Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 58 in total

    Med J Malaya, 1956 Mar;10(3):251-61.
    PMID: 13347456
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking*
  2. Kuldas S, Hashim S, Ismail HN
    Int J Adolesc Youth, 2015 Jan 2;20(1):32-47.
    PMID: 25663734
    The adolescence period of life comes along with changes and challenges in terms of physical and cognitive development. In this hectic period, many adolescents may suffer more from various risk factors such as low socioeconomic status, substance abuse, sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicate that such disadvantaged backgrounds of Malaysian adolescent students lead to failure or underachievement in their academic performance. This narrative review scrutinises how some of these students are able to demonstrate academic resilience, which is satisfactory performance in cognitive or academic tasks in spite of their disadvantaged backgrounds. The review stresses the need for developing a caregiving relationship model for at-risk adolescent students in Malaysia. Such a model would allow educators to meet the students' needs for enhancing thinking skills, counteracting risk factors and demonstrating academic resilience.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking*
  3. Alireza Jahani, Masrah Azrifah Azmi Murad, Md. Nasir Sulaiman, Hasan Selamat
    Similarity measurement is a critical component in any case-based reasoning (CBR) system. CBR is
    a superior technique for solving new problems based on previous experiences. Main assumption in
    CBR relies on the hypothesis that states similar problems should have similar solutions. This paper
    describes a comparative analysis on several commonly used similarity measures (Canberra, Clark, and Normalized Euclidean distance) in retrieving phase of the case-based reasoning approach to facilitate supplier selection. In addition, the proposed agent-based supplier selection framework was designed to use customer’s defined weights to evaluate the price, volume, quality grade, and delivery date of supply materials, and also provide them with alternative products which are closest to their first order if it was out of stock. Finally, based on the proposed framework, a numerical example of the used approach is illustrated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking
  4. Hong WH, Vadivelu J, Daniel EG, Sim JH
    Med Educ Online, 2015;20:27561.
    PMID: 26314338 DOI: 10.3402/meo.v20.27561
    Studies have shown the importance of metacognition in medical education. Metacognitive skills consist of two dimensions: knowledge of metacognition and regulation of metacognition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking*
  5. Chan SW, Ismail Z, Sumintono B
    PLoS One, 2016;11(11):e0163846.
    PMID: 27812091 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163846
    Based on a synthesis of literature, earlier studies, analyses and observations on high school students, this study developed an initial framework for assessing students' statistical reasoning about descriptive statistics. Framework descriptors were established across five levels of statistical reasoning and four key constructs. The former consisted of idiosyncratic reasoning, verbal reasoning, transitional reasoning, procedural reasoning, and integrated process reasoning. The latter include describing data, organizing and reducing data, representing data, and analyzing and interpreting data. In contrast to earlier studies, this initial framework formulated a complete and coherent statistical reasoning framework. A statistical reasoning assessment tool was then constructed from this initial framework. The tool was administered to 10 tenth-grade students in a task-based interview. The initial framework was refined, and the statistical reasoning assessment tool was revised. The ten students then participated in the second task-based interview, and the data obtained were used to validate the framework. The findings showed that the students' statistical reasoning levels were consistent across the four constructs, and this result confirmed the framework's cohesion. Developed to contribute to statistics education, this newly developed statistical reasoning framework provides a guide for planning learning goals and designing instruction and assessments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking*
  6. Lee DS, Abdullah KL, Subramanian P, Bachmann RT, Ong SL
    J Clin Nurs, 2017 Dec;26(23-24):4065-4079.
    PMID: 28557238 DOI: 10.1111/jocn.13901
    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore whether there is a correlation between critical thinking ability and clinical decision-making among nurses.

    BACKGROUND: Critical thinking is currently considered as an essential component of nurses' professional judgement and clinical decision-making. If confirmed, nursing curricula may be revised emphasising on critical thinking with the expectation to improve clinical decision-making and thus better health care.

    DESIGN: Integrated literature review.

    METHODS: The integrative review was carried out after a comprehensive literature search using electronic databases Ovid, EBESCO MEDLINE, EBESCO CINAHL, PROQuest and Internet search engine Google Scholar. Two hundred and 22 articles from January 1980 to end of 2015 were retrieved. All studies evaluating the relationship between critical thinking and clinical decision-making, published in English language with nurses or nursing students as the study population, were included. No qualitative studies were found investigating the relationship between critical thinking and clinical decision-making, while 10 quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria and were further evaluated using the Quality Assessment and Validity Tool. As a result, one study was excluded due to a low-quality score, with the remaining nine accepted for this review.

    RESULTS: Four of nine studies established a positive relationship between critical thinking and clinical decision-making. Another five studies did not demonstrate a significant correlation. The lack of refinement in studies' design and instrumentation were arguably the main reasons for the inconsistent results.

    CONCLUSIONS: Research studies yielded contradictory results as regard to the relationship between critical thinking and clinical decision-making; therefore, the evidence is not convincing. Future quantitative studies should have representative sample size, use critical thinking measurement tools related to the healthcare sector and evaluate the predisposition of test takers towards their willingness and ability to think. There is also a need for qualitative studies to provide a fresh approach in exploring the relationship between these variables uncovering currently unknown contributing factors.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This review confirmed that evidence to support the existence of relationships between critical thinking and clinical decision-making is still unsubstantiated. Therefore, it serves as a call for nurse leaders and nursing academics to produce quality studies in order to firmly support or reject the hypothesis that there is a statistically significant correlation between critical thinking and clinical decision-making.

    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking*
  7. Ariff KM
    Med J Malaysia, 1998 Sep;53(3):313-8; quiz 319-20.
    PMID: 10968175
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking*
  8. Asha V, Devi V, Raghavendra R, Rachel AR, Vinod P, Sharmila T
    Objectives: This investigation focused on finding the changes in learning approaches of students’ while experiencing physiology curriculum and to explore the reflection of changes if any, on their critical thinking skills.
    Methods: In this longitudinal study, information on students’ learning approaches was obtained using the revised two factor study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) at the commencement (pre-test) and completion (post-test) of first year MBBS course. The total score and the scores obtained in the critical thinking questions in four physiology assessments were analysed. Pre and post-tests scores in R-SPQ-2F and assessment scores were compared using independent samples t-test and one way repeated measure ANOVA respectively. Correlation of scores between assessments was done using Pearson correlation. A p value < 0.05 was taken as significant.
    Results: A significant increase in students’ deep learning approach at the completion of the physiology curriculum when compared to commencement (p < 0.001) was observed. A progressive improvement in their scores as they experienced the curriculum was also noticed. A moderate correlation among critical thinking questions scores and a strong correlation between critical thinking questions and total essay scores were also recorded.
    Conclusion: The study revealed improvement in students’ deep approach to learning in physiology which was reflected in their performance in critical thinking questions.
    Study site: Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, India
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking
  9. Jesudason, C.G.
    ASM Science Journal, 2007;1(1):7-18.
    Molecular dynamics reaction simulation showed that the rate constant is not constant over the concentration profile of reactants and products over a fixed temperature regime, and this variation is expressed in terms of the defined reactivity coefficients. The ratio of these coefficients for the forward and backward reactions were found to equal that of the activity coefficient ratio for the product and reactant species. A theory was developed to explain kinetics in general based on these observations. Several other theorems had first to be developed, most striking of all was the inference that the excess Helmholtz free energy was the thermodynamical function which had a direct relation to these activity factors than the Gibbs free energy. The theory is applied to a class of ionic reactions which could not be rationalized using the standard Bjørn-Bjerrum theory of ionic reactions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking
  10. Sinniah, Davendralingam
    Thinking is something that we do all through our lives - an activity thcit possibly antedates our very birth itself Yet our children and we are not told about thinking or taught about the thinking process that dominates our lives, possibly, because of our own limited under-standing. Consequently, children are told to be logical and are discouraged from thinking differently, because it is the only type of think-ing we know and can understand. Methods of assessing their performance based on logical thinking underestimate their true potentials. The creative potentials of these children, 40% of who are right-brained need to be harnessed by approaches to learning that utilize methods of teaching and assessment, appropriate for their style of thinking. Another group of children, who need special attention, are those with learning disabilities that have been ignored, but can be corrected with appropriate programmes that provide a comprehensive approach to regular and special education.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking
  11. Suzaily Wahab, Hatta Sidi, Ng, Chong Guan
    Objective: This paper aims to discuss the answers to Review Paper Exam for the Malaysian Master of Medicine (Psychiatry) May 2012 theory examination. The paper studied the psychotropic prescription practice in cancer patients using a health care registration database. Methods: One of the papers presented during the journal club presentation was picked-up for evaluation of student's critical appraisal. Results: Model answers were provided at the end of the Critical Review Paper. Conclusion: This review paper evaluates students' understanding and critical thinking on the topic of Psychotropic Drugs in cancer patients. This paper may serve as a guideline to teach students how to critically appraise topic related to psychiatry. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 14 (1): January - June 2013: XX XX.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking
  12. Mohd Ihsani Mahmood, Idayu Badilla Idris, Rosnah Sutan, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Rozita Hod, Hanizah Mohd. Yusof
    Men’s health remain unclear term for majority of general population as well as physician worlwide. Nowadays there is an increase interest in addressing men’s requirement in health care as a separate branch. When discussing about men’s health, it is fair to say that even a man himself does not know much about men’s health. Most of them think that men’s health is just a discussion on sex. This thought is not entirely right. The scope of men’s health is actually larger than the male sex organ itself. To define men’s health, we have to look at man holistically.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking
  13. Kwa, Siew Kim, Zainab Majeed, Shane Varman
    Introduction: Assessment is an integral aspect of
    teaching. One-best-answer (OBA) items, if properly
    constructed are able to drive learning. In-house OBA
    items are notoriously poorly-constructed. The role of
    a central vetting committee is to review test items and
    ensure that they adhere to expected standards. Hence,
    the objective of this audit is to determine whether
    central vetting has improved the construct quality of
    OBA items.
    Methods: We audited the psychiatry end-of posting
    OBA items from before and after central vetting to
    compare the quality of the items before and after
    central vetting was instituted. Quality was evaluated
    on appropriateness of test content, items with higher
    cognition and items without flaws. A standard was not
    set for this first audit.
    Results: Seventy six of 181 psychiatry OBAs items
    retrieved from 2011 to August 2012 had undergone
    first level (department) vetting only and the remainder
    105 (58.0%) had two levels of vetting; department and
    central vetting committee (CVC).
    Appropriateness of content increased from 92.1% to
    98.1%. Items with higher order thinking doubled from
    21.1% to 42.9%. Items with clinical scenario increased
    by 8.4% to 78.1%. Logical ordering of options however,
    remained around 50%.

    Two-level vetting markedly reduced problematic
    lead-in questions (67.1 to 13.3%), non-homogenous
    options (42.1 to 9.5%), vague and implausible options
    (39.5 to 6.7%), and spelling and grammar mistakes
    (19.7 to 5.7%).
    Conclusion: Two-level vetting had improved the
    quality of OBAs and should be continued. This could
    be enhanced by training all Faculty on writing quality
    OBA items and careful selection and empowerment
    of CVC members. A re-audit is to be conducted after
    Faculty training.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking
  14. Wan Mardyatul Miza Wan Tahir, Akma Hidayu Dol @ Abdul Wahid, Amariah Hanum Hussin, Ja’izah Abdul Jabar
    Learning accounting for non accounting major students is constantly considered challengin g. Therefore, the objective of the study is to identify the relationship between the learning style adopted by non accounting students in learning accounting course and the impact on their course performance. The Kolb’s learning style survey model that was re designed by Honey and Mumford in 1986 was adopted to recognise the learning style preferred by students. The students’ academic performance in accounting course was obtained from their scores in major assessment methods including assignment, test, quiz, an d final examination result, which represented their final grade. Further, this paper identified other factors affecting students’ academic performance. The result indicated that students who adopted the Pragmatist and Theorist learning styles were more exc ellent in their academic performance in accounting course, while those who adopted the Activist learning style were poorer in their academic result. Accordingly, accounting course does not only involve number, data, and calculation but requires fact fin din g and applying critical thinking, areas in which the Activist learning style lacks. Other factors found that educators who conducted the lecture were recognised as important contributors towards the students’ achievement in accounting course. Neverthele ss, students with a higher level of anxiety performed better academically as compared to those with low anxiety. In conclusion, to succeed in accounting course, students should not rely merely on one style in the learning process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking
  15. Klein G, Rasmussen L, Lin MH, Hoffman RR, Case J
    Hum Factors, 2014 Dec;56(8):1380-400.
    PMID: 25509820
    We examined preferences for different forms of causal explanations for indeterminate situations. Background: Klein and Hoffman distinguished several forms of causal explanations for indeterminate, complex situations: single-cause explanations, lists of causes, and explanations that interrelate several causes. What governs our preferences for single-cause (simple) versus multiple- cause (complex) explanations?
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking*
  16. Azer SA
    Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 2008 Jul;24(7):361-6.
    PMID: 18805751 DOI: 10.1016/S1607-551X(08)70133-5
    Portfolios have been used in the medical curriculum to evaluate difficult-to-assess areas such as students' attitudes, professionalism and teamwork. However, their use early in a problem-based learning (PBL) course to foster deep learning and enhance students' self-directed learning has not been adequately studied. The aims of this paper are to: (1) understand the uses of portfolios and the rationale for using reflection in the early years of a PBL curriculum; (2) discuss how to introduce portfolios and encourage students' critical thinking skills, not just reflection; and (3) provide students with tips that could enhance their skills in constructing good portfolios.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking*
  17. Swami V, Barron D, Weis L, Voracek M, Stieger S, Furnham A
    PLoS One, 2017;12(2):e0172617.
    PMID: 28231266 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172617
    A number scales have been developed to measure conspiracist ideation, but little attention has been paid to the factorial validity of these scales. We reassessed the psychometric properties of four widely-used scales, namely the Belief in Conspiracy Theories Inventory (BCTI), the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), the Generic Conspiracist Beliefs Scale (GCBS), and the One-Item Conspiracy Measure (OICM). Eight-hundred-and-three U.S. adults completed all measures, along with measures of endorsement of 9/11 and anti-vaccination conspiracy theories. Through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, we found that only the BCTI had acceptable factorial validity. We failed to confirm the factor structures of the CMQ and the GBCS, suggesting these measures had poor factorial validity. Indices of convergent validity were acceptable for the BCTI, but weaker for the other measures. Based on these findings, we provide suggestions for the future refinement in the measurement of conspiracist ideation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking*
  18. Barron D, Furnham A, Weis L, Morgan KD, Towell T, Swami V
    Psychiatry Res, 2018 01;259:15-20.
    PMID: 29024855 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.10.001
    This study sought to replicate previous work showing relationships between components of schizotypy and conspiracist beliefs, and extend it by examining the mediating role of cognitive processes. An international online sample of 411 women and men (mean age = 35.41 years) completed measures of the schizotypal facets of Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and Ideas of Reference, conspiracist beliefs, and cognitive processes related to need for cognition, analytic thinking, and cognitive insight. Path analysis confirmed the associations between both schizotypal facets and conspiracist beliefs in the present sample. Confirmatory evidence was found for the association between analytic thinking and conspiracist beliefs, and results also suggested an association between cognitive insight and conspiracist beliefs. Cognitive insight also mediated the link between Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and Ideas of Reference with conspiracist beliefs. However, analytic thinking provided a mediating link to conspiracy ideation for Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and not Ideas of Reference. Finally, there was an association between Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and need for cognition, but this path did not extend to conspiracist beliefs. These results suggest possible mediating roles for analytic thinking and self-certainty between schizotypy and conspiracist beliefs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking*
  19. Hassan Y, Awaisu A, Al-Meman AA, Aziz NA
    PMID: 22589618
    Our objectives were to discuss a general overview on the description and recognition of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and present a critical review of the traditional and most recent advances in its pharmacotherapy. Computerized searches were done on MEDLINE and Iowa Drug Information Service (IDIS) databases from June 2001 until June 2007 and from May 2005 until May 2007, respectively. Search terms used included 'heparin-induced thrombocytopenia', 'heparin-associated thrombocytopenia', therapeutics, HIT, HAT. We largely selected publications within the timeframe above, but did not exclude commonly referenced and highly regarded older publications. The commonly referenced published articles were obtained through manual searches derived from bibliographic citations and retrievals from the authors' personal files. Pertinent literatures (89 key articles) that were thought to have substantially contributed new information to the therapeutics of HIT within the last 6 years were identified, reviewed and presented. The following limits were used for the MEDLINE and IDIS searches: 'human', drug therapy', 'review', 'meta-analysis', 'clinical trial', and case reports. The therapeutics of HIT is rapidly evolving and needs to consider an evidence - based approach. It is imperative that practitioners be aware of the associated risk and be up-to-date with the current advances in the management of this fatal clinical condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking
  20. Helenna M Hisham Hashim, Lee, Mei-Li, Ng, Chong Guan
    Objective: Individuals deal with dying and death differently and may not experience the same journey. We investigated Kübler-Ross' Five Stages of Grief on terminally ill patients to review the current applicability of the model among this population. The aims of this paper is to share information regarding the Five Stages of Grief, the emotions associated with the stages, and the challenges that terminally ill patients, namely those diagnosed with cancer, experience. Methods: Non-structured interviews were conducted among terminally ill patients located at the palliative ward for two years. Results: We found that terminally ill patients at the palliative ward were undergoing the Five Stages of Grief, and that the emotions associated with the stages were reported to be similar to the emotions proposed in the model and among the patients. Conclusion: Kübler-Ross' Five Stages of Grief is still applicable among terminally ill patients. The thoughts regarding dying and death still remain negative, therefore, the change in the myths of dying and death are required to help improve the journey towards death. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 14 (1): January - June 2013: XX XX.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thinking
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