A total of 860 Salmonella isolations were made in Peninsular Malaysia from 15 animal species (domestic and wild), eggs, molluscs, flies, and animal feed. The isolations were distributed among 31 serotypes in eight groups. The most common serotype isolated was Salmonella pullorum, followed by S. choleraesuis and S. infantis. S. typhimurium had the widest zoological distribution. The importance of controlling animal salmonellosis is emphasized.
The results of serotyping of 10 953 salmonella isolates from humans over a 10-year period, 1973-82 at the Bacteriology Division, Institute for Medical Research, Malaysia are presented. A total of 104 serotypes from 22 'O' groups were encountered; 95 isolates were considered untypable. The three most predominant serotypes, namely Salmonella typhi, S. typhimurium and S. weltevreden together accounted for 54.1% of all isolates whilst the 25 most frequent serotypes accounted for 93.6% of the total. Whilst the commoner serotypes occurred regularly throughout the study period, the rarer ones tended to appear only in one year, when they might be associated with an outbreak, and never again. The pattern of serotypes, though quite similar to the one seen in neighbouring Singapore, is different from those experienced in other places such as Hong Kong, Jakarta, Bangladesh and Manchester.
Salmonellosis, a communicable disease caused by members of the Salmonella species, transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water. It is of paramount importance, to generate accurate detection methods for discriminating the various Salmonella species that cause severe infection in humans, including S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A. Here, we formulated a strategy of detection and differentiation of salmonellosis by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay using S. Typhi non-protein coding RNA (sRNA) genes. With the designed sequences that specifically detect sRNA genes from S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, a detection limit of up to 10 pg was achieved. Moreover, in a stool-seeding experiment with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, we have attained a respective detection limit of 15 and 1.5 CFU/mL. The designed strategy using sRNA genes shown here is comparatively sensitive and specific, suitable for clinical diagnosis and disease surveillance, and sRNAs represent an excellent molecular target for infectious disease.
Between June 1977 and May 1982, 2,291 samples of raw, cooked and dried foods were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Of these samples, 43 were positive, isolations being made from raw foods (4.8%) and cooked foods (0.4%) but not from dried foods. 14 Salmonella seratypes were isolated, Salmonella anatum being the most predominant. The significance of these isolations is discussed and the need for consumer education to reduce the incidence of human salmonellosis is emphasised.
A clinical isolate of Salmonella typhi (Vi phage type 25), resistant to chloramphenicol, streptomycin and tetracycline, was examined for the presence of R plasmids. Results from conjugation, agarose gel electrophoresis and transformation experiments indicated that it harboured a single large self-transmissible R plasmid which coded for both the chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance traits.
Penyakit tifoid adalah penyakit berjangkit bawaan air dan makanan yang disebabkan oleh Salmonella typhii. Penyakit ini berlaku di seluruh durtia dan endemik di Kelantan. Pada April 2005, terdapat peningkatan kes tifoid yang dinotifikasi di daerah Bachok dan wabak telah diistiharkan. Pasukan siasatan telah dibentuk di mana setiap kes telahydisiasat dengan segera dan tindakan kawalan telah diambil seperti pemeriksaan dan penutupan premis makanan, kerja-kerja sanitasi dan pendidikan kesihatan. Pengesanan kes secara aktifjuga telah dilakukan. Mukim Gunong mencatatkan jumlah kes tertinggi iaitu 46.3%. Majoriti daripada kes terdiri daripadapelajar. Dua pembawa dari kalangan kontek juga turut dikesan. Lekuk epidemik menggambarkan berlakunya wabak purtca lazim. Lima daripada 1 1 1 bilangan sampel air dan dua daripada 146 bilangan sampel makanart yang diperiksa adalah positif terhadap Salmonella species tetapi tiada yang positif terhadap Salmonella typhii. Meskipun Pasar Jelawat merupakan lokasi yang disyakki sebagai punca utama jangkitan, ianya tidak dapat disahkan melalui penyiasatan dan ujan makmal.
A new Salmonella type is described, for which the name Salmonella seremban is proposed; it has the antigenic formula IX, XIII, XII 2, XIIa; i=l, 3, 5. It was the apparent cause of a number of human cases of food poisoning at Seremban, Malaya.
Salmonella weltevreden has been found to be one of the commonest Salmonella serotypes isolated from diverse sources in India and has also been isolated in a number of other countries. A phage typing scheme was developed for this serotype using a set of six typing phages. These phages had been selected out of 146 phage strains isolated and purified from stool samples of man, laboratory animals and other animals, sewage and surface water sources, and the lytic mutants of temperate phages form S. weltevreden. The phage typing scheme was applied systematically to type the 946 strains from India isolated during 1958-1974 and 148 strains originating from Australia, Burma, England, Gan Island, Holland, Hong Kong, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, The Philippines, Thailand, The United States and Vietnam during 1953-1971. The scheme was particularly studied to evaluate its utility in mapping the epidemiologically related strains from various sources. The S. weltevreden strains could be classified into ten phage types. Phage types 2 and 7 were found exclusively amongst Indian strains, type 6 from Vietnam and type 8 from Burma, Thailand and Vietnam. Phage types were found to be stable and consistent with the independent epidemiological data available.
Salmonellosis is an important public health problem and causes large economic losses in the poultry industry. The emergence of molecular technology has opened various possibilities for constructing tailor-made proteins, particularly protein E from bacteriophage PhiX174 for the
production of bacterial ghosts (BGs) applied in vaccines purposes. In the present study, the plamdaPRcI-Elysis plasmid carrying the PhiX174 lysis gene E and thermo-sensitive lamda PR-cl857 regulatory system was constructed. Two Salmonella Enteritidis (SE-2 and SE- 4) and one Salmonella Typhimurium (ST-4) isolates were able to uptake the lysis plasmid via electrotransformation. Generation of ghosts was enhanced by increasing the incubation temperature up to 42˚C. Cell viability of SE-2, SE-4 and ST-4 decreased ranging in log 2.7 to log 4.1 cycles after lysis induction. Moreover, SE-2 and SE-4 exhibited the earliest reduction of CFU after 3 h of incubation. Our results may provide a promising avenue for the development of Salmonella BGs vaccines.
From January 1983 to December 1992 a total of 20,874 salmonella were serotyped in the Bacteriology Division IMR, which showed an increase of 100% compared to the previous ten-years. There were 97 serotypes which belonged to 22 Kauffmann-white groups. Twenty two serotypes hitherto were seen in this study period. S. typhi was the commonest serotype isolated. Overall there was a rise in the isolation of non-typhoidal salmonella particularly S. enteritidis which increased by 760% and S. blockley which increased by 720%. However there is a drop in the isolation of S typhimurium by 223% and S. paratyphi B by 319%.
Salmonella Typhi is a human restricted pathogen with a significant number of individuals as asymptomatic carriers of the bacterium. Salmonella infection can be effectively controlled if a reliable method for identification of these carriers is developed. In this context, the availability of whole genomes of carrier strains through high- throughput sequencing and further downstream analysis by comparative genomics approaches is very promising. Herein we describe the genome sequence of a Salmonella Typhi isolate representing an asymptomatic carrier individual during a prolonged outbreak of typhoid fever in Kelantan, Malaysia. Putative genomic coordinates relevant in pathogenesis and persistence of this carrier strain are identified and discussed.
In this study, an amino-modified aptasensor using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-deposited ITO electrode was prepared and evaluated for the detection of pathogenic Salmonella bacteria. An amino-modified aptamer (ssDNA) which binds selectively to whole-cell Salmonella was immobilised on the COOH-rich MWCNTs to produce the ssDNA/MWCNT/ITO electrode. The morphology of the MWCNT before and after interaction with the aptamers were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were used to investigate the electrochemical properties and conductivity of the aptasensor. The results showed that the impedance measured at the ssDNA/MWCNT/ITO electrode surface increased after exposure to Salmonella cells, which indicated successful binding of Salmonella on the aptamer-functionalised surface. The developed ssDNA/MWCNT/ITO aptasensor was stable and maintained linearity when the scan rate was increased from 10 mV s-1 to 90 mV s-1. The detection limit of the ssDNA/MWCNT/ITO aptasensor, determined from the sensitivity analysis, was found to be 5.5 × 101 cfu mL-1 and 6.7 × 101 cfu mL-1 for S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, respectively. The specificity test demonstrated that Salmonella bound specifically to the ssDNA/MWCNT/ITO aptasensor surface, when compared with non-Salmonella spp. The prepared aptasensor was successfully applied for the detection of Salmonella in food samples.
Thermophilic Campylobacter and Salmonella enterica are major causes of gastrointestinal foodborne infection. Survival of these pathogens on food-associated surfaces is a risk contributing to their spread through the food system. This study examined the transfer of two strains each of C. jejuni , C. coli , Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium from chicken meat to a knife or scissors used on either a plastic or wooden cutting board. Each strain of Campylobacter and Salmonella at ∼10(8) CFU mL(-1) was inoculated (5 mL) onto 25 g of chicken meat with skin and allowed to attach (for 10 min). The meat was then cut (20 times per implement) into 1-cm(2) pieces with either a knife or scissors on either a plastic or wooden cutting board. The numbers of pathogens transferred from meat onto cutting implements and cutting board surfaces were enumerated. The surfaces were subsequently either rinsed with water or rinsed with water and wiped with a kitchen towel to mimic commonly used superficial cleaning practices for these implements, and the numbers of pathogens were enumerated again. The bacterial numbers for both pathogens were determined on thin-layer agar. The attachment of the Salmonella strains to chicken meat (∼7.0 to 7.8 log CFU cm(-2)) was higher than the attachment of the Campylobacter strains (∼4.6 to 6.6 log CFU cm(-2)). All four Salmonella strains transferred in higher numbers (∼1.9 to 6.3 log CFU cm(-2)) to all surfaces than did the Campylobacter strains (∼1.1 to 3.9 log CFU cm(-2)). The transfer rates of both pathogens from the chicken meat to all the surfaces examined varied substantially between ∼0 and 21.1%. The highest rate of transfer (∼21.1%) observed was for C. coli 2875 when transferred from the chicken meat to the scissors. Most cleaning treatments reduced the numbers of both pathogens (∼0.3 to 4.1 log CFU cm(-2)) transferred to all the surfaces. Our study gives insights into the risks associated with the transfer of Campylobacter and Salmonella from poultry to the surfaces used in poultry preparation.