Deploying large numbers of mobile robots which can interact with each other produces swarm intelligent behavior. However, mobile robots are normally running with finite energy resource, supplied from finite battery. The limitation of energy resource required human intervention for recharging the batteries. The sharing information among the mobile robots would be one of the potentials to overcome the limitation on previously recharging system. A new approach is proposed based on integrated intelligent system inspired by foraging of honeybees applied to multimobile robot scenario. This integrated approach caters for both working and foraging stages for known/unknown power station locations. Swarm mobile robot inspired by honeybee is simulated to explore and identify the power station for battery recharging. The mobile robots will share the location information of the power station with each other. The result showed that mobile robots consume less energy and less time when they are cooperating with each other for foraging process. The optimizing of foraging behavior would result in the mobile robots spending more time to do real work.
Soft robots driven by stimuli-responsive materials have their own unique advantages over traditional rigid robots such as large actuation, light weight, good flexibility and biocompatibility. However, the large actuation of soft robots inherently co-exists with difficulty in control with high precision. This article presents a soft artificial muscle driven robot mimicking cuttlefish with a fully integrated on-board system including power supply and wireless communication system. Without any motors, the movements of the cuttlefish robot are solely actuated by dielectric elastomer which exhibits muscle-like properties including large deformation and high energy density. Reinforcement learning is used to optimize the control strategy of the cuttlefish robot instead of manual adjustment. From scratch, the swimming speed of the robot is enhanced by 91% with reinforcement learning, reaching to 21 mm/s (0.38 body length per second). The design principle behind the structure and the control of the robot can be potentially useful in guiding device designs for demanding applications such as flexible devices and soft robots.
This paper presents the concept of Simultaneous Localization and Multi-Mapping (SLAMM). It is a system that ensures continuous mapping and information preservation despite failures in tracking due to corrupted frames or sensor's malfunction; making it suitable for real-world applications. It works with single or multiple robots. In a single robot scenario the algorithm generates a new map at the time of tracking failure, and later it merges maps at the event of loop closure. Similarly, maps generated from multiple robots are merged without prior knowledge of their relative poses; which makes this algorithm flexible. The system works in real time at frame-rate speed. The proposed approach was tested on the KITTI and TUM RGB-D public datasets and it showed superior results compared to the state-of-the-arts in calibrated visual monocular keyframe-based SLAM. The mean tracking time is around 22 milliseconds. The initialization is twice as fast as it is in ORB-SLAM, and the retrieved map can reach up to 90 percent more in terms of information preservation depending on tracking loss and loop closure events. For the benefit of the community, the source code along with a framework to be run with Bebop drone are made available at https://github.com/hdaoud/ORBSLAMM.
In an earlier study, a three-fingered robot hand was developed for assembly work. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control was used to control the position of a DC micromotor measured by an encoder. However, PID control alone could not cater the nonlinearities due to friction of gears and varying loads applied to the finger. Therefore, in order to develop an intelligent control algorithm in future, the effects of varying PID gains need to be investigated to distinguish the optimal value that could produce the best transient response performance. This paper discusses the effect of varying PID gains on position transient response of the joint motor of robot hand through real-time experiments. Several ranges of KP, KI and KD were identified based on the required transient response parameters such as percentage overshoot (%OS), settling time (TS) of within 2%, steady state error (SSE) and rise time (TR). The gains are tuned across the range by a fixed interval with the tuning order starting from KP, KI and KD. It can be observed that the suitable ranges of PID are 0.3 to 0.5 for KP, 1.15 to 1.45 for KI and 0.10 to 0.14 for KD. Meanwhile, the optimum value of 0.4, 1.45 and 0.10 for KP, KI and KD respectively is found to produce 0 of % OS, 5.09 sec of TS and 2.48 sec of TR. Hence, the gains can be applied to the development of an improved position control using intelligent method for the robot hand in future works.
Kertas ini membincangkan satu keluarga lengkung peralihan satahan licin yang dibina menggunakan dua lingkaran kuartik Bezier. Lingkaran kuartik yang diperkenalkan ini mempunyai enam darjah kebebasan yang memberi kelebihan untuk mempelbagaikan rupa bentuk lingkaran di dalam selangnya. Kelicinan adalah dirujuk melalui ciri-ciri keselanjaran geometri G2 dan kelengkungan monoton yang dimiliki oleh sesuatu lengkung peralihan. Oleh sebab lengkungan ini tidak memiliki sebarang juring, gelung dan titik lengkok balas, di samping tanpa perubahan kelengkungan yang mendadak maka ia amat sesuai untuk aplikasi tertentu dalam Reka Bentuk Berbantukan Komputer (RBK) bagi memenuhi keperluan estatis serta kepentingan fungsinya seperti reka bentuk produk industri, trajektori robot tidak holonomi dan juga reka bentuk mendatar landasan kereta api serta lebuh raya. Sebagai suatu perwakilan polinomial, lingkaran kuartik Bezier ini mampu digabungjalinkan ke dalam sistem RBK yang kebanyakannya berasaskan perwakilan NURBS (nonuniform rational B-splines).
Position tracking has been widely used in medical applications, especially in 3D ultrasound imaging, where it has transformed the 2D slice limitation into 3D volume with bigger clinical impacts. As a game controller can also produce position tracking information, it has the potential to act as a low-cost and portable position tracker for ultrasound probes. This paper aims to investigate the feasibility of a game controller to perform as a position tracker and to design its implementation in 3D ultrasound imaging. The study consists of data acquisition and 3D ultrasound reconstruction for visualization. The data acquisition is accomplished by capturing the 2D ultrasound frame and its relative positional and orientation data by using an ultrasound probe and game controller respectively. These data are further reconstructed to produce 3D ultrasound volume for visualization. Our experiments include game controller position tracker testing and 3D ultrasound reconstruction on baby phantom. The results have confirmed that the game controller performance was closely aligned with that of in a robot arm. Also, the 3D ultrasound reconstruction implementation has revealed promising outcomes. With these features, the function of the currently available ultrasound probes can be prospectively improved using a game controller position tracker effectively. Graphical Abstract.
Robotic surgery was started in the Department of Urology, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, in April 2004. We present our experience in developing the program and report the results of our first 50 cases of robotic radical prostatectomy. A three-arm da Vinci robotic system was installed in our hospital in March 2004. Prior to installation, the surgeons underwent training at various centers in the United States and Paris. The operating theatre was renovated to house the system. Subsequently, the initial few cases were done with the help of proctors. Data were prospectively collected on all patients who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Fifty patients underwent robot assisted radical prostatectomy from March 2004 to June 2005. Their ages ranged from 52 to 75 years, (average age 60.2 years). PSA levels ranged from 2.5 to 35 ng/ml (mean 10.6 ng/ml). Prostate volume ranged from 18 to 130 cc (average 32.4 cc). Average operating time for the first 20 cases was 4 h and for the next 30 cases was 2.5 h. Patients were discharged 1-3 days post-operatively. Catheters were removed on the fifth day following a cystogram. The positive margin rate as defined by the presence of cancer cells at the inked margin was 30%. Twenty-one patients had T1c disease and one had T1b on clinical staging. Of these, two were apical margin positive. Twenty-six patients had T2 disease and eight of them were apical margin positive. Two patients had T3 disease, one of whom was apical margin positive. Five patients (10%) had PSA recurrence. Five patients had a poorly differentiated carcinoma and the rest had Gleason 6 or 7. Eighty percent of the patients were continent on follow-up at 3 months. Of those who were potent before the surgery, 50% were potent at 3-6 months. The robotic surgery program was successfully implemented at our center on the lines of a structured program, developed at Vattikuti Urology Institute (VUI). We succeeded in creating a team and safely implemented the robotic program in our system. Adequate funding and extensive training followed by a short term proctoring are essential for this implementation.
This paper establishes a novel control strategy for a nonlinear bilateral macro-micro teleoperation system with time delay. Besides position and velocity signals, force signals are additionally utilized in the control scheme. This modification significantly improves the poor transparency during contact with the environment. To eliminate external force measurement, a force estimation algorithm is proposed for the master and slave robots. The closed loop stability of the nonlinear micro-micro teleoperation system with the proposed control scheme is investigated employing the Lyapunov theory. Consequently, the experimental results verify the efficiency of the new control scheme in free motion and during collision between the slave robot and the environment of slave robot with environment, and the efficiency of the force estimation algorithm.
Agriculture is one of the latest industries that uses robotic technologies. Cultivation of crops
with high yield and quality can be enhanced when technological sustenance is involved. Pests are
nuisance and cannot be completely eliminated, but with effective control and management. damages
caused by pests could be minimized below economic threshold. Automation in agriculture is stable and
accurate and is mainly incorporated in mechanized farming system. However its numerous application in
different agricultural practices is not well noticed. Hence this paper attempts to provide profound
awareness on robotic technology in agriculture. Robots could have a specific or multiple functions and,
most commonly, they are made up of five basic components; sensors, effectors, actuators, controller and
arms. Use of automation in weeding, weed mapping, micro spraying, seeding, irrigation and harvesting
are progressions which promote sustainable agriculture and food security. In future, solar robots with
battery inverter may be invented.
Robotic navigation has remained an open issue through the last two decades. Mobile robot
is required to navigate safely to goal location in presence of obstacles. Recently the use of mobile
robot in unknown dynamic environment has significantly increased. The aim of this paper is to offer a
comprehensive review over different approaches to mobile robots in dynamic environments,
particularly on how they solve many issues that face the researchers recently. This paper also explains
the advantages and drawbacks of each reviewed paper. The authors decide to categorize these articles
based on the entire content of each paper into ten common challenges which have been discussed in
this paper, including: traveling distance, traveling time, safety, motion control, smooth path, future
prediction, stabilization, competence, precision, and low computation cost. Finally, some open areas
and challenging topics are offered according to the articles mentioned.
The ability of a robot to plan its own motion seems pivotal to its autonomy, and that is why the motion planning has become part and parcel of modern intelligent robotics. In this paper, about 100 research are reviewed and briefly described to identify and classify the amount of the existing work for each motion planning approach. Meanwhile, around 200 research were used to determine the percentage of the application of each approach. The paper includes comparative tables and charts showing the application frequency of each approach in the last 30 years. Finally, some open areas and challenging topics are presented based on the reviewed papers.
This paper presents an auto grasping algorithm of a proposed robotic gripper. The purpose is to enhance the grasping mechanism of the gripper. Earlier studies have introduced various methods to enhance the grasping mechanism, but most of the works have not looked at the weight measurement method. Thus, with this algorithm, the weight of the object is calculated based on modified Wheatstone Bridge Circuit (WBC) which is controlled by programmable interface controller (PIC) method. Having this approach introduces and improves the grasping mechanism through an auto grasping algorithm. Experimental results show that an auto grasping algorithm based on pressure sensor measurements leads to a more precise grasping measurement and consequently enhance the sensitivity measurement as well as accurate movement calibration. Furthermore, several different grasping objects based on the proposed method are examined to demonstrate the performance and robustness of our approach.
The walking of a humanoid robot needs to be robust enough in order to maintain balance in a dynamic environment especially on uneven terrain. A walking model based on multi-sensor is proposed for a Robotis DARwIn-OP robot named as Leman. Two force sensitive resistor (FSRs) on both feet equipped to Leman to estimate the zero moment point (ZMP) alongside with accelerometer and gyrosensor embedded in the body for body state estimation. The results show that the FSRs can successfully detect the unbalanced walking event if the protuberance exists on the floor surface and the accelerometer and gyrosensor (Inertial Measurement Unit, IMU) data are recorded to tune the balancing parameter in the model.
This paper deals with the analysis of different Fuzzy membership type performance for Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based mobile robot navigation. EKF is known to be incompetent in non-Gaussian noise condition and therefore the technique alone is not sufficient to provide solution. Motivated by this shortcoming, a Fuzzy based EKF is proposed in this paper. Three membership types are considered which includes the triangular, trapezoidal and Gaussian membership types to determine the best estimation results for mobile robot and landmarks locations. Minimal rule design and configuration are also other aspects being considered for analysis purposes. The simulation results suggest that the Gaussian memberships surpassed other membership type in providing the best solution in mobile robot navigation.
The new millennium witnessed increasing attention to the field of robotics, especially the development of humanoid bipedal robot. Attention is noticed from the increasing number of publications as a result of a multitude of humanoid projects for commercial and academic goals. This paper briefly visits the recent activities in this field, highlighting the importance and motivation behind adopting bipedal humanoid projects, particularly underlining biologically inspired design concept, bipedal locomotion and communication. Ultimately, emphasising on power-efficient design. The problem of endurance and effective duty cycle were presented. Finally, potential future application for the humanoid robot was briefly listed.
Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC) are smart material transducers that bend in response to low-voltage stimuli and generate voltage in response to bending. IPMCs are mechanically compliant, simple in construction, and easy to cut into desired shape. This allows the designing of novel sensing and actuation systems, e.g., for soft and bio-inspired robotics. IPMC sensing can be implemented in multiple ways, resulting in significantly different sensing characteristics. This paper will review the methods and research efforts to use IPMCs as deformation sensors. We will address efforts to model the IPMC sensing phenomenon, and implementation and characteristics of different IPMC sensing methods. Proposed sensing methods are divided into active sensing, passive sensing, and self-sensing actuation (SSA), whereas the active sensing methods measure one of IPMC-generated voltage, charge, or current; passive methods measure variations in IPMC impedances, or use it in capacitive sensor element circuit, and SSA methods implement simultaneous sensing and actuation on the same IPMC sample. Frequency ranges for reliable sensing vary among the methods, and no single method has been demonstrated to be effective for sensing in the full spectrum of IPMC actuation capabilities, i.e., from DC to ∼100 Hz. However, this limitation can be overcome by combining several sensing methods.
Ankle rehabilitation robots are developed to enhance ankle strength, flexibility and proprioception after injury and to promote motor learning and ankle plasticity in patients with drop foot. This article reviews the design elements that have been incorporated into the existing robots, for example, backdrivability, safety measures and type of actuation. It also discusses numerous challenges faced by engineers in designing this robot, including robot stability and its dynamic characteristics, universal evaluation criteria to assess end-user comfort, safety and training performance and the scientific basis on the optimal rehabilitation strategies to improve ankle condition. This article can serve as a reference to design robot with better stability and dynamic characteristics and good safety measures against internal and external events. It can also serve as a guideline for the engineers to report their designs and findings.
The suspension system and socket fitting of artificial limbs have major roles and vital effects on the comfort, mobility, and satisfaction of amputees. This paper introduces a new pneumatic suspension system that overcomes the drawbacks of current suspension systems in donning and doffing, change in volume during daily activities, and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface. An air pneumatic suspension system (APSS) for total-contact sockets was designed and developed. Pistoning and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface were tested for the new APSS. More than 95% of the area between each prosthetic socket and liner was measured using a Tekscan F-Scan pressure measurement which has developed matrix-based pressure sensing systems. The variance in pressure around the stump was 8.76 kPa. APSS exhibits less pressure concentration around the stump, improved pressure distribution, easy donning and doffing, adjustability to remain fitted to the socket during daily activities, and more adaptability to the changes in stump volume. The volume changes were adjusted by utility of air pressure sensor. The vertical displacement point and reliability of suspension were assessed using a photographic method. The optimum pressure in every level of loading weight was 55 kPa, and the maximum displacement was 6 mm when 90 N of weight was loaded.