Increased consumerism ilfid diversity of economic activities have led to an increase in pressure from the increase and diversification in waste. Environmental stewardship has become essential to reduce the toxicological risk by an active involvement in waste disposal like planning of landfills for ensuring impedance at source. The risks from waste disposal practices in Malaysia are examined along with the essential considerations (or secure sites to prevent environmental hazards 10 health. KEYWORDS: Waste disposal, environmental stewardship, adequacy of disposal sites, collective analysis of considerations.
The management of the clinician who generates complaints and claims on a regular basis, raises issues of professional responsibility and presents ethical challenges for the defence team, in addition to the immediate practical need for advice and representation. This short session examines some of these issues and suggests some ways that are already being used to address them.
A road safety audit is a formal examination of an existing or future road or traffic project, or any project that interacts with road users, in which independent, qualified examiners look at the projects crash potential and safety performance. The objectives of road safety audit are to identify potential safety risks for road users and to ensure that measures to eliminate or reduce the risks are fully considered. Road safety audit works in two ways to ensure that safety is improved, namely by removing preventable crash producing elements at the design stage and by mitigating the effects of any remaining risks by the inclusion of suitable crash-reducing elements. The present paper focuses on providing a preliminary or basic understanding of the Road safety Audit. Later the discussion is preceded further to the important elements and the various stages in the Road Safety Audit. Finally, the conclusion focuses briefly on the implementation of the Road Safety Audit, which can only be successful if the members of the Audit Team possess sufficient specialized professional knowledge and other virtues.
In competing risks analysis, the primary interest of researchers is the estimation of the net survival probability (NSP) if a cause of failure could be eliminated from a population. The Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimator under the assumption that the eliminated risk is non-informative to the other remaining risks, has been widely used in the estimation of the NSP. The assumption implies that the hazard of the remaining risks before and after the elimination are equal and it could be biased. This paper addressed this possible bias by proposing a non-parametric multistate approach that accounts for an informative eliminated risk in the estimation procedure, whereby the hazard probabilities of the remaining risks before and after the elimination of a risk are not assumed to be equal. When a non-informative eliminated risk was assumed, it was shown that the proposed multistate estimator reduces to the Kaplan-Meier estimator. For illustration purposes, the proposed procedure was implemented on a published dataset and the change in hazard after elimination of a cause is investigated. Comparing the results to those obtained from using the Kaplan-Meier method, it was found that in the presence of (both constant and non-constant) informative eliminated risk, the proposed multistate approach was more sensitive and flexible.
The domain of risk analysis is expanded to consider strategic interactions among multiple participants in the management of extreme risk in a system of systems. These risks are fraught with complexity, ambiguity, and uncertainty, which pose challenges in how participants perceive, understand, and manage risk of extreme events. In the case of extreme events affecting a system of systems, cause-and-effect relationships among initiating events and losses may be difficult to ascertain due to interactions of multiple systems and participants (complexity). Moreover, selection of threats, hazards, and consequences on which to focus may be unclear or contentious to participants within multiple interacting systems (ambiguity). Finally, all types of risk, by definition, involve potential losses due to uncertain events (uncertainty). Therefore, risk analysis of extreme events affecting a system of systems should address complex, ambiguous, and uncertain aspects of extreme risk. To accomplish this, a system of systems engineering methodology for risk analysis is proposed as a general approach to address extreme risk in a system of systems. Our contribution is an integrative and adaptive systems methodology to analyze risk such that strategic interactions among multiple participants are considered. A practical application of the system of systems engineering methodology is demonstrated in part by a case study of a maritime infrastructure system of systems interface, namely, the Straits of Malacca and Singapore.
Medical negligence suits have become an issue of concern for doctors as well as for the health service departments. The main objectives of medical malpractice law are to compensate patients who are injured by negligence and to improve the quality of medical care. The amount of money and time spent on these cases may not be an effective allocation of social resources to minimize patient safety. Though physicians generally win more malpractice suits, much time and money are spent and results in much stress to those concerned. There are certain controllable events in practice that render a physician more or less vulnerable to malpractice claims. Attempts by physicians to understand and prevent unwanted situations that can lead to litigation is important. The risk factors for medical negligence suits are discussed. The practice of good medicine will be the best form of risk management.
Introduction : Health management is a tool to ensure an effective running of health program and at the same time avoiding flaws to its components including patients, workers and the entire organization. Risk management is a new concept in health management where the determinants of the problems or the risks are put to minima. It’s strategies are oriented towards prevention as well as controlling to all its administrative system.
Methodology : This is a systematic review on various papers, studies and observations put forwards by risk management experts. It is also supported by feedbacks from many scholars who are involved in research and teaching.
Results : It is been observed that risk management activities have been on practiced in health care delivery system. It is not a new form, but rather a situational action based on certain issues. In fact, it happens in any organization – public or private. Close observation on this area has triggered development of various risk management models including some administrative standard and guidelines.
Conclusion: Risk management is a new approach that need to be practiced by all manager and leader. Its discipline involves interpretation of risk at all angles. It is not only confined to the explicit component, but should also be expended to others area as well. It needs a good sense and good attitude of the manager. The essence of risk management is to minimize the risk to patient, staff, public and the entire organization.
In this paper, the influence of effective communication in construction risk
management among Kuantan Malaysian construction industries was assessed. Then a
survey was conducted on pilot test among 10 local construction industries in Kuantan
Malaysian, using stratified random sampling, out of which 10 questionnaires were
collected for data analysis. Methodologically, this research is perhaps the first to
study the influence of effective communication on construction risk management
among Kuantan Malaysian construction industries. Using the five point Likert scale
categories of risk management from previous studies. Pearson Correlation anaylysis
output results affirmed that there is a strong positive relationship between effective
communication and construction risk management among Kuantan construction
This paper assessed the relationship between team competency and design risk
management among Kuantan construction industries. Similarly, a survey was
conducted among 10 local and national construction industries in Kuantan with a
stratified random sampling. The returned questionnaires yielded 10 responses which
was used for data analysis. Five point Likert scale categories of risk management from
the previous studies was used and statistical analysis affirmed that there is positive
relationship between team competency and design risk management among Kuantan
Shelter centres are important locations to safeguard people from helpless situations and are an integral part of disaster risk reduction (DRR), particularly for flood DRR. The establishment of shelter centres, and their design based on scientific assessment, is crucial. Yet, they are very much related to the geographic location, socio-economic conditions and the livelihoods of the affected communities. However, many parts of the developing world are still lagging behind in ensuring such scientific design. Considering the flood disaster in 2014 that affected the residents living along the Pahang River Basin, in this study we delineate the communities at risk and evaluate the existing shelter centres to determine how they reduce people's vulnerability to the risks associated with rural and urban landscapes. We used spatial analysis tools to delineate risk zones and to evaluate existing evacuation systems. A flood disaster risk map was produced to determine which communities are living with risks. Subsequently, the distribution of shelter centres examined whether they are able to support people living at the flood risk zones. These centres were also evaluated using a set of international guidelines for effective disaster shelters. This reveals that the number of shelter centres is not adequate. The designation and designing of shelter centres are not being done scientifically. The maps produced here have a lot of potential to support disaster management decisions, in particular site selection and the prioritisation of centres. The study concludes with a set of guidelines and recommendations for structural and non-structural measures, such as alternative livelihoods and the potential of ecotourism, which may improve the resilience among flood-affected communities; and the decision-making process for the overall flood DRR initiatives.
Ergonomics can be viewed as an approach to reduce injury and illness rates to improve the overall working
conditions for employees by addressing risk factor exposure that may occur during manual tasks. The objective
of this research was to analyze ergonomics risk factors by associating the perception of employer and employees
towards their workplace condition in quarry and mining industry. A Questionnaire on Ergonomics Risk Assessment
was used to determine the comparison level awareness and perception analysis among quarry and mining industry in
Malaysia. The findings of this research prove that the exposure of ergonomics risk factors towards the workers is in
a moderate level with a mean of 3.59 for the overall respondent review about the ergonomics risk among workers at
their workplace. Besides, the most concern in ergonomics is about the awkward posture at work. Some 8.8% of them
agreed and 6.6% of them totally agreed that they were in awkward posture while doing their work. As a conclusion,
assessment of ergonomics in quarry and mining industry will be a platform to provide a safe and healthy working
BACKGROUND: The Delphi method has been widely applied in many study areas to systematically gather experts' input on particular topic. Recently, it has become increasingly well known in health related research. This paper applied the Fuzzy Delphi method to enhance the validation of a questionnaire pertaining chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk factors among metal industry workers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A detailed, predefined list of possible risk factors for COPD among metal industry workers was created through a comprehensive and exhaustive review of literature from 1995 to 2015. The COPD questionnaire were distributed among people identified as occupational, environmental, and hygiene experts. Linguistic variable using Likert scale was used by the expert to indicate their expert judgment of each item. Subsequently, the linguistic variable was converted into a triangular fuzzy number. The average score of the fuzzy number will be used to determine whether the item will be removed or retained.
RESULTS: Ten experts were involved in evaluating 26 items. The experts were in agreement with most of the items, with an average fuzzy number range between 0.429 and 0.800. Two items were removed and three items were added, leaving a total 26 items selected for the COPD risk factors questionnaire. The experts were in disagreement with each other for items F10 and F11 where most of the experts claimed that the question is too subjective and based on self-perception only.
CONCLUSION: The fuzzy Delphi method enhanced the accuracy of the questionnaire pertaining to COPD risk factors, and decreased the length of the established tools.
This study was the first assessment of a nationwide risk approach system to antenatal management introduced to Malaysia in 1989. Three rapid, record-based surveys on three different study groups were conducted to determine risk factor prevalence, accuracy of risk assignment, action after risk assignment and the relationship of risk level and place of delivery. The most frequent risk factors were short birth interval, high parity and first pregnancy. Accuracy of risk assignment was highest at the lowest levels of risk and poorest at the highest levels. Women at the lowest levels of risk were more likely to be seen by a doctor than women at highest risk. These was a trend to deliver in hospital, rather than at home, as level of risk increased; but many women at high risk still delivered at home. Recommendations are made on modifications to the system prior to future evaluation.
There are many research papers on implementing the salam structure in the financial system. This
study introduces a mathematical model of salam contract with credit risk that can be used as an Islamic financial derivative. It explores the properties of salam contract and the credit model that represents it, that is, the structural model with the default event on maturity of the salam contract.
Nanomaterials (NMs) have gained prominence in technological advancements due to their tunable physical, chemical and biological properties with enhanced performance over their bulk counterparts. NMs are categorized depending on their size, composition, shape, and origin. The ability to predict the unique properties of NMs increases the value of each classification. Due to increased growth of production of NMs and their industrial applications, issues relating to toxicity are inevitable. The aim of this review is to compare synthetic (engineered) and naturally occurring nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructured materials (NSMs) to identify their nanoscale properties and to define the specific knowledge gaps related to the risk assessment of NPs and NSMs in the environment. The review presents an overview of the history and classifications of NMs and gives an overview of the various sources of NPs and NSMs, from natural to synthetic, and their toxic effects towards mammalian cells and tissue. Additionally, the types of toxic reactions associated with NPs and NSMs and the regulations implemented by different countries to reduce the associated risks are also discussed.
The aim of this paper is to identify, review and carry out comparison to seven guidelines where the main focus is on its risk
assessment elements related to confined space activities. This is due to lack of the specific approach of the Legislation for confined
space such as entry procedure requirements, risk assessment method, existing practice of risk assessment is too general and additional
references are required for conducting risk assessment which would lead to poor response from industries. The selected guidelines will
be summarized on its requirements, followed by a review of each guideline and finally the comparison of Legislations will be carried
out. The results from the study would be used as a contribution factor to promote an ideal method in developing an effective risk
assessment tools for working safely in confined space. Furthermore, several literatures which have been referred could give additional
input for developing the risk assessment tools.
Ecological effects of alien species can be dramatic, but management and prevention of negative impacts are often hindered by crypticity of the species or their ecological functions. Ecological functions can change dramatically over time, or manifest after long periods of an innocuous presence. Such cryptic processes may lead to an underestimation of long-term impacts and constrain management effectiveness. Here, we present a conceptual framework of crypticity in biological invasions. We identify the underlying mechanisms, provide evidence of their importance, and illustrate this phenomenon with case studies. This framework has potential to improve the recognition of the full risks and impacts of invasive species.
This study investigates the value-at-risk (VaR) using nonlinear time-varying volatility (ARCH model) and extreme-value-theory (EVT) methodologies. Similar VaR estimation and prediction are observes under the EVT and heavy-tailed long-memory ARCH approaches. The empirical results evidence the EVT-based VaR are more accurate but only at higher quantiles. It is also found that EVT approach is able to provide a convenient framework for asymmetric properties in both the lower and upper tails which implies that the risk and reward are not equally likely for the short- and long-trading positions in Malaysian stock market.
A common practice in psychiatry when treating patients is the concurrent administration of anticholinergics along with antipsychotics, either to prevent or treat extrapyramidal syndrome reactions from occurring. However, most antipsychotics have inherent anticholinergic properties themselves. Therefore, this subtype of these patients have a higher than usual risk of developing anticholinergic side-effects, of which the central nervous manifestations can mimic psychosis, and may cloud judgement on patients' progress towards their treatment. KEYWORDS: Anticholinergics, anticholinergig toxicity, antipsychotics