstitial pneumonia 2 days after inoculation in Syrian hamsters. By day 4, differences in lesion severity could no longer be detected. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated Nipah virus antigen in the nasal cavity and pulmonary lesions; the amount of Nipah virus antigen present correlated with lesion severity. Immunohistochemistry indicated that both Nipah virus isolates exhibited endotheliotropism in small- and medium-caliber arteries and arterioles, but not in veins, in the lung. This correlated with the location of ephrin B2, the main receptor for Nipah virus, in the vasculature. In conclusion, Nipah virus isolates from outbreaks in Malaysia and Bangladesh caused a similar type and severity of respiratory tract lesions in Syrian hamsters, suggesting that the differences in human disease reported in the outbreaks in Malaysia and Bangladesh are unlikely to have been caused by intrinsic differences in these 2 virus isolates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System/pathology; Respiratory System/virology
  10. Shafarin MS, Zamri-Saad M, Khairani BS, Saharee AA
    J. Comp. Pathol., 2009 Feb-Apr;140(2-3):194-7.
    PMID: 19110260 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2008.10.005
    Clinical and pathological changes are described in groups of five goats pretreated with dexamethasone and then infected with a large dose of Pasteurella multocida B:2 (the cause of haemorrhagic septicaemia) by the intratracheal, subcutaneous or intranasal route (groups A, B and C, respectively). In group A, two goats died (on day 1 and 4 post-inoculation); in group B three died (days 2, 5 and 14); and in group C one died (day 20). The infecting organism was recovered from the four goats that died within < or =5 days. The major pulmonary lesions included acute pneumonia, congestion, oedema and hydrothorax. Subcutaneous oedema of the lower jaw and brisket, typically seen in cattle and buffalo, was absent in goats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System/metabolism; Respiratory System/pathology*
  11. Yahaya B, McLachlan G, McCorquodale C, Collie D
    PLoS One, 2013;8(4):e58930.
    PMID: 23593124 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058930
    BACKGROUND: Understanding the way in which the airway heals in response to injury is fundamental to dissecting the mechanisms underlying airway disease pathology. As only limited data is available in relation to the in vivo characterisation of the molecular features of repair in the airway we sought to characterise the dynamic changes in gene expression that are associated with the early response to physical injury in the airway wall.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We profiled gene expression changes in the airway wall using a large animal model of physical injury comprising bronchial brush biopsy in anaesthetised sheep. The experimental design featured sequential studies in the same animals over the course of a week and yielded data relating to the response at 6 hours, and 1, 3 and 7 days after injury. Notable features of the transcriptional response included the early and sustained preponderance of down-regulated genes associated with angiogenesis and immune cell activation, selection and differentiation. Later features of the response included the up-regulation of cell cycle genes at d1 and d3, and the latter pronounced up-regulation of extracellular matrix-related genes at d3 and d7.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is possible to follow the airway wall response to physical injury in the same animal over the course of time. Transcriptional changes featured coordinate expression of functionally related genes in a reproducible manner both within and between animals. This characterisation will provide a foundation against which to assess the perturbations that accompany airway disease pathologies of comparative relevance.

    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System/injuries*; Respiratory System/metabolism*
  12. Al-Haddawi MH, Jasni S, Zamri-Saad M, Mutalib AR, Sheikh-Omar AR
    Res. Vet. Sci., 1999 Oct;67(2):163-70.
    PMID: 10502487
    Twenty-four 8 to 9 week-old Pasteurella multocida -free rabbits were divided into three equal groups, the first group was pretreated with hydrocortisone and inoculated intranasally with pasteurella multocida serotype A:3. The second group was inoculated intranasally with P. multocida without hydrocortisone treatment. The third group was inoculated with phosphate buffered saline only and used as a control group. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from the nasal cavity of all infected rabbits in group 1 and 2 and from the trachea of seven rabbits in group 1 and five rabbits in group 2. This study was conducted to observe the ultrastructural changes of the upper respiratory tract of hydrocortisone treated and non-treated rabbits infected with P. multocida serotype A:3. The ultrastructural changes detected in infected rabbits were ciliary destruction and deciliation of the ciliated epithelial cells, cellular swelling, goblet cell hyperplasia and endothelial cell damage. Pasteurella multocida was observed attached to the degenerated cilia, microvilli and mucus. Pasteurella multocida infection was associated with inflammatory responses, which may have caused tissue damage. It is possible that hydrocortisone modulates the severity of infection as an immune suppressor and an inhibitor of goblet cell secretion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System/pathology; Respiratory System/ultrastructure*
  13. Irfan Mohamad, Yusri Musa, M.
    Tracheocutaneous fistula (TCF) is a known complication of tracheostomy. It can cause problems such as saliva leak, predispose to infection from external skin into respiratory tract and cosmetically not acceptable. Treatment of the underlying infection is paramount important. Persistence of tract after sufficient duration of observation period should be surgically treated. Cases reported in the literature are mainly regarding paediatric TCF and the procedures are usually done under general anesthesia. We describe a case of surgical treatment of an adult TCF which was done under local anaesthesia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System
  14. Fahisham Taib
    Asthma is considered as heterogeneous multidimensional disorder due to variable phenotypic presentation. Phenotype is defined as a cluster of either clinical or pathologic features, which tends to be associated with the understanding the mechanisms of the disease. Asthma is typically characterized by airway inflammation, variable airway obstruction, bronchial hyper-reactivity, smooth muscle hypertrophy and apparent reversible airflow obstruction by bronchodilators. ‘Asthma syndrome’ is a term to describe complex pathophysiology of the condition which is not exclusive to allergen triggered episodes. Diagnosing childhood asthma is difficult, due to the similarity of symptoms and overlapping with other wheezing conditions. The precise mechanism for asthma exacerbation, for each individual phenotype is not fully understood. However, it is influenced by genetic interaction with variety of external environmental stimuli. The current understanding on asthma phenotypes were interpreted based on age of onset, associated triggers, clinical aspects, physiologic parameters and type of inflammation (Table 1). Due to the illdefined of the current phenotypic definition and disagreement among the respirologists, it is becoming a challenge to label specific phenotype with certainty. Accurate definition of each phenotype should therefore be helpful to provide better understanding of different mechanistic pathways and focusing on targeted therapy for individual phenotype. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System
  15. Hadi, M.A., Azrina, M.R., Zamzila, A., Ariff, O.
    We report a case of sudden hypoxaemia after intubation in a patient who had smoked a few hours prior to a surgical procedure. The cause of his desaturation was not related to bronchial secretions, bronchospasm or obstruction of the upper airways but most likely due to reduced oxygen saturation in the body prior to surgery. We managed to secure the airway and prevent prolonged desaturation by instituting remedial measures. Our conclusion is that cessation of smoking is very important and need to be emphasized in all patients having surgery under general anaesthesia. This applies to emergency cases as well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System
  16. Muhammad Harith, R., Mohamad Shariff, A.H.
    JUMMEC, 2019;22(2):13-23.
    Background: Despite regularly participating in international and national level multisport events, there is still
    limited data on the pattern of injuries and illnesses and factors associated with injuries and illnesses in Malaysia.
    Such information is crucial to instil preventive measures because sustaining injuries during competition could
    hamper the athlete’s performance.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated the incidence, patterns and risk factors of injuries and illnesses
    among athletes throughout SUKIPT 2018, from the 2nd to the 10th of February 2018. All injuries and illnesses
    treated by tournament medical personnel were reported using a standardised online injury reporting form.
    This form was adapted from the injury surveillance form used by the International Olympic Committee.

    Results: A total of 6071 athletes from 80 contingents took part in SUKIPT 2018. During the nine days of
    competition 323 injuries and 48 illnesses were reported, resulting in an incidence of 5.3 injuries and 0.8 illness
    per 100 athletes. Approximately 6% of the athletes sustained at least one injury or illness.

    Conclusion: In summary, the incidence of injuries and illnesses among athletes during SUKIPT was 5.3 and
    0.8 per 100 athletes, respectively. Muscle strain/rupture/tear was the most common pattern of injury while
    collision with another athlete was the most frequent mechanism of injury. Meanwhile, the respiratory system
    was the most commonly affected by illness and infection was the most prevalent cause of illness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System
  17. Naemah Tajol Arus, Suhaily Amran, Norhafsam Maghpor, Ahmad Sayuti Zainal Abidin, Nurzuhairah Jamil, Rochi Bakel, et al.
    In the recent years, an extensive number of scientific researches on occupational diseases have been done to
    identify occupations at high risk of inducing diseases. There are many categories of occupational diseases, and unitary
    of them are occupational respiratory diseases. This study was conducted in a tea factory located in Cameron Highlands,
    Malaysia, with an output of 600,000.00 kg per annum. Its objective was to evaluate respiratory diseases among the
    workers, conducted via questionnaires, interviews and lung functional tests. A total of 38 workers participated in this
    study, 19 in the exposed group and 19 in the control group. The most common chronic symptoms for the exposed
    group are wheezing, dyspnea (short of breath) and phlegm. The result shows that, among the tea processing workers,
    the exposed group suffer from respiratory diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System
  18. Elarabi AI, Leong MC, Alwi M
    Annals of pediatric cardiology, 2017 6 2;10(2):203-205.
    PMID: 28566832 DOI: 10.4103/0974-2069.205157
    We report an 8-year-old male child with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), who developed left pulmonary artery (LPA) atresia, following surgical repair of TOF and left pulmonary arterioplasty at the age of 6 years. He underwent successful radiofrequency recanalization and stenting of the LPA. The LPA exhibited satisfactory growth for 3 months, following recanalization and stenting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System Abnormalities
  19. Nor Hisyam CI, Misron K, Mohamad I
    PMID: 29423126 MyJurnal
    A foreign body (FB) in the upper aerodigestive tract is a common clinical problem that presents as as acute emergency. Sharp FB, such as fish bone or chicken bone, commonly lodges in the tonsil, base of tongue, vallecula or pyriform fossa. Dislodgement of a FB into the laryngopharynx is very rare and specifically onto the vocal cord is extremely uncommon. This case report illustrates a rare case of a sharp FB that was dislodged into the airway and stuck on to the right vocal cord, which was removed under local anaesthesia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory System
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