Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 2797 in total

  1. Lewis K
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Mar;58 Suppl A:134-40.
    PMID: 14556361
    The management of the clinician who generates complaints and claims on a regular basis, raises issues of professional responsibility and presents ethical challenges for the defence team, in addition to the immediate practical need for advice and representation. This short session examines some of these issues and suggests some ways that are already being used to address them.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Management*
  2. Veera Pandiyan Kaliani Sundram, V.G.R. Chandran Govindaraju, Nagatheesan V. Marimuthu
    A road safety audit is a formal examination of an existing or future road or traffic project, or any project that interacts with road users, in which independent, qualified examiners look at the projects crash potential and safety performance. The objectives of road safety audit are to identify potential safety risks for road users and to ensure that measures to eliminate or reduce the risks are fully considered. Road safety audit works in two ways to ensure that safety is improved, namely by removing preventable crash producing elements at the design stage and by mitigating the effects of any remaining risks by the inclusion of suitable crash-reducing elements. The present paper focuses on providing a preliminary or basic understanding of the Road safety Audit. Later the discussion is preceded further to the important elements and the various stages in the Road Safety Audit. Finally, the conclusion focuses briefly on the implementation of the Road Safety Audit, which can only be successful if the members of the Audit Team possess sufficient specialized professional knowledge and other virtues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk
  3. Bristow M, Fang L, Hipel KW
    Risk Anal., 2012 Nov;32(11):1935-55.
    PMID: 22804565 DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2012.01867.x
    The domain of risk analysis is expanded to consider strategic interactions among multiple participants in the management of extreme risk in a system of systems. These risks are fraught with complexity, ambiguity, and uncertainty, which pose challenges in how participants perceive, understand, and manage risk of extreme events. In the case of extreme events affecting a system of systems, cause-and-effect relationships among initiating events and losses may be difficult to ascertain due to interactions of multiple systems and participants (complexity). Moreover, selection of threats, hazards, and consequences on which to focus may be unclear or contentious to participants within multiple interacting systems (ambiguity). Finally, all types of risk, by definition, involve potential losses due to uncertain events (uncertainty). Therefore, risk analysis of extreme events affecting a system of systems should address complex, ambiguous, and uncertain aspects of extreme risk. To accomplish this, a system of systems engineering methodology for risk analysis is proposed as a general approach to address extreme risk in a system of systems. Our contribution is an integrative and adaptive systems methodology to analyze risk such that strategic interactions among multiple participants are considered. A practical application of the system of systems engineering methodology is demonstrated in part by a case study of a maritime infrastructure system of systems interface, namely, the Straits of Malacca and Singapore.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Management/organization & administration*
  4. Elango S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Oct;58(4):625-31.
    PMID: 15190644
    Medical negligence suits have become an issue of concern for doctors as well as for the health service departments. The main objectives of medical malpractice law are to compensate patients who are injured by negligence and to improve the quality of medical care. The amount of money and time spent on these cases may not be an effective allocation of social resources to minimize patient safety. Though physicians generally win more malpractice suits, much time and money are spent and results in much stress to those concerned. There are certain controllable events in practice that render a physician more or less vulnerable to malpractice claims. Attempts by physicians to understand and prevent unwanted situations that can lead to litigation is important. The risk factors for medical negligence suits are discussed. The practice of good medicine will be the best form of risk management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Management*
  5. Ahmad Farid, A.R., Haidar Rizal, T., Jamsiah, M., Khalib, A.L.
    Introduction : Health management is a tool to ensure an effective running of health program and at the same time avoiding flaws to its components including patients, workers and the entire organization. Risk management is a new concept in health management where the determinants of the problems or the risks are put to minima. It’s strategies are oriented towards prevention as well as controlling to all its administrative system.
    Methodology : This is a systematic review on various papers, studies and observations put forwards by risk management experts. It is also supported by feedbacks from many scholars who are involved in research and teaching.
    Results : It is been observed that risk management activities have been on practiced in health care delivery system. It is not a new form, but rather a situational action based on certain issues. In fact, it happens in any organization – public or private. Close observation on this area has triggered development of various risk management models including some administrative standard and guidelines.
    Conclusion: Risk management is a new approach that need to be practiced by all manager and leader. Its discipline involves interpretation of risk at all angles. It is not only confined to the explicit component, but should also be expended to others area as well. It needs a good sense and good attitude of the manager. The essence of risk management is to minimize the risk to patient, staff, public and the entire organization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk; Risk Management
  6. Norhidayah Mat Sout, Muhamad Arifpin Mansor, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail
    Ergonomics can be viewed as an approach to reduce injury and illness rates to improve the overall working
    conditions for employees by addressing risk factor exposure that may occur during manual tasks. The objective
    of this research was to analyze ergonomics risk factors by associating the perception of employer and employees
    towards their workplace condition in quarry and mining industry. A Questionnaire on Ergonomics Risk Assessment
    was used to determine the comparison level awareness and perception analysis among quarry and mining industry in
    Malaysia. The findings of this research prove that the exposure of ergonomics risk factors towards the workers is in
    a moderate level with a mean of 3.59 for the overall respondent review about the ergonomics risk among workers at
    their workplace. Besides, the most concern in ergonomics is about the awkward posture at work. Some 8.8% of them
    agreed and 6.6% of them totally agreed that they were in awkward posture while doing their work. As a conclusion,
    assessment of ergonomics in quarry and mining industry will be a platform to provide a safe and healthy working
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors; Risk Assessment
  7. Isahak A, Reza MIH, Siwar C, Ismail SM, Sulaiman N, Hanafi Z, et al.
    Jamba, 2018;10(1):501.
    PMID: 29955268 DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v10i1.501
    Shelter centres are important locations to safeguard people from helpless situations and are an integral part of disaster risk reduction (DRR), particularly for flood DRR. The establishment of shelter centres, and their design based on scientific assessment, is crucial. Yet, they are very much related to the geographic location, socio-economic conditions and the livelihoods of the affected communities. However, many parts of the developing world are still lagging behind in ensuring such scientific design. Considering the flood disaster in 2014 that affected the residents living along the Pahang River Basin, in this study we delineate the communities at risk and evaluate the existing shelter centres to determine how they reduce people's vulnerability to the risks associated with rural and urban landscapes. We used spatial analysis tools to delineate risk zones and to evaluate existing evacuation systems. A flood disaster risk map was produced to determine which communities are living with risks. Subsequently, the distribution of shelter centres examined whether they are able to support people living at the flood risk zones. These centres were also evaluated using a set of international guidelines for effective disaster shelters. This reveals that the number of shelter centres is not adequate. The designation and designing of shelter centres are not being done scientifically. The maps produced here have a lot of potential to support disaster management decisions, in particular site selection and the prioritisation of centres. The study concludes with a set of guidelines and recommendations for structural and non-structural measures, such as alternative livelihoods and the potential of ecotourism, which may improve the resilience among flood-affected communities; and the decision-making process for the overall flood DRR initiatives.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk; Risk Reduction Behavior
  8. Nur Dini Jamil, Adekunle Qudus Adeleke
    This paper assessed the relationship between team competency and design risk
    management among Kuantan construction industries. Similarly, a survey was
    conducted among 10 local and national construction industries in Kuantan with a
    stratified random sampling. The returned questionnaires yielded 10 responses which
    was used for data analysis. Five point Likert scale categories of risk management from
    the previous studies was used and statistical analysis affirmed that there is positive
    relationship between team competency and design risk management among Kuantan
    construction industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk; Risk Management
  9. Nur Fazlina Abdul Rahman, Adekunle Qudus Adeleke
    In this paper, the influence of effective communication in construction risk
    management among Kuantan Malaysian construction industries was assessed. Then a
    survey was conducted on pilot test among 10 local construction industries in Kuantan
    Malaysian, using stratified random sampling, out of which 10 questionnaires were
    collected for data analysis. Methodologically, this research is perhaps the first to
    study the influence of effective communication on construction risk management
    among Kuantan Malaysian construction industries. Using the five point Likert scale
    categories of risk management from previous studies. Pearson Correlation anaylysis
    output results affirmed that there is a strong positive relationship between effective
    communication and construction risk management among Kuantan construction
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk; Risk Management
  10. Premila Devi J, Azriani AR, Zahiruddin WM, Mohd Ariff MN, Noor Hashimah A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Oct;19(4):17-22.
    PMID: 23613645
    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of MMT program among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking
  11. Somboonsook B, Wakerman J, Hattch CT, Collison M, Barnes A, Kyi W, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1995 Sep;50(3):212-20.
    PMID: 8926897
    This study was the first assessment of a nationwide risk approach system to antenatal management introduced to Malaysia in 1989. Three rapid, record-based surveys on three different study groups were conducted to determine risk factor prevalence, accuracy of risk assignment, action after risk assignment and the relationship of risk level and place of delivery. The most frequent risk factors were short birth interval, high parity and first pregnancy. Accuracy of risk assignment was highest at the lowest levels of risk and poorest at the highest levels. Women at the lowest levels of risk were more likely to be seen by a doctor than women at highest risk. These was a trend to deliver in hospital, rather than at home, as level of risk increased; but many women at high risk still delivered at home. Recommendations are made on modifications to the system prior to future evaluation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors; Risk Management; Pregnancy, High-Risk*
  12. Hisham, A.F.B., Jaffar, M.M., Othman, J.
    There are many research papers on implementing the salam structure in the financial system. This
    study introduces a mathematical model of salam contract with credit risk that can be used as an Islamic financial derivative. It explores the properties of salam contract and the credit model that represents it, that is, the structural model with the default event on maturity of the salam contract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk
  13. Jeevanandam J, Barhoum A, Chan YS, Dufresne A, Danquah MK
    Beilstein J Nanotechnol, 2018;9:1050-1074.
    PMID: 29719757 DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.9.98
    Nanomaterials (NMs) have gained prominence in technological advancements due to their tunable physical, chemical and biological properties with enhanced performance over their bulk counterparts. NMs are categorized depending on their size, composition, shape, and origin. The ability to predict the unique properties of NMs increases the value of each classification. Due to increased growth of production of NMs and their industrial applications, issues relating to toxicity are inevitable. The aim of this review is to compare synthetic (engineered) and naturally occurring nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructured materials (NSMs) to identify their nanoscale properties and to define the specific knowledge gaps related to the risk assessment of NPs and NSMs in the environment. The review presents an overview of the history and classifications of NMs and gives an overview of the various sources of NPs and NSMs, from natural to synthetic, and their toxic effects towards mammalian cells and tissue. Additionally, the types of toxic reactions associated with NPs and NSMs and the regulations implemented by different countries to reduce the associated risks are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  14. Roslina Mohammad, Zamree Amin, Norazli Othman
    The aim of this paper is to identify, review and carry out comparison to seven guidelines where the main focus is on its risk
    assessment elements related to confined space activities. This is due to lack of the specific approach of the Legislation for confined
    space such as entry procedure requirements, risk assessment method, existing practice of risk assessment is too general and additional
    references are required for conducting risk assessment which would lead to poor response from industries. The selected guidelines will
    be summarized on its requirements, followed by a review of each guideline and finally the comparison of Legislations will be carried
    out. The results from the study would be used as a contribution factor to promote an ideal method in developing an effective risk
    assessment tools for working safely in confined space. Furthermore, several literatures which have been referred could give additional
    input for developing the risk assessment tools.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  15. Jarić I, Heger T, Castro Monzon F, Jeschke JM, Kowarik I, McConkey KR, et al.
    PMID: 30661709 DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.12.008
    Ecological effects of alien species can be dramatic, but management and prevention of negative impacts are often hindered by crypticity of the species or their ecological functions. Ecological functions can change dramatically over time, or manifest after long periods of an innocuous presence. Such cryptic processes may lead to an underestimation of long-term impacts and constrain management effectiveness. Here, we present a conceptual framework of crypticity in biological invasions. We identify the underlying mechanisms, provide evidence of their importance, and illustrate this phenomenon with case studies. This framework has potential to improve the recognition of the full risks and impacts of invasive species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk
  16. Chia YC
    Singapore Med J, 2011 Feb;52(2):116-23.
    PMID: 21373738
    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries. While it is relatively easy to identify those who are obviously at high risk and those at the lowest risk for CVD, it is often the large group of individuals with what appears to be modestly abnormal risk factors who contributes most to the burden of CVD. This is where estimation of CVD risk is necessary. Many tools for risk assessment have been devised. All these risk scores have their own inherent advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, they may also not be directly applicable to a local population. Ideally, each country should have its own risk score that takes into account other factors as well. In the interim, it is worthwhile to be familiar with one of these scores, select one that is most appropriate for your patient and discuss treatment options based on the estimated risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors; Risk Assessment/methods*
  17. Joseph P, Yusuf S, Lee SF, Ibrahim Q, Teo K, Rangarajan S, et al.
    Heart, 2018 04;104(7):581-587.
    PMID: 29066611 DOI: 10.1136/heartjnl-2017-311609
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the non-laboratory INTERHEART risk score (NL-IHRS) to predict incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) across seven major geographic regions of the world. The secondary objective was to evaluate the performance of the fasting cholesterol-based IHRS (FC-IHRS).

    METHODS: Using measures of discrimination and calibration, we tested the performance of the NL-IHRS (n=100 475) and FC-IHRS (n=107 863) for predicting incident CVD in a community-based, prospective study across seven geographic regions: South Asia, China, Southeast Asia, Middle East, Europe/North America, South America and Africa. CVD was defined as the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure or coronary revascularisation.

    RESULTS: Mean age of the study population was 50.53 (SD 9.79) years and mean follow-up was 4.89 (SD 2.24) years. The NL-IHRS had moderate to good discrimination for incident CVD across geographic regions (concordance statistic (C-statistic) ranging from 0.64 to 0.74), although recalibration was necessary in all regions, which improved its performance in the overall cohort (increase in C-statistic from 0.69 to 0.72, p<0.001). Regional recalibration was also necessary for the FC-IHRS, which also improved its overall discrimination (increase in C-statistic from 0.71 to 0.74, p<0.001). In 85 078 participants with complete data for both scores, discrimination was only modestly better with the FC-IHRS compared with the NL-IHRS (0.74 vs 0.73, p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: External validations of the NL-IHRS and FC-IHRS suggest that regionally recalibrated versions of both can be useful for estimating CVD risk across a diverse range of community-based populations. CVD prediction using a non-laboratory score can provide similar accuracy to laboratory-based methods.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors; Risk Assessment/methods*
  18. Sany SB, Hashim R, Rezayi M, Rahman MA, Razavizadeh BB, Abouzari-lotf E, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015 Aug;22(15):11193-208.
    PMID: 25953606 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-4511-x
    Current ecological risk assessment (ERA) schemes focus mainly on bioaccumulation and toxicity of pollutants in individual organisms. Ecological models are tools mainly used to assess ecological risks of pollutants to ecosystems, communities, and populations. Their main advantage is the relatively direct integration of the species sensitivity to organic pollutants, the fate and mechanism of action in the environment of toxicants, and life-history features of the individual organism of concern. To promote scientific consensus on ERA schemes, this review is intended to provide a guideline on short-term ERA involving dioxin chemicals and to identify key findings for exposure assessment based on policies of different agencies. It also presents possible adverse effects of dioxins on ecosystems, toxicity equivalence methodology, environmental fate and transport modeling, and development of stressor-response profiles for dioxin-like chemicals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment/methods*
  19. Karupaiah T, Tan HK, Ong WW, Tan CH, Sundram K
    PMID: 24872121 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2014.929183
    The extent of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply is unknown in Malaysia, whilst TFA disclosure on food labels is not mandatory by Malaysian food standards. Supermarket foods such as dairy products, fats and oils, meat products, snack foods, soups, and confectionery are commonly cited to be major contributors of TFA in the diet. A consumer survey (n = 622) was used to develop a food listing of these 'high risk' foods. TFA content of high-risk foods were analysed by gas chromatography. Food samples (n = 158) were analysed and their total TFA content were compared with Malaysian Food Standards. A wide variation in TFA content within food categories was indicated. Of the foods containing TFA, many food labels did not cite TFA content or the use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) as an ingredient. Hypothesised estimates of TFA intake from these supermarket foods in a sample day's menu providing 2000 kcal projected a minimum intake of 0.5 g and a maximum intake of 5.2 g TFA. This study found there was no voluntary disclosure of TFA content on food labels or identifying PHVO as an ingredient. It appears that health education targeting consumers to minimise TFA consumption is required supported by mandatory PHVO disclosure on the food label.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment*
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